Benjamin Young Conklin.

A complete graded course in English grammar and composition online

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has no antecedent expressed ; as,

1. I know what troubles you.

2. He told you what he needed.

• What may be a limiting adjective ; as, We know what master laid thy keeL
What may be an interrogative adjective ; as, What books did you buy ?
What may be an interjection ; as, What ! does he expect to frighten me ?
What may be an adverb meaning partly ; as, What by force and what by

stratagem he finally accomplished his purpose ; here what modules the phrases by

force and by atratagem.

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Explanation. — In sentence 1, the clause "what troubles you" is the
object of the verb know. What, generally considered a relative, is really
an adjective pronoun [what thing], used as a noun, and is the subject of
the verb troubles. What, in 2, is the object of needed. Many authors,
however, consider what a double relative equivalent to that [thing] which,
the antecedent part that being an adjective pronoun, the object of know,
and which the relative part, the subject of troubles.

Questions.— 1. Which are the simple relative pronouns! 2. Which are
the compound relatives! 3. What names may the relative who represent!
4. What names may the relative which represent ! 5. For what names
may the relative that be used! 6. Which of the simple relatives have case
forms! 7. Which are the singular case forms of wTwl 8. Which, the
plural! 9. Mention the plural case forms of which. 10. When is the
relative that preferred to who or which% 11. Is that always a relative
pronoun ! 12. When that is a relative, what other relatives may be sub-
stituted for it ! 13. What kind of pronoun is what generally considered
to be! 14. What is a better way of considering its use! 15. For how
many different parts of speech may what be used !

Direction. — Insert the correct relative pronoun in the blank spaces, in
each of the following sentences, and give reasons; mention the relative
clauses and their antecedents after the relative has been supplied :

1. We do not respect people do not respect themselves.

2. In his hand was a torch lighted up the cave.

3. The vultures live among the Alps often carry off lambs.

4. Let those stand take heed lest they fall.

5. Even the ox, is a very patient animal, can be enraged.

6. Hannibal was the deadliest enemy Rome ever had.

7. He is the same man met us on the bridge.

8. He does all he can to help his father.

9. Men make the laws should not break them,

10. A story is told of another fox displayed great sagacity in

getting out of an equally bad scrape.


678. The relative may be, in its clause, the subject ; the
object complement; the object of an infinitive, participle, or
preposition; a possessive modifier.

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(1) The subject of the clause:

1. The man who feels truly noble will become so,

2. I have destroyed the letter that was sent to me.

3. I have found the book which was lost.

(2) An object complement :

1. The man whom we met, is our neighbor [we met whom}.

2. The book which I lost, has been found [I lost which],

8. This is the book that I borrowed [I borrowed that (or book)].
(8) The object of an infinitive, participle, or preposition:

1. The man whom I wish to meet may not be present [to meet


2. The man whom I was fearful of offending was my best

8. He is a boy whom I am proud of [am proud of whom].

4. He is a man in whom I have little confidence.

5. The property that I spoke of yesterday was sold this morn-

ing [I spoke of that].
(4) The relative, a possessive modifier:

1. I venerate the man whose heart is warm.

2. This is the lady whose husband was injured.

Direction. — Select the relative in each of the above sentences, tell its case
and why, and mention the word that is modified by the relative clause.

Direction. — Fill the blank spaces in the first five of the following sen-
tences with one of the forms of who, giving the reason for the use of each
pronoun. Fill the blank spaces in the others with any simple relative,
being careful to use that where it is preferable :

1. The lady you saw at our house, lives in Boston.

2. There goes the man house, was burned.

8. The gentleman you spoke to is my uncle.

4. It is hard to oppose those you know are in the right

5. Washington was the man the colonies needed.

6. This is the longest lesson we have yet had.

7. This is the same lesson we had yesterday.

8. The men and the tools you sent for, have arrived.

Bemark. — The antecedent of a pronoun may be a sentence; as, "Be
came early, which was an unusual occurrence." "He sold his farm, and
he now regrets it"

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Direction. — Analyze the following sentences (also those in the preced-
ing lesson) according to the models here given :

Models for Written Analysis.

679. !• A sharp tongue is the only edged tool that grows keener
with constant use.


Principal clause

Dependent clause (relative)

Simple sub. in prin. clause
Predicate-verb in prin. cL
Attribute complement...
Simple sub. in dep. clause
Predicate- verb in dep. cL.
Attribute complement....

Complex declarative.

A sharp tongue is the only edged tool.

That grows keener with constant use.

That, a relative pronoun.

Tongue, modified by a and sharp.

Is, unmodified.

Tool, mod. by the, wily, edged, and the dep. cl.


Grows, mod. by the phrase with constant use.

Keener, relating to that.

2. The police found the man whom they were looking for.


Complex declarative.

The police found the man.

Whom they were looking for.

Principal clause

Dependent clause


Whom, a relative pronoun.
Police, modified by the.

Simple sub. in prin. clause

Predicate-verb in prin. cl.

Found, unmodified.

Object complement

Man, mod. by the and the dependent clause.

Simple sub. in dep. clause

They, unmodified.

Predicate-verb in dep. cl. .

Were looking, mod. by the phrase for whom.


1. A sharp tongue is the only edged tool


that grows keener with constant use.

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Sentences for Analysis.

1. Men that are old and wise should be consulted by the young.

2. The diamond, which is pure carbon, is a brilliant gem.

3. Read thy doom in the flowers, which fade and die.

4. The detective found the man whom he was looking for.

5. He was the same person that I saw on the platform.

6. He recovered, a result* which was not expected.

7. The criminal fled from the country whose laws he had broken.


680. Eelative clauses are classed as restrictive and non-
restrictive; as,

1. The diamond that I lost was a birthday present.

2. The diamond, which is pure carbon, is a brilliant gem.
Explanation.— In sentence 1, the clause " that I lost " is necessary to

the sense; without this clause we should not know what diamond is
meant. Not any diamond is here meant, but the lost diamond. A rela-
tive clause used in this way limits or restricts the meaning of the ante-
cedent, and is called a restrictive clause. In 2, the clause " which is
pure carbon " adds a thought in an explanatory way in regard to dia-
monds in general — not to any particular diamond; it is, therefore, a
non-restrictive clause. The relative which as here used is equivalent
to and it; thus, "The diamond is a brilliant gem, and it is pure carbon."

681. Definition. — A restrictive clause is one whose limiting
sense is necessary to distinguish the antecedent.

682. Definition. — A non-restrictive clause adds a thought,
or makes an explanation in a parenthetical sense.

Hote. — The relative in a non-restrictive clause is generally equivalent
to and he, and they, and it, etc.

683. Comma Rule. — A non-restrictive clause must be set off
from the rest of the sentence by the comma.

684. The relative that should be used only in restrictive
clauses ; who or which, in non-restrictive clauses. Many rep-

* Here result is in apposition with the clause " He recovered."

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utable writers, however, use who and which in clauses that are

Direction. — Determine the two different kinds of clauses in the follow-
ing sentences, and punctuate them according to the rule just given :

Sentences for Punctuation and Analysis.

1. Happy is the man that findeth wisdom. 2. The man that fell over-
board was drowned. 3. Maize 1 which is another name for Indian corn-
grows in America. 4 I gave the umbrella to John who handed it to the
owner. 5. They ascended to the platform, which fell with a crash. 6.
People that live in glass houses should not throw stones. 7. I had a
dream which was not all a dream. 8. Columbus who was a Genoese
discovered America. 9. A fierce spirit of rivalry which is at all times a
dangerous passion had now taken full possession of him.

Direction. — Supply the proper pronoun for the blank spaces :

1. I went down to the river I found greatly swollen. 2. The

fish we caught furnished an excellent dinner. 3. The fish were

very small were caught in large numbers. 4. Peace at any price

these orators seem to advocate means war at any cost. 5. The gentleman
lives next door has gone to California.


685. Direction.— Combine the following statements into a complex
sentence containing one relative clause, one participial phrase, one apposi-
tive phrase, arranging the phrases properly :

Columbus saw at a distance a light.

This was about two hours before midnight.

Columbus was standing on the forecastle.

He pointed the light out to Pedro.

Pedro was a page of the queen's wardrobe.
Direction. — Combine these same statements into a complex sentence
containing an adverbial clause, a relative clause, an appositive phrase.
Then combine them into a simple sentence containing a compound parti-
cipial phrase and an appositive phrase.

Direction.— Combine the following statements into a complex sentence,
arranging phrases and clauses properly :

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Edward J. Gladdis was drowned at Jamesport

Jamesport is on Long Island.

The accident happened on Monday of last week.

Gladdis was an assistant book-keeper.

He was employed by Theodore Starr.

Mr. Starr is a jeweler.

His store is on Broadway, New York.

Gladdis lived with his aunts.

They lived in East Seventieth Street.

He was making an effort to save the lives of two young ladies.

He was successful in saving them.

They were the daughters of Mrs. Hamilton.

She lives in this city.

Direction. — Combine the following into a simple sentence containing a
compound predicate, an appositive phrase, and a participial phrase :
Frederick Muller fell overboard. It happened yesterday.
He lived in this city. The lighter was lying at Pier

He was mate of a lighter. No. 20.

The name of the lighter was This pier is on the North River.
George Henry. Muller was drowned.


686. A personal pronoun may stand directly for the name of an
individual in a simple sentence ; as, "I will go with you." A personal
pronoun may stand directly for an antecedent, and it may be replaced by
the antecedent without destroying the sense ; as,

1. The lady called James and he obeyed her.

2. The lady called James and James obeyed the lady.

687. A relative pronoun can not personate* and thus be used in a
simple sentence ; nor can it be used in the principal clause of a complex
sentence. A relative does not stand directly for an antecedent ; it only
represents an antecedent, which the entire relative clause modifies ; as,

I saw the man who invented the telephone,
in which who invented the telephone, taken as a whole, tells what man.
A relative pronoun does not show person by its form.

688. Attributing gender to a relative is of very little importance, bat
it is necessary to consider its person and number by reference to its ante-

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cedent in order to be able to use the proper form of the verb with the
relative as a subject.

689. The form of a verb having a relative for its subject
depends upon the person and number of the antecedent.

Direction. — Justify the choice of the relative pronoun, and also of the
form of the verb in the relative clause, in each of the following sentences :

1. He that speaks rashly is not wise.

2. The men that have just passed us are going to California.
8. I, who have always told you the truth, am not lying now.
4 The boy who teases his little sister should be punished.

5. I that speak to you am he.

6. You, who know better, are most in fault.

7. It is you who do all tSe talking.

8. I pity you, who make this man your enemy.

690. A relative pronoun shows neither gender, person, nor number
by its form ; yet, because a relative represents an antecedent, it is con-
sidered to have the same gender, person, and number as its antecedent.
Hence, for the sake of uniformity, the following general rule is given for

691. Eule for Construction. — A pronoun must represent its
antecedent in gender, person, and number.

692. Faxiing Model. — In 4, who is a relative pronoun, representing its
antecedent, the noun boy, in the masculine gender, third person, and singu-
lar number; it is in the nominative case, being the subject of the verb

Position of the Relative.

693. The relative that, as an object in a prepositional
phrase, is always separated from the preposition, the latter
being placed at the end of the clause. Whom or which may
accompany the preposition or be separated from it. A relative,
when used as an object complement of a verb, precedes both
the subject and the verb [678 (3)].

Direction. — Insert prepositional phrases having relatives as objects, in
the following sentences, placing the preposition and the relative together
or separately, as the blank spaces may indicate :

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1. This is the house my friend resides.

2. There goes the man I spoke a moment ago.

8. There is no better material - — I know .

4. The friend — — I spoke has just returned from Europe.

5. He made a statement I was astonished.

6. This is the worst case I ever heard .

7. This is a matter I know nothing.

8. The friend I staid is my cousin.


694. Besides their use as relatives, who (tvJiose, whom),
which, and what are used in asking questions. When so used
they are interrogative pronouns, and are declinable the
same as when they are relatives ; as,

1. Who went with youf

2. Whom do these pagans worship!
8. Which of these do you prefer!
4. What have you in your hand!

Bemark. — Which and what, when used with nouns, are interrogative
adjectives ; as, " Which book did you .select f " [348].

Hote. — In parsing interrogative pronouns, the gender, being indefinite
and unimportant, need not be mentioned.

Direction. — Tell what kind of pronoun introduces each of the abo^e
sentences, what its relation is in the sentence, and parse it according to
the following models :

695. Parsing Models.— Who (in 1) is an interrogative pronoun, third,
singular, nominative, being the subject of the verb went.

Whom (in 2) is an interrogative pronoun, third, singular, objective,
being the object of the verb do worship.

Direction. — Insert the correct form of who in the blank space in each
of the following sentences, tell its part of speech, and give the reason
for its use :

1. do you sit with! 4. do you think that I ami

2. I know you are. 5. book have It

8. I know you love. 6. Do you know — 1 feart

7. did your father take with himt

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Responsive Pronouns.

1. He will not tell who robbed him,

2. I know who broke the window.

3. I do not know what was said.
4 I know who you are.

696, Explanation. — As used in these four sentences, who and what
are neither relatives nor interrogatives. They are used in response to an
implied question, and are therefore called responsive pronouns. Who,
in 1, is a responsive pronoun, and is the subject of the verb robbed ; the
clause " who robbed him n is the object of the verb will tell.


697. A relative clause may be the subject of a verb ; the
object or attribute complement ; the object of a preposition ; as,

1. What I want can not be found.

2. I have what you want.

3. This medicine is what you need.

4. Sell it for what you can get.

Ellipsis of the Relative Pronoun.

698. There is frequently an ellipsis of a relative pronoun in
the objective case ; as,

1. There goes the man we met yesterday [whom we met].

2. Show me the exercise you have written [that you have written].

Direction. — Analyze the following sentences, being careful to notice
any ellipsis. Parse the relative pronouns in this and in preceding lessons
according to the models given :

Sentences for Analysis and Parsing.

1. The man who was injured has not fully recovered. 2. Moses was
the meekest man that we read of in the Old Testament 3. The men and
things that he has studied have not improved his morals. 4. They who
seek wisdom will certainly find it. 5. Whoever wishes to excel must study
diligently. 6. The man whose mind is cultured sees beauty in Nature's
works. 7. You shall have whatever you ask for.

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699. Pairing Model — Whoever, in sentence 5, is a compound relative
pronoun introducing the subject clause " Whoever wishes to excel " ; it
is in the nominative case, being the subject of the verb wishes.

Hot*. — Some, however, prefer to consider whoever equivalent to he
who, making he the subject of must study, and who the subject of the
verb wishes. The method given in the model is, however, less cumber-
some, and therefore preferable.


700. A participial phrase introduced by a past participle
is often an abbreviated clause. The ellipsis, however, should
not be supplied in analysis and parsing ; as,

1. The window, which was broken by the explosion, fell with a crash.

2. The window, broken by the explosion, fell with a crash.

Explanation. — The passive verb was broken is composed of the past
participle broken and the auxiliary was. By striking out the subject
which and the auxiliary was, there remains the past participle broken,
introducing the phrase, broken by the explosion, which modifies window.

Direction. — Change each of the following complex sentences to a
simple sentence by abbreviating the relative clause :

1. A city that is set on a hill can not be hid.

2. A task that is well done is twice done.

8. A gun that is loaded to the muzzle is a dangerous weapon.
4 A word that has once been spoken can never be recalled.
5. Principles which are based on Christianity are our best sup-
port in trials.

Direction.— Supply the omitted relative in each of the following sen-
tences and give its relation :

1. The question you asked I could not answer.

2. The friends we expected have all arrived.
8. I did not have the book you sent for.

4. The vessel we sailed on was stanch and safe.

5. The harbor we entered was large and beautiful.

6. Annie lost the book I loaned her. \

7. Few were the privileges we had.

8. The fish we caught afforded an excellent meai



CTiA A PL— SYNTH rifflfl.

701. Direction. — Combine the following statements into two separate
unconnected sentences, the first to contain a principal clause, a dependent
object clause, which clause must be the object of a present participle
formed from the verb in the sixth statement ; the principal clause must
contain two appositive phrases, and one participial phrase containing a
past participle derived from the verb in the fourth statement, the phrase
being introduced by the conjunctive adverb while. The second sentence
to contain a principal, and a dependent adjective clause explanatory of
impression in the eighth statement; the principal clause to contain a
compound predicate. The second sentence must include only the last
four statements :

Charles Furman was an old citizen of De Sola.

He was a prominent citizen of that place.

De Sola is in Wisconsin.

Furman was intoxicated last Tuesday night.

In this condition he attempted to enter the house of Chas.

Furman supposed the house was his own.

Worth was Furman's neighbor.

Worth acted under an impression.

This was that Furman was a burglar.

Therefore he shot Furman.

He mortally wounded him.

Direction. — Combine the following statements into a complex sentence.
Principal clause must contain an appositive phrase, a participial phrase,
prepositional phrases, three of which are to be elliptical ; the dependent
relative clause to contain a participial phrase introduced by while. Body
to be the subject of the principal clause.

Captain Webb was a famous English swimmer.

He lost his life.

He lost it on the 24th inst.

It was in the afternoon.

He was attempting to swim through the whirlpool rapids.

These rapids are in the Niagara River.

His body was found near Lewiston.

It was found at two o'clock this afternoon.

It was floating in the river.

Lewiston is four miles from the head of the rapids*

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702. In changing an adverbial clause to a participial phrase,
the subject of the clause is often retained ; as,

1. When the war was ended, the army was disbanded.

2. The war being ended, the army was disbanded.

T/rpiawftti/m — The noun war, in 1, is the subject of the finite verb was
ended. In 2, war is set free [absolved] from its relation as subject of a
finite verb, and is simply associated with the participle without having
any grammatical relation to it. Being thus associated with the participle,
war is not really independent, but is used absolutely in the nominative
case with the participle being ended. The whole phrase " The war being
ended" is called an absolute phrase, and, being a condensed adverbial
clause, it retains something of its modifying force as an adverbial. In
parsing say, war is in the nominative case used absolutely with the par-
ticiple being ended.

Direction. — Abbreviate the following sentences so that each may con-
tain a noun in the nominative case absolute', mention such noun, and
the participle with which it is used :

1. When shame is lost, all virtue is lost.

2. While the enemy was approaching, we prepared for battle.

3. When the President had given his consent, the bill became a law.

4. Because the rain poured in torrents, we were obliged to stay at home.

5. When their ammunition was exhausted, the troops surrendered.

703. Pleonasm. — A noun or a pronoun introduced for the
sake of emphasis, and then left independent of the rest of the
sentence, is used in the nominative case ; as,

1. The boy, oh ! where was he t

2. He that cometh, let him come quickly.

Hote. — Boy and he thus used are said to be in the nominative case
independent by pleonasm. By pleonasm is meant the superfluous use of

Review Questions.— 1. When is a noun in the nominative case abso-
lute f 2. When in the nominative case by pleonasm f 3. Why does it
require more thought to use the pronoun he in its various relations in a
sentence than to use a nowa for which he may stand t 4. Why does it
require more care to use the relative who than the relative that\ 5. Can

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conjunctions. 231

a relative pronoun be used in a simple sentence f 6. In how many ways
may possession be expressed! 7. How many uses of the nominative case
can you mention f


704. Conjunctions may be separated into two classes: co-
ordinate and subordinate.

705. A co-ordinate conjunction is one that connects
parts of equal rank ; as, and, or, nor, but, and sometimes for,

706. A co-ordinate conjunction connects the members of a compound
sentence; two words of the same part of speech; two phrases or two
clauses having a common dependence ; as,

1. Heat expands metals but cold contracts them.

2. The sun and moon give light.

3. We found him studious and attentive.

4. The valleys rejoiced in sunshine and in shower.

5. This is the house where he lived and where he died.

6. Do as you are told, for much depends on it.

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Online LibraryBenjamin Young ConklinA complete graded course in English grammar and composition → online text (page 19 of 24)