Copyright
Bernard Burke.

A visitation of the seats and arms of the noblemen and gentlemen of Great Britain (Volume 1) online

. (page 36 of 79)
Online LibraryBernard BurkeA visitation of the seats and arms of the noblemen and gentlemen of Great Britain (Volume 1) → online text (page 36 of 79)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


159



modern bullcling. The liouse is ratlier
small, the rooms low, and too much space
perhaps is occupied by the huge old-
fhsliioned chimneys. The ceiling, as well
as tlie sides of tJie porch and outer hall, is
lined with oak most elaborately carved, and
the same antique character runs through the
greater j^nrt of the furniture. i\Iost of the
beds are of carved oak ; the family plate is
choice and old, consisting of apostle-spoons,
tankards, urns, tea-services, &c., but this
almost unique array, has not seen the
light for the last thirty years, owing to
the very retired habits of the present owner.
Here too will be found some arms of an
ancient date, amongst which are the sword
and one of the pistols of Captain Arthur
Chambre, who had a troop in Colonel
Penruddock's regiment of horse during
the great Civil War. The stock of the
pistol is ornamented Avith a silver head of
King Charles, a sntlicient voucher for the
zealous loyalty of its owner. The family
pictures are very numerous, and by various
artists of more or less eminence, such as Sir
I'eter Lely, Sir Godfrey Knellei", Hogarth
Stopylien, &c. ; while the tine old foreign
china is in such quantities as to be abso-
lutely an inconvenience. The books also, a
much more important matter, are so nume-
rous, that they have overflowed the library,
and fill every room in the house. E^xny-
thing indeed, seems to have been accumu-
lated within these ivy-covered Avails that
a man of taste and learning, who had
abandoned the busy world, Avould donand
in his retirement.

HODNETTHALL, Shropshire, thirteen miles
from Shrewsbury, the seat of Algernon-
Charles Heber- Percy, Esq. It has been dis-
puted whether this name is Welsh or Saxon,
but it seems most probable that it had the
latter origin, and was derived from Odo, a
Saxon possessor of the manor at a very
early period. The name of Odenett occurs
in Domesday.

This manor was held by the service of
being "steward of the honor of, Montgo-
mery," the lords of Ilodnet being bound by
this serjeantry to defend the castle of that
name in AVales, and to keep it in good
repair ; from them it passed to the Lud-
lows by the heiress of William de Hodenet,
and afterwards by the marriage of Alice
LudloAv, " the ladye of Hodnet," with
Humphrey Vernon, to the Vernons, several
of whom Avere knights of the shire for Salop,
as many of the Ludlows had also been.
From the Vernons, it devolved, by female
inheritance, on the family of Ileber, and sub-
sequently came to that of Percy, througli the
marriage of Emil^r^ eldest daughter of Regi-
nald lieber, Bishop of Calcutta, with Alger-



non Charles Percy, Esq., nephew of the Earl
of Beverley.

Hodnet Hall is a complete specimen of
that rude and ancient style of building,
which is so pleasing to the fancy of the
poet and the painter. Upon those who are
Avedded to the comforts and habits of
modern refinement it may perhaps make a
less favourable impression. The venerable
north front is composed of Avood and
))laster, Avith oaken pinnacles and gables.
The south front is of brick-work, and the
whole building presents no uniform charac-
ter, having been repaired from time to time
by its various possessors, each of Avhom had
more regard to his own taste or his own
Avantsthan desire to maintain any consistency
in the architecture. It cannot, however,
be denied that even this irregularity has its
charms, not those, indeed, Avhich belong to
a regular design, but an attraction peculiar
to itself, Avhether of a less or greater de-
gree it is not Avortli Avhile to enquire.

The situation of the Hall is Ioav, but it
is embosomed in trees, and the grounds
about it are highly picturesque. The parks
occupy a higher site to the west, command-
ing a very beautiful prospect over the
county of Salop. They Avere enclosed for
deer by royal permission in the time of
Henry the First, as appears from a deed
still in the possession of the presen t
owner, and signed by that monarch. The
same document confers certain othe r
manorial rights and privileges upon the
lords of Hodnet.

BEOUGHAM, Westmorland, the seat of
Henry Lord Brougham and Vaux.

This ancient building stands upon the
platform of a steep slope or glacis, of a circu-
lar form, and of considerable height, which has
every appearance of having been the site of
a British camp. It commands a A'iew of
singular extent, beauty, and A^ariet}^ To the
south, it comprehends the fine Avilley of the
Lowther, richly Avooded, and bounded by the
range of hills Avhich extend frum the Shap-
m.oors to Yorkshire. To the Avest, the coun-
try is more broken, but still thickl}'- wooded,
and terminating in successive ranges of the
highest of the Lake mountains, among which
Ilelvellyn, Catchidicam, Saddleback, and
Skiddaw, are the most prominent features.
To the north lies the picturesque village of
Eamont, emboAvered in trees, and watered by
the beautiful river Lowther, flowing from
HaAvswater and Eamont from Ullswater,
with the ancient British mound, called King
Arthur's Round Table, the Avhole backed by
the ruins of Penrith Castle and Penrith Fell,
surmounted by its old bolder beacon. To
the east, the view is of a totally distinct
character ; stretching over the vast plain.



IGO



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN.



through which flows the river Eden, and
bounded by the immense chain of mountain,
called Crossfell, which divides the counties
of Westmorland and Cumberland from Dur-
ham and Northumberland. This fine ciiain,
diversified by numerous pikes, is nearly as
high as the Helvellyn range, and from its
form, and the plain it rises from, has been aptly
termed the Pyrenees of England. From this
site, also, is seen the ruins of Brougham Castle.

Upon the terrace which •commands this
unequalled prospect, stands the house, sur-
rounded by loft)- grey Avails covered Avith
ivy, and enclosing (with the buildings) an
outer and an inner court, each of great
extent. The outer is approached by an
avenue of very old oaks, and entered by an
ancient round arched gateway, embattled
and machicolated ; the heads and mouldings
of one part (which does not appear to be the
oldest) showing the date to be the middle of
the 13th century. The nailed doors, of mas-
sive oak, nearly six inches in thickness, are
original, and highly curious.

The House appears to have consisted
originally of an Anglo-Norman tower, only
one wall of which now exists in its original
state, but containing a round headed arcli,
which marks its date ; the other parts haAC
been rebuilt in the original style, Avhich is of
the beginning of the r2th century. To this,
joined by a low I^uilding, (Avhich fell doAvn
and was rebuilt some years ago) had been
added a lofty tower, Avhich, from the mould-
ings of tJie windoAvs, belongs to the latter
half of the l3th century, and was built after
the old gateway and outer Avails enclosed the
court yard.

The next addition appears to haA'e been
the Great Hall, of the time of Richard 111.,
or Henry VII. ; after which, in Henry VIII.
or Edward VI.'s time, a series of rooms
adjoining its Avestern side were built, and in
one of these are the arms, in stone, of Edward
VI., over a chimney piece, which has un-
fortunately been modernised. A long range
of buildings, on the north side of the principal
court, is Jacobean architecture, but ])lain.
The rest of tlie building and offices (witli the
exception of the part Avhich joins the Old
Gateway, and Avhich is very ancient) are
modern, having been all rebuilt Avithin the
last twenty years. The interior is extremely
rich in oak carvings, tapestry, stained glass,
stamped leather, painted ceilings, and other
curious and ancient decorations. Some of
tlie armour in the Hall (Avhieh has been re-
moved I'rom tlio Old Armoury at the top of
the high tower) is very fine, and among the
most curious specimens to the antiquary is
the " Prycke Spur" of Udard de Eroham,
taken from his heel as he Avas found laid
cross-legged in the Chancel of the Parish
Church of Brougham, his sword cross-



hilt ed, and probably the same that A\'as Avorn
by him Avhen he joined the Second Crusade,
and the Talisman brought by him from the
Holy Land. The account of this curious
disinterment is to be found in the Archajolo-
gical Journal for 1847.

There is no part of tliis house more ancient
or more interesting than tlie Chapel. This
is of great antiquity, although the roof and
AvindoAvs Avere altered by the Countess of
Pembroke in 1659, but the original charac-
ter has been successfully restored and pre-
served by a careful reparation, and nothing
can exceed the rich and solemn effect pro-
duced by the old black oak carvings, and the
colours of the stained glass, which is very
early — r2th century. There is nothing
more curious here than the A'essels, which
are still preserved in the Ambrey. The
Chalice and Paten are silver gilt, and of a
very early type ; but the singular and rare
object is the original Py.c, Avhich, with the
Christmatory, is of fine Byzantine Avork, and
a Processional Cross, of the liighest an-
tiquity. Dr. Monkhouse, a Prebendary of
Carlisle, avIio made a MS. collection of
Notes on the Local Antiquities and Families
of Cumberland and Westmorland, about the
year 1680, speaks as folloAvs of this Chapel : —
" At the INIansion of BroAvham stands a
Chapel of a very ancient erection. In the
year 1377, Johannes de Burgham is said to
liaA'e luul ' Capellam apud Browham, S.
Wilfrido sacram, ab antiquis temporibus fun
datam," and that a Chaplain attended divine
offices at it."

Speaking of the place and family. Dr.
Monkhouse says ; — " That BroAvham Avas a
Roman Station is evident, from the many
Roman Altars Avith Inscriptions, Avhich have
been frequently dug up here. From BroAv-
ham, or as it Avas sometimes Avrit Burgluan,
an ancient and warlike family took tlieir
surname and designation. They resided and
flourished at this place for several ages. In
or about the reign of Edward 1., Gilbertus
de Burgham Avas in possession of the wliole,
Avhich he held in Drengagio, a sort of mili-
tary service. One moiety of the estate and
manor he remits and gives up, with the mill
and advoAvson of the Church, and all his
Land Avithin the Forest of Whinfell and
Hamels, to Robert de Veteriponte, on condi-
tion that the other should be free from that
tenure to him and his posterity. Of late
years, Plenry Browliam, Esquire, a descen-
dant of the said Gilbert, sold the possession
and removed to Scailes, Avithin the parish of
Skelton, co. Cumberland, Avhere some ac-
count is given of the family." In the margin
of the MS is added, hi another hand; — "In
the year 1716, John Browham, Esquire, of
Scales, repurchased the estate, and is noAv in
possession of it."



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN.



161



The family is of Sa^on descent, deriving
its name from tlie ancient Bi'ocavum of the
Romans. In the Itinerary of Antoninus, Iter
V. " London to Carlisle," it is thus stated —
" Verteris (Brougli) ad Brocavo M.P. xx.
niihi quidem Brocavum esse Brougham.''^
Camden in his Britannia (Ed. 1600, p. 689,)
speaking of Brocavum, says :- "Though age
has consumed both its buildings and splen-
dour, the name is preserved almost entire in
the present one of Brougham''

The estate of Burgham or Brougham be-
longed to the Brougliam family before the
Conquest. This is so stated by Dr. Camp-
bell, the historian : but it does not rest upon
his authority alone, for among the records in
the Tower, we find the name of Gilbert d«
Broham among the Drengi of Westmorland,
who made fine witli King John that they
might not go with him into Normandy.
Now, Drengage was a tenure by military ser-
vice, and was distinguislicd from simple
knight's service by this, that those only who
lield their lands by Drengage had possessed
them before the Conquest, and were permitted
to retain them, after submitting to the Con-
queror. This is proved by Spelman, who,
after giving liis authority, proceeds thus : —
" Sunt igitur Drenches vassalli quidem Mill-
tares, vel ut nostri forenses loqunntnr, Te-
nentes per servicium militare. Ex dictis autem
notandum est, eos omnes, eorumve auteces-
Bores, qui e Drengorum classe erant, vel per
Drengagiuni tenuere, sua incoluisse patri-
monia, ante advenium Normannorum" Spelm.
Gloss, p. 186. Ed. 1664. The record we
have referred to is as follows ; — " Oblata
Roll 2d of K. Johu. M. 5."

"Westmerland.— Decern et septem Drensi de West-
meiiand quonmi nomina Simou de Patesulf habet, dant
Domino Rcgi L. (fifty) marc, ut remancant ue trans,
fertent, terrain' at passag Dili. Keg'."

Nomina ipsormn Drengorum sunt hrec

AValter de Ilarcla. AValtc-r de Durand.

Rob. de Suleby. AVill de Askeby.

Job. Tailboys. AVill. Mauchel.

Henr. de Cundel. Alan. Pincerna.

Nicol. fil. Rob. Ric. Anglico.

Hug. de Cotesford. Rich. fil. Acher,

RcgLii. fil. William. Will, de Clifton.

Giib. de Broham. Will de Timcby.

et John de Morvill."

IMany of these are names renowned in
History, as AValter de Harcla, ancestor of the
de Ilarcla who was afterwards Earl of Car-
lisle. Tailboys, Baron of Kendal, John de
Morville, brother of Hugh de Morville, Baron
of Westmorland, one of the four knights
wdioslew Thomas a Beckett, and thereby
forfeited his large possessions in Cumberland
and_ Westmorland, Pincerna and Fitz-
william, both barons, who plaved an iiiipor-
tant part in the struggles with Henry III.
It is a remarkable fact, tliat of the seventeen
Drengi mentioned in this record, not one is
now to be found represented in the male



line, except Gilbert de Broham : and still
more remarkable is the fact, that his lineal
descendants are still living in the same spot,
and almost in the same building as that in-
habited by their ancestor and his predeces-
sors nearly eight centuries ago.

That this family were located at Brougham
in Saxon times, lately received further con-
firmation, from opening a grave in their
burying vault in the chancel of Brougham
Church, in which a Saxon ornament was
discovered lying by the side of the skeleton,
and hence the probability of the conjecture,
that as this Avas alongside the graves of
Udard and Gilbert dc Broham, the .skeleton
was the remains of one of their Saxon
ancestors.

The repiesentative of the family immedi-
ately before the Conquest, was Wilfrid,
who Avas succeeded by Walter, and he
was, in the reign of Stephen, or early
part of Henry the Second, followed by
Udard, who, having been in command of
Appleb}'- Castle, and defeated by William the
Lion, King of Scotland, was fined twenty
marks. In the twent3"-second Henry II. lie
joined the rebellious barons against the
king, and was again heavily fined, as ap-
pears by the following record in the account
side of the Exchequer ; —

" ripe Roll 22. lien. II. M. 8d.

Item de Placitis Eorundcm et in Westmaricland.
■Vd.irdus .de Bi'oham redd. comp. de qu. tra. xx
m. qu. fuit cum inimicis Reg.

In Thro. XL m. et debet XL. M."
(Translation) "Also of Pleas thereof in Westmorland.

Udardus de Broham accounts for four times twenty
marks because he was with the King's enemies.

In the Treasury 40 marks — and he owes -10 marks."

After the rebellion, he obtained a licence
(0 go to the Holy Land, and take the cross
in the second crusade under Conrad and
Louis the VII. of France. He returned, and
dying at Brougham, was buried in the chan-
cel of the parish church, when his grave,
being opened a few years ago, the spur and
talisman already described were found, also
his sword, which, with his hauberk of heavy
ring mail, are now preserved among the
armour at Brougham.

Udard was succeeded by his son Gilbert,
who gave up part of the estate, Avith the ad-
vowson of the rectory, to free himself and his
posteiity from the service of Drengage, but
part of the lands continued to be held by
" Carnage''' i. e. by the service of bloAving a
horn, to give notice of the approach of the
Scotch or other enemies. This service has
for many years been commuted for a small
annual payment in money, but the original
horn, of dark ivory, engraved in the charac-
ter of a very early type, still hangs in the
Hall of Brougham.

In the time of Edward the First, Henry de
Burgham was Lord of Lrougham, and in 1303,



1G2



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN.



his daughter Dorothy married John de
Casleton, ancestor of tlie Dorchester family.
He was succeeded by his sun John, who was
Sheriff of Westmorland in 1351 ; and he, by
his son Sir John Burgham, who in the second
year of Kichard the Second, entered into a
deed with Sir Roger Clifford, for the purpose
of fixing and settling the boundaries c^f the
Lordship of Brougham. This deed is in the
Rolls Chapel, and is endorsed as "Le Bown-
der de Burgiiam." After stating all the boun-
dary marks, it concludes thus — " And so thys
ambulacyon Avas veiwyd and merkett in the
.secund yeare of King Richard the Secund by
the assentt and consentt of Sir Rogere Clif-
furth Knight and Sir John Burgham, in
thayre tyme." The present heir male and
representative of the Broughams is Henry,
Baron Brougham and Vaux, 23rd Lord of
Brougham since the Conquest.

OTELEY, about a mile to the south of Elles-
mere, on the high road to Shrewsbury, the
seat of C. K. Mainwaring, Esq.

The house, erected by the present pro-
prietor, is built of white stone in the Eliza-
bethan style, and the interior is handsomely
fitted up with abundance of carved oak,
painted heraldic windows, and other append-
ages of a Gothic mansion. Oteley stands
on an elevated site, and from the north
front commands an extensive view over
the surrounding coimtry, including, in the
fore-ground, the ancient town of Elles-
mere, which is separated from this side of
the park by a noble slieet of water called
EUesmere Lake. The park is small, but well
wooded, and diversified, and stocked with
deer. Oteley was anciently the seat of a
family bearing the local name, which line
terminated in the reign of Henry VHI., in
an heiress, Elizabeth, daughter of William
Oteley, who married Humphrey Kynaston, of
Stocks, from which time the Kynastons made
Oteley their residence'. The Kynastons also
ended in coheirs, of whom, Mary married
James j\[ainwaring, Esq., of Bromborough,
in Clieshirc, and the lineal descendant of
this marriage is the present Charles
Kynaston ]\Lvinwaring, Esq. of Oteley
Park.

TOFT, CO. Chester.— This mansion stands
about one mile south of Knutsford, at the end
of a venerable and spacious avenue formed
by triple rows of ancient elms. The ground
slopes gradually behind the house to the
great vale of Cheshire, over which there is
a rich and extensive prospect. 'J'he principal
front of the Hall, which closes up tlie avenue,
is brick built, and of two stories, excepting
tlie projecting wings, which are of three, and
terminate in gab^'^-, ajul a square tower of



four stories, wliich rises from the centre.
Walter de Toft was seated here in the reign
of Richard 1. His descendant, in the fifth
degree, Robert Toft, of Toft, married Cicely,
widow of John Chirk, of Hawarden, and had
a son, Roger, who died without issue, and a
daughter, Joan, who espoused, in the reign
of Edward III., Ralph Leycester, younger
brother of Leycester, of Tabley, from which
marriage lineally descends the present repre-
sentative and proprietor, Ralph Gerard
Leycester, Esq. of Toft, Sheriff of Che-
shire in 1847.

HALE, about nine miles from Liverpool, at
the southern extremity of the county of
Lancaster, is the rural and picturesque village
of Hale. Immediately contiguous to the vil-
lage stands the venerable mansion of Hale
Hall. The oldest part, the north front, ap-
peal's to have been built by Sir Gilbert Ire-
land, in 1G74, and continues in a tolerably
perfect state. A modern front to the south
commands a fine view of the river Mersey,
with the higli grounds of Cheshire, and parts
of Nortli Wales. The river here is about
three miles across, and the lord of the manor
of flale is entitled to fourpence for every
vessel that anchors in the northern shore of
the river in this district. Near the house is
a decoy-pool for taking wild fowl.

Hale was formerly the inheritance of the
family of Ireland, whose ancient seat was the
Ilutte in this township. Sir John de Hibernia,
the first of the family, was buried in Hale
Church in 1088. The estate passed through
heiresses to the families of Aspinwall and
Green, and by the marriage of Ireland Green,
coheir of Isaac Green, Esq., to John Black-
burne, Esq. of Orford, became vested in the
present family, of which John Ireland
Blackbuune, Esq., sometime M.P. for AVar-
rington, is the present representative.

SYZERGHlies to the south of Kendal, about
half-way between that town and Miltliorpe.
The Hall is a very interesting specimen of
early domestic architecture. It stands on a
tine terrace, and has a thick grove of forest
trees behind it. The whole edifice has a
grey venerable appearance, and contains
several interesting ajiartments. One of tlie
rooms is called the Queen's Room from the
tradition that Katherine Parr .spent several
nights here after the death of Henry Vlll.
Syzergh has from time immemorial been the
seat of the ancient family of Strickland, the
history of which is so full and minute in
Burke's Landed G'e?2/r?/, that it would be idle
to allude further to it in this place, than to
state tliat the lineal male descendant of Sir
Walter Strickland, who obtained a licence to
cmpark his lands at Syzergh, 9th Edward



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN.



163



III., is the present AValter Strickland,
Esq.

APPLEBY CASTLE, tlic great ornament to
tlie county town of Westniorlanc], lias been
ji place of note since the time of the Conquest.
Prior to the year 1422, " John Lord Clifford
builded that strong and fine artificial gate-
liouse all arched with stone, and decorated
with the arms of the Veteriponts, Cliffords,
and Percys, which with several of the castle
walls was defaced and broken down in the
civil wars in 1G48."

The principal edifice of the jjresent struc-
ture is of a square form, and was built in
1G86, by Thomas, Earl of Thanet, out of the
ruins of the old castle. In it are contained
various portraits of the Bedford and Tlianet
families, as also of some members of the house
of Stuart. Here is preserved the magnificent
suit of armour worn by George, third Earl of
Cumberland, in the tilt yard, as champion to
his royal mistress, Elizabeth. It is richly
gilt, and ornamented with fleur de Ij's ; his
horse armour, of equal splendour, lies by it.
In 1G41, this castle was fortified for the King,
and Sir Philip Musgrave held it out after the
battle of jSIarston Moor. It surrendered,
however, to the parliament forces under
General Ashton, 16th October, 1648.

'J'he Barony of Appleby was granted by
William the Conqueror to Ranulph de
Meschines, and by female descent it came
to the Morvilles. On the attainder of
Hugh de Morville, the barony vested in the
crown, but. was granted by King John to
Robert de Veteripont. The Cliffords ob-
tained the lordship by the marriage of Roger
de Clifford with Isabella, dau. of Robert de
Veteripont, fourth lord.

From this marriage descended the eminent
family of Clifford, Earls of Cumberland.
George, third earl, left an only surviving
daughter, Anne, who wedded Richard, second
Earl of Dorset, and his eldest daughter and
coheir married John Tufton, Earl of Thanet,
by which alliance the Clifford estates, in-
cluding Appleby Castle and the hereditary
sherift'dom of Westmorland, passed to that
famil3^ Henry Tufton, eleventh Earl of
Thanet, died unmarried, 12th June, 1849,
when the peerage became extinct, but his
great landed estates passed by will to the
present SiR Richard Tufton, Bart, of
Appleby Castle.

TOWNELEY.— This ancient seat is in the
parish of Whalley, near the town of Burnley,
CO. Lancaster. The original site appears to
have been a tall and shapely knoll, south-
ward from the present mansion, and still de-
nominated Castle-hill. When tliis situation
was abandoned, it is impossible to ascertaui.



but the present mansion can lay claim to
great antiquity. It is a large and venerable
pile, with two deep Avingsand as many towers,
embattled and supported at the angles by
projecting buttresses, all which contribute
to render it castle-like. But it was, till
about a century, ago a complete quadrangle,
with two turrets at the angles. On the north-
east side, now laid open, were two turrets in
the angles, a gateway, a chapel, and a sacristy,
Avith a library over it. These last were re-



Online LibraryBernard BurkeA visitation of the seats and arms of the noblemen and gentlemen of Great Britain (Volume 1) → online text (page 36 of 79)