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presenting a portico of demi-columns Avitli
composite capitals, and it formed nearly a
solid square, being originally seventy feet in
front, by seventy-seven feet in depth. At
a later period the room, Avhich had been
designed for a chapel of thirty feet square,
■was lengthened to the proportion of forty-
five feet to thirty ; and converted into a
handsome saloon, some little additions being
made to an apartment adjoining it on the
north. These alterations Avere made during
the life of Henry, the son of Henry the
first settler at Stourhead.

Sir Richard Colt Hoare, the next pos-
sessor of this estate, rinding there was not
room enough for his books and paintings,
added two wings to the mansion, by Avhich
the front was extended to above two hun-
dred feet. One of these was devoted to a
picture gallery, the other to a library.
The same style of architecture is preserved
as in the original building, and so com-
pletely has time mellowed and harmonized
the tints after the short date of only tAventy
years, that the Avhole work now assumes
an imiform appearance.

Many rivers in England bear the name
of Stour, and many villiiges have thence



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN.



91



derived their appellation, but the source
of this river is somewhat singular, and its
source is very circuitous. From its foun-
tain-heads at the six wells already men-
tioned, it flows under ground for some
distance till it forms four fish ponds of dif-
ferent levels. It then forms in the gardens
a lake of about twenty acres, from which the
superfluous water descends by a cascade into
a second lake of smaller dimensions, where
there was at one time a water-mill, but
which is now destroyed. It then continues
its course through a third and larger lake,
made by the late Sir Richard Colt Iloare,
and over another cascade to a large mill at
Gasper, which is now the first on this stream.
It then enters the county of Dorset, and takes
a southerly direction, giving the name of
Stour to several villages, and to Sturmin-
ster on its way, till it reaches the to-mi of
Blandford, where it sjjreads into a wider
basin, and forms a handsome f'eauture in
the grounds at Bryanstone. It now in-
clines more towards the east, and passing
to the south of Wimborn, quits the county
of Dorset, which it had traversed, and
enters that of Hants, somewhat to the east
of the village of Kingston ; from this place
it goes on to Christehurch, where it approx-
imates to the river Avon, coming from
Salisbury, and then empties itself into the
sea.

In the grounds, which present a great
variety of landscape, there are many objects
worthy of notice, and more particidarly
the High Cross, which once stood in the
city of Bristol. Sir Richard Colt Iloare
gives an amusing account of the adven-
tures of this unlucky Cross, which goes
far to prove that the admiration for anti-
quity is by no means a besetting sin of
the good Bristolians. " According to the
annals of Bristol," he says, " it was origi-
nally erected at Bristol as a memorial of
gratitude from the citizens of that town
to their benefactors the sovereigns of Eng-
land, The period of its construction is
supposed to have been during the reign of
King Edward the Third, who in the year
1373 established the bounds of the city
by a perambulation, and granted to it an
ample charter ; on wliich occasion very
probabl)' the High Cross was raised as a
just tribute of gratitude. It has eight
niches, each of which contains a figure.
In one of them is the statue of the Royal
Edward ; to which are added those of two
earlier kings, viz., King John, who granted
a charter to Bristol in 1188, and King-
Henry the Third, who conferred the same
privileges. The fourth efhgy was that of
King Edward the Fourth.

"In the year 1G33 this Cross was taken
down, enlarged, and raised higher, and four



other statues added, viz., King Henry the
Sixth, Queen Elizabeth, King James the
First, and King Charles the First.

" It was fresh painted and gihled anno
1697 in a very costly manner ; and it conti-
nued to be considered as a public ornament
to the city, and attracted the admiration of
every stranger. But in the year 1733 a sil-
versmith, who resided opposite to it, having
offered to swear that during every high wind
his house and life were endangered by the
shaking of the Cross, and from other trifling
objections, this beautiful memorial of gra-
titude and antiquity was taken down and
thrown aside, as useless lumber, in the
Guildhall. After having there lain for a
long time disregarded, it was again called
into notice by the interposition of Alderman
Price and a few other gentlemen residing
near the College Green ; and by the consent
of the Dean and Chapter it was erected in
the centre of that green. But again it was
doomed to find its enemies as well as ad-
mirers ; and as it had before been objected
that it obstructed the passage in the High-
street, it was now said that by intersecting
one of the walks on the Green, it interrupted
the fashionable promenade. Farther at-
tempts were made by its admirers, and a
subscription was raised to rebuild it in a less
objectionable situation ; but these laudable
intentions proved fruitless, and the High
Cross was once more obliged to lay low its
spiral summit. The disjointed fragments
were throvrn carelessly aside in a corner of
the Cathedral Church, and were overlooked
till the year 17G8, at which period the Rev.
Cutts Barton was appointed Dean of Bristol.
He was the intimate friend of Henry Hoare,
Esq., then possessor of Stourhead, who being
informed of the degraded state of this cele-
brated Cross, took compassion on this inte-
resting relic of antiquity, collected its scat-
tered fragments, and removed them to his
seat at Stourhead, where they still, though
in a very perishing state, remain a distin-
guished ornament to his gardens.

"The only alteration, which took place on
re-erecting tliis Cross at Stourhead, was in
rendering the base solid instead of open ; an
alteration for the worse in point of appear-
ance, but rendered necessary for its general
preservation. An iron bar was at the same
time placed along it, from top to bottom to
give it additional strength."

Nor is this the only object of curiosity in
the pleasant gardens at Stourhead. Tliere
is a small temple with a Doric portico dedi-
cated to Flora, which commands an exten-
sive view of the lake. Beneath this temple yon
descend by steps to a spring called Paradise
AVell, so exceedingly clear that on looking
into it you almost doubt if it contains water.
The walk noAV leads at a short distance above



92



SEATS OF GKEAT BRITAIN.



the bank of the hike to a ferry across it.
There Avas once a Chinese bridge here, but
to the great joy of those who know how to
appreciate the real charms of these delightful
grounds, the foundations of the Chinese
exotic gave way, when it was pulled down,
and a boat now supplies its place. After
crossing the ferry, tlie path leads to a grotto,
not ghttering after the usual grotto fjishiou,
with shells and fossils, but composed of
stones, some of which, from the dampness
of the place, have produced petrifactions.
IFrom the grotto a flight of rough, irregular
steps and a winding path conduct to a rustic
cottage, from whicli is seen a beautiful vicAv
of the Rock Arch, the Temple of the Sun,
the opposite hill, and the Bristol Cross.
From the cottage you walk on a short dis-
tance to the Pantheon, modelled after that
at Rome, but embosomed in a deep wood.
This is, perhaps, the most magnificent build-
ing that ever adorned tlie grounds of an
English gentleman. The interior of the Pan-
theon contains, in seven niches, two statues
by Rysbrach, Hercules and Flora, an antique
staute of Livia Augusta as Ceres, and four
casts, Diana, Juno, Acteon, and Isis. Many
other objects there are wortliy of note in the
pleasure grounds, such as a second Cross from
Bristol, called St. Peter's Pump ; the turret
dedicated to Alfred tlie Great, and a rustic
building named the Convent, with antiquated
religious pictures, some of which are said to
have once adorned tlie cloistered walls of
Glastonbury; and many more, the details of
which would lead us beyond any reasonable
limit.

COHAM, Devonshire, the seat of William
Holland Bickford Coham, Esq. In passing
by the banks of the river Torridge,
towards the parisli of Black Torrington,
Ave come upon the Barton of Coham, a
snug quiet dwelling, and, though with
no great extent of land attached to it,
yet in a pleasant and picturesque locality.
In several of our Hue old mansions the walls
have outlived many changes of ownei's, one
race succeeding to another, while tower and
turret still remain unaltered. At the Bar-
ton of Coliam the case is reversed ; Avhat-
ever may be the actual dale of tlie liouse
itself, the same family seems to have dwelt
here from time immemorial, though we cim-
i\ot prove such to have been the case beyond
the year 1547. So far Ave can positively
trace them by the help of tlie Black Torring-
ton register; and, in the absence of all ves-
tiges of other OAvners, it is fair to conclude
that they must have possessed it at least up
to the time of Henry the Eighth. Supposing
it to have been abbey-land, Avhich appears
probable, it Avould then, as a matter of course,
have changed ; and that, Iherefore. nuiy ha\ e



been the time Avhen it first devolved to the
family noAv possessing it. Yet the name de-
notes a Saxon origin ; for if the meaning of
CO be obscure, there can be no doubt that the
latter part of the name is the Saxon honi, sig-
nifying a home or dAvclling- place, surrounded
by wood, Avater, and fields, just as Coham is
situated.

TEMPLE NEWSAM, or, as it has been
sometimes Avritten, Tewple Newsom, York-
shire, the seat of Hugo Charles Meynell-In-
gram, Esq. It was formerly a preceptory of
the Knights Templar ; for although London
was the principal abode of this order, yet as
the greater abbeys had their remote cells
dependent upon them, so the Knights Tem-
plars often sent a part of their brotherhood
to distant places, where they were governed
by a commander, or preceptor,— such places
being called, in consequence, either com-
manderies or preceptories. These seats Avere
subject and accountable to their chief in the
metropolis.

It Avas from this circmnstance, of NcAvsam
having belonged to the Templars, that it de-
rived the present adjunct to its name. After
the suppression of the order, EdAvard the
Third granted this estate to the D'Arcys ;
and it may be remaiked as Avorthy of notice,
that Sir John D'Arcy married the heiress of
Kicholas, Lord Meinell, of Wherlton, thus
connecting Avith Temple NcAvsam, the same
name that after the lapse of five hundred
years became, in the person of tlie present
proprietor, possessed of the property. With
the D'Arcys it remained till the time of
Thomas, Lord Darcie. That ill-fated noble-
man, after having long been a great fa-
vourite Avith Henry the Eighth, had the mis-
fortune, either justly or unjustly, to fall into
a suspicion of treason, and suspicion, in those
arbitrary days, Avas almost sure to be folloAved
by condemnation. It Avas supposed that,
being entrusted Avith the command of Pom-
fret Castle, he had treacherously suriendcrcd
it to the Yorkshiremen, Avho at that time
Avere engaged in an open insurrection, gene-
rally knoAvn as " The I'ilgrimage of Grace."
In consequence he Avas beheaded, and the
king gave his estate to IMattheAv, Earl of
Lennox, and the Lady Margaret his Avife, and
their heirs. The house thus acquired a sort
of historical or antiquarian celebrity, as the
birthplace of Darnley, husband to Mary,
Queen of Scots, and father to James the First
of England, the subject of Thomas the
Rhymer's prophecy, so gravely noticed by
Archbishop SpottisAvood. "There lived,"
says tlie Avorthy, but somewhat credulous
divine, " there lived at this time (1279) Tho-
mas Lermouth; greatly admired for his pre-
dictions, yet extant in Scottish rhyme, Avhere-
in he foretold, many ages ago, the union of




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SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN.



93



the kingdoms of England and Scotland in
the ninth degree of the Bnice's blood, with
the succession of Bruce himself to the crown,
being yet a child, and others divers particu-
lars which the event hath ratified. Whence
or how lie had hi.s knowledge can hardly
be affirmed; but sure it is that he did
divine and answer truly of many things to
come."

James, on coming to this estate, gave it to
his kinsman, the Duke of Lennox. Of him
it was purchased by Sir Arthur Ingram,
senior, who, pulling down the old hall, built
here a noble edifice, covering a considerable
extent of ground, its plan being in the form
of a half H. The leads upon the roof are
surrounded with a battlement, composed of
capital letters in stonework, which make this
inscription : " all glory and praise be

GIVEN TO GOD THE FATHER, THE SON, AND
HOLY GHOST, ON HIGH, PEACE UPON EARTH,
GOOD-WILL TOWARDS MEN, HONOUR AND
TRUE ALLEGIANCE TO OUR GRACIOUS KING
LOVING AFFECTIONS AMONGST HIS SUBJECTS,
HEALTH AND PLENTY WITHIN THIS HOUSE."

From its having been thus rebuilt, the
place was often called by the people of the
neighbourhood New Biggen^ and it is so set
down in the maps of Christoplier. This is
only one of the many vestiges of the Anglo-
Saxon dialect still to be found in the north
of England.

" 'Twill be pardonable in an antiquary,"
says Whittaker, " to take notice, that not
only the apartment where llenry Stuart,
Lord Darnley, and King of Scotland, was
born (to this day called tlie King's Chamber,
&c.), is yet in being; but the venerable old
bed, upon the woodwork whereof are these
words, in letters of gold, ' Acant Dcwnle^ ja-
mais Darriere, avant Darnle,^ the sense is
imperfect."

Temple Newsam stands in a connnanding
situation on the north banks of the Aire,
one of the most considerable rivers in York-
shire. It is about four miles from Leeds
and twenty from York, and surrounded by a
country no less beautiful than fertile. The
apartments are large and numerous, the finest
of them being the gallery of pictures, one
hundred and twenty feet in length by twenty-
eight and a half in breadth. The library is
also a handsome room, divided by Corinthian
columns. In the passage is a very neat
chapel altar-piece.

Sir Henry Ingram of Temple Newsam was,
by Khig Charles the Second, created Baron
Ingram of Irvine, and Viscount Irvine, in
May 3, 16GL His successor, Arthur, the
third Viscount, married Isabel, the daugliter
of John Rich Michel, Esq., of Hills, in the
county of Sussex, by whom he left seven
sons, that successively enjoyed the title of
Viscount Irvine, which devolved upon the



nephew of Charles, the tenth Viscount Ir-
vine, whose eldest daughter, Isabella Ann
Ingram Shepherd, was the late Marchioness
of Hertford. At her ladyship's death Tem-
ple Newsam devolved on her sister. Lady
William Gordon, for life, and then to
her nephew, Hugo Charles i\Ieynell, Esq.,
of Hoar Cross, county of Stalibrd, who
assumed the additional surname, Ingram,
in compliance with the will of Charles,
Viscount Irvine.

LETTON HALL, near Shipdham in the coun-
ty of Norfolk, the seat of Brampton Gur-
don, Esq. An old English Elizabethan
structure had long existed on this site ; but
it was taken down in 1784 by the grand-
father of the present proprietor, and a new
mansion was erected in its room. The
grass land on this estate is particularly rich,
and from the excellence and abundance of
the milk produced here in consequence it
is likely enough that the place derived its
old name of Lucton. Queen Elizabeth in
one of her progi esses is said, according to
an old tradition, to have sent hither for a
supply of butter for her own table, the
celebrity of the Lactou dairy having
travelled to the royal ear.

This estate came into the Gurdon family
by the mairiage of John Gurdon, Esq., of
Assington in Suffolk, with Amy, the only
daughter and heiress of William Brampton
Esq., in the sixteenth century, before which
time it had long been in the possession of the
Bramptons.

The lunise is a modern brick mansion, pos-
sessing no remarkable architectural features,
but standing in a well-wooded park of two
hundred acres. The oaks here are said to be
particularly fine.

DUNSLAND, sometimes called Donesland
Devonshire, the seat of William Holland
Bickford Coham, Esq. Of this property
we are told in Domesday Book that, " Cadio
holds of Baldwin Donesland. Uleric held it
in the reign of King Edward (the Confessor);
and was rated for a yard of land. The land,
which is there, consists of four plough lands,
with one Servant and six villeins, and four
Borderers. There are twenty acres of
meadow and as many of pasture, and four
acres of wood. This was formerly Avorth
thirty shillings ; at present it is worth
twenty-five shillings."

Upon this document it may be requisite
to oiler a few brief observations, unnecessary
of course to the antiquary, but useful
perhaps to those who are less versed in such
matters.

The Baldwin above mentioned was Bald-
win de Erioniis, made by the Conqueror



94



SEATS OF GREAT BlUTAIN.



hereditary slieriff of Devonsliire, and Lord
of the Honour of Oakhampton, of which
Dunslandwas perhaps then holden.

The virgate, or yardlund is said by some to
have been equal to one quarter of a Hide
of land. Bloomfield, in his " History of
Norfollc " makes it contain forty acres or
fardels.

The cnrucate, or plough-land, was as much
as one plough could then be properly em-
ployed on. It is sometimes reckoned equal
to one-sixth of a liide.

The serviis was a villein annexed to the
person of his lord ; or, as they are some-
times styled, A^Ueins in gross.

The Villcaius, or Villein regardant was a
tenant of superior degree to the Servus.
He was annexed to certain lands, and pass-
ed from hand to hand with them ; but lie
had certain rights which are well defined by
tlie old law3'ers.

Burdani, or Bordei'ers, were tenants who
held small hords, or cottages, on tlie outsides
of manors, and in return performed vile
services for the lord; such as threshing his
corn, drawing water, and the like. Their
name is derived, either from hard, which
signifies a cottage, or from their cottages
being on the borders or extremities of the
manor.

It appears from the extract given above
from Domesday-Book that Uleric held
Donesland in the days of the Confessor ; and
as Westcote, a credible Devonshire liistorian,
says in describing the place, "Donesland or
Dunsland, gave name to a progeny, by
Avhose heir Cadio, or Cadiho, had it, we can
hardly doubt that Uleric's race called them-
selves Dunsland, or de Dunsland ; for we lind
in AVilliam the Second's reign, John Cadio,
otherwise Joh)i de Dunsland, living at Duns-
land, " having married the heiress of John
de Dunsland," so described in the HorakVs
Visitation into Devon, 1620. In the name
of Dunsland there are three descents. In
that of Cadio are eight, when Philippa Cadio,
being the lieiress, brought the estate by
marriage to John Dal)ernon, or Dabernoun,
with whom it remained for two descents. It
was then conveyed into the family of Battyn
by marriage with Elizabeth Dabernon,
heiress — four descents in this name. Next
to the Arscotts by marriage with Philippa
Battyn, heiress — three descents. Next to
the Bickfords by marriage with Grace
Arscott — six descents. Next to the Cohams
by the marriage of iMtiry Rickford to the
Kev. William Holland Coham, the said
^lary becoming, by the death of her two
sisters, Avhole and sole representative of
Dunsland, Arscott, &c.: two descents already
are in this name, which brings Dunsland down
to the present owner, William Holland Bick-
ford Coham, Esq. of Coham and Dunsland,



who is the twenty-eighth lineal inheritor of
the Dunsland property.

Few pedigrees can be shown more clear
than this of Dunsland, containing a long
line of squirearchy, if we may be allowed
to use the word, coined long ago, though
not very generaly current.

Dimsland is in the parish of Bradford in
the hundred of Black Torrington.

CHICHELEY HALL, Buckinghamshire,
about two miles and a half from Newport
Pagnell, the seat of the Rev. Anthony Ches-
ter. There was at one time a very old man-
sion on this site, but having been much
dftmaged by the troops of Cromwell, it was
pulled doAvn and rebuilt by Sir John Chester,
Bart., in a style resembling Hampton Court
Palace.

The neighbourhood is remarkable for pic-
turesque beauty. Through the village of
Newport Pagnell a small stream runs from
its northern verge, and unites with the Ouse
at Lathbury. In the clun-ch is a noble monu-
ment to the memory of Dame Elizabeth Ches-
ter, widowof Sir Anthony Chester, Bart., the
second of that name. It represents two fine
figures in alabaster, of a man in armour, and
a lady habited in a loose robe, Avitli a long
veil thrown gracefully back on her shoulders,
kneeling at a desk under a pediment sup-
ported by Corinthian pillars.

The ]Manor of Chicheley, part of the pos-
sessions of the dissolved Priory of Tickford,
became the estate of Cardinal Wolsey, 18th
Henry VIII., but, on the disgrace of that
prelate, reverted to the Crown, and remained
so vested until the last year of Henry's reign,
when it was conferred on Anthony Cave,
Esq. (a younger son of the Caves of Stan-
ford), whose eldest daughter and heiress, Ju-
dith, married William Chester, Esq., and was
mother of Sir Anthony Chester of Chicheley,
who attended Queen Elizabeth at Tilbury
Camp, and commanded a troop of horse to
oppose the Spanish invasion. The eldest
son of this loyal knight was Sir Anthony
Chester, Bart., the gallant cavalier in whose
time Chicheley Hall suffered so severely.

NEWSTEAD ABBEY, Nottinghamshire, the
seat of Colonel Wildman. It was originally
called Neivstede, i. e. the neiv stead, or place,
from its having been erected upon a piece of
waste land in the forest.

The abbey was founded by Henry the
Second, in atonement, or in remorse, for the
murder of Thomas a Beckett. It was dedi-
cated to God and the Virgin, and Avas in-
tended as a priory of canons regular, of the
order of St. Augustine, the king in his re-
pentant mood having granted to the monks
many other privileges and freedoms, tliat




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SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN.



95



were afterwards confirmed and enlarged by
King John and his successors. But —

" Years roll on years ; to ages, ages yield ;

Abbots to abbots in a line succeecl ;
Religion's charter tlieir protecting shield,

'TUl royal sacrilege their doom decreed.

One holy Henry reared the gothic walls.
And bade the pious inmates rest in peace ;

Another Henry the kind gift recalls,
And bids devotion's hallowed echoes cease.

Vain is each threat or supplicating pray'r,

He drives them, exiles, from their blest abode.
To roam a di'eary world in deep despair —
No friend, no liome, no refuge but their God."

The poet is not exactly correct in saying that
the good monks were driven; in the year of
grace, 1539, they suvj-endered their priory to
Henry the Eighth, much as a fortress sur-
renders to a besieging enemy, whom it is im-
possible to resist. In the following year the
king bestowed this portion of his ecclesiasti-
cal spoils upon Sir John Byron, Knt.,
the grand-nephew of the gallant soldier
who fought by the side of Richmond, at
Bosworth, and is distinguished from the
other knights of the same name in the
family, by the title of "Sir John Byron
the Little, with the great beard ! " But the
race, in almost every descent, was remark
able for bravery and talent, though not un-
frequently mingled with much violence and
eccentricity of temper. The first of the name
mentioned in the Book of Doomsday is Ralph
de Burun, aname Avhich sufficiently approves
their Norman origin.

About the middle of the last century
NeAvstead Abbey was a splendid pile equalled
in architectural beauty by few buildnigs in
the kingdom except York Cathedral :

"An old, old monastery once, and now
Still older mansion— of a rich and rare



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