Copyright
Bernard Burke.

A visitation of the seats and arms of the noblemen and gentlemen of Great Britain (Volume 1) online

. (page 40 of 79)
Online LibraryBernard BurkeA visitation of the seats and arms of the noblemen and gentlemen of Great Britain (Volume 1) → online text (page 40 of 79)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


was captured, but Littleton escaping, was
pursued and taken at Rrestwood.

WILLIAMSCOTE, Oxfordshire, the seat of
John Loveday, Esq. This Manor dates
at least as early as the year 1285, and
the old Manor house seems to have been
built about 1570, by Walter Calcott, mer-
chant of the staple of Calais, who not long
afterwards founded tlie school at Williams-
cote. If we go yet farther back, we shall
find this place giving a name to the ancient
family of De William.scote.*

The manor house and the estate came
into the possession of the Taylors in 1633,
having been purchased by them of Calcott
Chambre, Esq., grandson, in the female line, of
Walter Calcott. Afterwards it became the pro-
perty of Jolm Loveday, Esq., D.C.L., by his
marriage with the only child and heiress of
William Taylor, Esq., wlio had taken the
name of Loder. Both the house and gardens
have been much improved by JNIr. Loveday's
son, the present possessor ; and well do they
deserve all the care and expense that have been
bestowed upon them, if it were only for the
beautiful prospect they command to the
south over the meadows of the Cherwell, a
prospect not surpassed m the northern part
of Oxfordshire.

The events of the great Civil War have



* The familj'of De AVilliamscote, according- to "Warton,
took its name from this place, and by intermarriage -n-jth
the family of De Saucey, about the year 1220, became
possessed of the manor of Kidding ton in Oxfordshii-e.

It seems not improbable that the descendants of the
family of De Willianiscote were "an old Oxfordshire
family, sometimes written \Villicotes," one of which,
"in 1399, was seized of the manour of Iledington, of
EuUington-Hundi'ed, and North-gate Hundred, at Ox-
ford.'" Some of this family were Sheriffs of Oxfordshire
and BerksMre, in the years 1391, 1392, 1100, 1413, and
1417, as some of the De Williamscote family had pre-
viously been in 1291, and 1354. (See Warton's " Kid-
dington.")



lent a sort of historical celebrity to this
place ; the fields of Wilscot, or Williamscote,
Avith the grounds adjacent, beuig mentioned
by Clarendon as the scene of a severe strug-
gle between the Royalists and the Republi-
cans, more generally known as the battle of
Cropredy Bridge. It was here that the
huge ash stood under Avhich, he tells us, the
king dined before the tight, and where,
about half-an-hour afterwards, tlie Earl of
Cleveland took up his post, defeating a large
body of horse and foot that had come upon
him by surprise. The old tree has long
smce fallen into decay, but it has left a name
behind to the spot where it once grew, and
its place is now occupied by a younger sub-
stitute. The double hedges still, also stand,
between Williamscote and Cropred}^, fi'om
Avhich a body of the enemy, " placed within"
them, was dislodged by the king's troops
under the Earl of Cleveland, immediately be-
fore the successfid battle at the adjacent
bridge across the river Cherwell, at Crop-
redy, on the 29th June, IGii.



AFTON, or AFFETON, Manor House, Isle
of Wight, the seat of Benjamin Cotton,
Esq. In the reign of Edward the Confessor,
this manor belonged to Earl Tosti ; at the
time of the general survey it was in the
king's hands ; soon after the compilation of
Domesday Book, Ave find it possessed by a
family, who, according to a custom that Ave
have so often had occasion to notice, took their
surname from it, as appears from two grants
made to the Abbey of Lyra by Robert and
William de Affeton of the tithes of their
fisheries. These deeds have no date, Lut
from a A'ariety of circumstances, they are
conjectured to have been prior to the date
of Quarr Abbey. In the fifteenth year of
Edward III., the manor is found in the
family of Brokenford, from Avhom it passed
to the Ringbones. In the survey taken m
the second year of Queen Elizabeth, it was
held by the Bruens, or Bruins, lords of the
manor of Fordingbridge, in the county of
Southampton. It Avas afterwards possessed
by the family of Urry ; from them it came
to the family of Hicks ; and, finally, it Avas
transmitted to that of Cotton, with Avhom it
still remains.

Afton j\Ianor house is pleasantly situated
on the banks of the river Yar, in tlie parish
of Freshwater. It is a square, substantial
edifice, buUt of Portland stone, and Avilh
oak, but belonging to no peculiar style of
architecture ; solidity, and the convenience of
those Avho Avere to dAvcU in it, having been
the principal objects attended to in its con-
struction. The grounds are laid out in the
park style, and, like every other portion of
the island, are extremely picturesque.

A A



178



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN.



MAXSTOKE CASTLE, co. Warwick. Tliisfine
structure stands about one mile from Coleshill,
Warwickshire. Tlie edilice is chiefly of the
reign of Edward III. It is built in the form of
a j^yi^'T^llelogram, and is encompassed by a
moat. At each corner is an hexagonal
tower, with embattled parapets. The en-
trance is by an august gateway, strengthened
on each side by an hexagonal toAver. The
gates are covered with plates of iron, and
the marks of the discarded portcullis are
still visible. Tliese gates were erected by
Humphrey, Duke of Buckingham, and are
adorned with his arms. A portion of tlie
interior of the castle was destroyed by fire;
but the greater part of the ancient building
still remains, and is an interesting specimen
of the architectural arrangement of the
fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Among
the apartments are the spacious hall ; a
large dining-room, with door and chimney
of curious carving ; and the ancient chapel.

In the walls of the court are yet remain-
ing the caserns, or lodgments for soldiery.
A priory was founded here by William
Clinton, in tlie time of Edward III., large
remains of wliich exist, and present a pic-
tuiesque appearance.

Maxstoke was anciently the seat of the
Odingsells, from whom it jiassed by marriage,
in the time of Edward I , to John de Clinton,
who was created Baron Clinton, of iSIax-
stoke, in 1299. In the Clinton family it
continued till the time of Henry IV., when it
went in exchange to Humphrey, Earl of Staf-
ford. On the attainder of Henry [Stafford, Duke
of Buckingham, the castle was committed to
the care of an officer appointed by the crown,
and eventually passed to the Comptons. and
was purchased by Lord Chancellor Egerton,
who again sold it to Thomas Dilke, Esq.
From him it has regularly descended to the
present proprietor, Thomas Dilke, Esq.

TEAFFORD PARK i.s in the parish of
Eccles, about three miles from Manchester.
The Hall is a modern structure of free-
stone, with a semicircular front, divided by
columns. Attached to it are the remains of
the old fabric, composed of brick gables.
There was a Roman Catholic chapel attached
to the house ; but in 1829 it was removed
by the present proprietor, and one erected
at the neighbouring hamlet at Barton as its
substitute. The grounds are watered by
the Irwell and tiie Bridgcwater Canal.

The old and knightly family of TratTord
has been seated here from time immemorial.
The family pedigree commences with Kan-
dolphus de Tralford, who "flourished in
King Canute tlie Dane, his time, about the
year 1030." From Randolplius descends, in
unbroken male succession. Sir Thomas Jo-
seph de Traflord, Bart., now of Traflbrd.



SMITHELLS. — This ancient seat lies about
two miles north of the town of Bolton, Lan-
cashire. The Hall is placed in a sheltered
situation, at tlie head of a fine lawn, with a
courtyard in the centre, and two wings — one
to the west, and the other to the east, which
latter forms a domestic chapel. The walls
of the courtyard are painted in white and
black tressils, and at the western extremity
of the building is a shaded walk, enveloped
in ivy. The entrance-hall is appropriately
furnished in the antique style, and the
library glazed with stained glass. In a
passage, near the door of the dining-room, is
a natural cavity in a flag, resembling the
print of a man's foot, which has occasioned
a tradition, that the martyr, George Marsh,
when brought here for examination before
Sir Roger Barton, in 1555, stamped upon tlie
place in confirmation of the truth of his
opinions, and that a miraculous impression
Avas made upon the stone by his shoe, as a
testimony against his enemies. Smithells is
dependent on the superior manor of Sharpies,
the lord of which claims fiom the OAvner of
this place a gilt spur annually; as also the
unlimited use of tlie cellars at Smithells for
a Aveek in every year. This feudal claim
has not been enforced for some years.

The Radclyffes were anciently lords of
Smithells. In the reign of Henry VII. ,
Joan, daughter and heir of Sir Ralph Rad-
clyffe, married Robert Barton, by Avhich
alliance the estate passed to the Bartons.
The lebus of a tun crossed by a ba7; and in-
scribed A. B., indicating Andrew Barton,
serves to fix the date Avhen the mansion Avas
rebuilt — about the time of Henry VIII.

The last heir male of the Bartons left
an only daughter, Grace, avIio Avedded
Henry Lord Fauconbcrge, Avhose descend-
ant, Thomas, sold the mansion in 1721.

The Byroms, of Manchester, afterAvards
held the estate, Avhich was purchased by
Richard AinsAvorth, Esq., and is noAv en-
joyed by his son, Peter Ainsworth, Esq.,
some time M.P. for Bolton.

FAIRY HILL, Xettlestone, in the parish of
St. Helen's, Isle of ^Vight, the seat of William
Anthony Glynn, Esq., D.C.L., the represen-
tative of the very ancient familj' of Glynn, of
Glynn, co. CoruAvall. This mansion Avas built
in 1781, by the Rev. Henry Oglandcr, B.D.,
FelloAV of Winchester College, and third
son of Sir John Oglander, of Nunwell, the
fourth baronet of that name. This gentle-
man AA'as proprietor of tlie manor of Nettle-
stone, in which Fairy Hill stands, a manor
that, in tlie reign of Edward the Tliird, Avas
obliged to furnish tAvo archers to the state,
as Avas also the case with Nunwell, Avhile
tlie Priory of St- Helen's had to find only
one.



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN.



179



At the period of the conquest by the
Normans, Nettlestone was vested in tlie
Lisle family. In Edward the Third's reign,
Mary, daughter and heiress of Sir Bartholo-
mew Lisle, by a daughter of Courtenay of
Devon, brought this manor, by marriage, to
Sir li. Oglander, of Nunwell. With the Og-
landers of Kunwell it remained till 1G25,
Avhen it was granted, by Sir John Oglander,
Kt., and Lieutenant Governor of the Isle
of Wight, to liis younger brother, George Og-
lander, in lieu of a claim on Wliitefield Manor.
His son, George Oglander, junior, dying
in 1696 without offspring, his sister. Charity,
inherited the estate, which she conveyed, by
marriage, to John Holgate, Esq. Their
grand-daughter, Anne Holgate, of Much
Wymondley, Hertfordshire, left Nettlestone,
by will, in 1780, to tlie Eev. H. Oglander ;
and lie dying in 1^14, bequeathed it to his
sister, Susannah, widow of John Glynn, Esq.,
of Glynn, near Bodmin, Cornwall, Serjeant-
at -Law, Recorder of London, and M.P. for
Middlesex, and her two younger sons, the
Rev. Anthony William Glynn, and Admiral
H. R. Glynn, with a life interest to his
niece, Mrs. Glynn, wife of the Rev. A. W.
Glymi. Mr. H. Oglander's sister, jMrs.
Glynn, possessed Fairy Hill for two years,
and died in 1816 ; and her son, the Rev. A.
W. Glynn, enjoyed it for three yeais, dying
in 1819. His Avidow, the daughter of Sir
W. Oglander, fifth baronet, lived to hold
the estate for twenty-one years. Since
her death. Fairy Hill, with one moiety of
the IManor of Nettlestone, has been the
property of her son, W. A. Glynn, L).C.L.,
Oxon. The other inoiety of the manor of
Nettlestone belongs to Admiral II. R.
Glynn, of Bideford, Devon. Much of the
land would seem to have been never sold
since the days of the Ndrman Conquest.

The mansion is a plain, stone-coloured,
brick building, with lawns sloping pleasantly
towards the sea, and commanding a view of
Spithead and the Solent, a wide arm of the
sea that divides the island from the coast of
Dorsetshire, and, running past Calshot
Castle, mingles with Southampton Water.
About ninety five acres of the ground be-
longing to this estate are a sort of park-like
pasture land, studded with oaks and elms,
and other fine trees, now single, and now in
clusters, and most of them remarkable for
their size, which equals that to be found in
the whole island. Four acres more have
been let out upon building leases, for the
erection of a little marine town. Sea View,
commanding extensive and pleasant views.

The valley at the bottom of the hill, west-
ward of Fairy Hill, was at one time a creek
of the sea, and covered by the tide at high
water, nearly as far inland as Barnsley
Farm, as appears from an old manuscript in



the possession of the present owner of Fairy
Hill. The following anecdote also occiu's in
a manuscript book of Sir John Oglander's-,
Knt., who died in 16G4.

" In the times of Ceadwalla, King of the
West Saxons, Hildila bujdt a church at St.
Helen's, then called Porte, who by boats
came to Berdwyn, founder of Brading
Church, and tliese two, calling in some
others, converted the whole island, and
erected more churches. The French landed
at St. Helen's in 1377."

KNEPP CASTLE, near Horsham, in the
county of Sussex, the seat of Sir Charles
]\Ierrik Burrell, Bart., who has been I\Iem-
ber for tlie borough of New Shoreham from
1806 up to the present time. But before
speaking of the new building, it will be right
to give a brief account of the old castle and
its various occunants, without which it will
be hardly possible to obtain a clear know-
ledge of the subject.

Kneppe, or, as it was anciently written,
Cnape, has probably derived its name from
the liioh or l-noll, on Avhich a small fortress
stood many centui-ies ago. It was one
of the six great feudal fortresses, Avhicli
anciently defended a rape of Sussex, though
we may hardly set it down as having been a
principal stronghold. It is now a mere
ruin ; yet, even in the last century, it is said
to have exhibited considerable traces of its
extent, within the angle of two small streams,
that fall ultimately into the river Adur. A
part of the inner tower, or keep, is all that
now remains, the semi-circular doors and
windows of which seem to place its origin in
the early Norman times. West of the ruins
is a field called Town-field, through which
was an approacli l^y a raised road, and a
bridge, most probably a drawbridge.

This noble manor, forming the most valua-
ble property in tlie rape of Bramber, was
granted, by William the Conqueror to
W illiam de Braose, for his eminent services
at the battle of Hasthigs. In his descendants
it remained until the beginning of the four-
teenth century, when Olivia, the daughter
of the last de Braose, Lord of Bramber,
brought it, in marriage, to the celebrated
John de ]\[oAvbray. In the eighteenth year
of Queen Elizabeth, it would seem to have
been granted to Richard Nye. In the be-
ginning of the seventeenth century, it was
possessed by the knightly family of Caryl),
by whom it was held till 1752, when John
Caryll sold it to William Belcher, Esq. In
1788, it was bought of the trustees of Jacob
Rider, Esq., by Sir Charles Raymond, Bart.,
who, dying the next year, bequeathed it to
his two daughters, Sophia, wife of Sir
William Burrell, uncle of Peter Burrell, 1st
Lord Gwydyr, and Juliana, wife of Henry



180



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN.



Boulton, Esq. The latter sold her portion
to Sir William, from whom it has descended
to the present possessor.

About half a mile from the niins stands
the new building, erected by Sir Charles
Merrik Burrell, Bart., and bearing the name,
of the ancient fortress. It is a castellated edi-
fice, in the Gothic style, situated upon a gentle
rise, and commands an extensive view of
some extensive scenery, while nearer at
hand is a serpentine lake, rendered yet more
beautiful by the trees and plantations that
adorn its banks. It covers nearly a hun-
dred acres of ground, and lends an inde-
scribable charm to the whole prosjjcct.

The collection of pictures in this noble
mansion stands xmrivalled throughout the
county, except it be by the paintings in Pet-
Avorth Castle. To name a few only of these
treasures, — a fine whole-length picture of
Henrietta Maria, by Vandyke; two pictures
on devotional subjects, by Albert Durer ;
the curious portrait of Sir I^obert Cotton,
by Vansomer ; Cornelius Van Tromp, by
Frank Halls ; Anne of Cleves, purchased at
Mr. Barrett's sale ; portrait of Charles the
Second, by Sir Peter Lely ; a singularly fine
painting, yEgidius, the scholar, employed by
Francis the First to visit the celebrated
places in the East, with a view to commerce ;
a portrait of Tamour holding the signet staff
and bracelets, by Vander Myn ; Edward
Stafford, Duke of Buckingham, with his
arms and supporters, well carved and em-
blazoned at the top of the frame; this is
the Buckingham who was beheaded by
Henry the Eighth, upon a charge of high
treason ; withmanj'^ others, the enumeration
of which would carry us far beyond our i>ve-
scribed limits.

STALLINGTON HALL, m the county of
Stafibrd, the seat of Richard Clarke Hill,
Esq., a magistrate for the same county. At
one time it was possessed by a family of the
name of Porter. Subsequently we find it, by
inheritance, in the hands of Thomas Ashwood,
Esq., and about 1778 it was bought by
Eichard Hill, Esq., the father of the present
proprietor.

Stallington Hall is situated upon an
eminence about a mile above a small river
called the Blythe. It is a plain building of
brick, but if not remarkable for any archi-
tectural elegance this is more than made
amends for by the comfort and convenience
of the house within. The date of the man-
sion which formerly occupied this site is not
kno'um,but it was pulled down and rebuilt some-
where about 1770 by Tliomas Ashwood, Esq.

SHENTON HALL, Leicestershire, the seat of
Frederick WoUaston, Esq., formerly Major,
Inniskilling Dragoons. The Wollastons,
- formerly De Wollastons— flourished both



before and after the reign of Edward
the Third, at "WoUaston, in Staffordshire,
from which place they originally took
their name. In Pichard the Second's time
they sold this manor to the Astons, when the
family being dispersed over the county, that
branch from which the present WoUastons
of Shenton derive, settled at Perton, in
the parish of Tettenhall, Staffordshire. Here
they made a dole to the poor every Siuiday
of a certain quantity of bread, and the cus-
tom is still preserved at Shenton as a memo-
rial of their ancient residence.

The Wollastons were a race of country
gentlemen, who for many generations lived
contentedly on their estates without the least
ambition of increasing either their fame or
fortune, till in the beginning of Queen
Elizabeth's reign one of the younger sons of
the family at Perton was sent up to Lon-
don. There he accumulated immense Avealth,
Avhich he laid out in the acquisition of
those very estates which are now m the
family, — first in Staffordshire, the county
wherein he was born, and Avhere he bought
Oncote Hall ; secondly, by re-purchasuig
of Lord Aston the manor and estate of
AVoUaston, with others in Staffordshire,
Leicestershire, and Derbyshire.

In February, 1625, Sir Richard IVIolynenx,
the then possessor of Shenton, conveyed it
to William WoUaston, Esq., of Oncote, who
soon afterwards rebuilt Shenton Hall, as ap-
pears by the following inscription o\ev the
inside of a front door, — " This house was
built by me, William W^ollaston, Esq., Lorde
of Shenton, Anno Domhii, 1629." It is m
the Elizabethan &tyl(^ overlooking the vil-
lage on one side, and the park on the other,
which last is prettily situated, Avith a small
stream running through it, the whilome
river Tweed, but now reduced to very
narrow limits. Within about a quarter of a
mile from the house is the celebrated Bos-
worth Field, an historical name which it de-
rived from the near village so called, though
its proper appellation is Rcdmoor Plain, from
the colour of the soil. In the same way the
meadoAvs on the Avest are knoAvn as the
White Moor, the earth being of a quality
that entitles it to that epithet. It Avas in
these last that Richmond encamped the night
before the battle, nearly two miles from the
position of King Richard.

BosAvorth Field is of an oval form, about
tAvo miles long and one broad, and is ahnost
in a line betAveen Bosworth and Atherstone.
Nearly in the centre is Amyon Hill, Avith an
abrupt descent on every side, but steepest
towards the north. It tcrmmates m a rill,
a bog, and a flat called Amyon Lays. In
one side of the hill is a avcU, called to this
day King Richard's Well, and in Sutton
Field, tOAvards the north end, is a hillock



SEATS OF GKEAT BRITAIN.



181



from -which he harangued his armj-, and
which, in consequence, has contmued to bear
the name of Dickon's Nook.

Relics of this desperate figlit have often
been picked up of late years, and llutton,
the historian, declares he Avas told by an old
peasant that hi digging he had found four
or five small cannon balls in his garden.
The face, however, of the whole spot has
been so much altered by time and cultivation
that there must always be ranch conjecture
when speakmg of the military movements
of the two rivals for the throne of England.
The river Tweed has dwindled into a
small brook, the open ground, through
which Henry made his approaches, is now
an enclosed lane full six miles long, and
the marsh is now a wood of about one-
and-twenty acres in extent. Take it alto-
gether there is no place throughont England
that is more miportant from its historical
recollections.

WILTON, CO. Wilts, the seat of the Earl of
Pembroke. Its regal foundation, its monas-
tic celebrity, its association with tlie noble
house of Herbert, combine to invest AVilton
with peculiar interest. Few places have a
higher claim to antiquity, or are more worthy
of notice. In Saxon times, it was a favoured
residence of King Alfred, and was converted
by that monarch, at the instigation of his
queen, into an aljbey, for a commmiity of
nuns to which his successors, Edward the
Elder, Athelstan, Edmund, and Edred, were
munificent benefactors. Under its pious
owners, Wilton remained for some years un-
disturbed and unafieeted by tlie strife and
warfare which agitated the world without ;
but at length, when Swain led his army into
Wiltshire, it was plundered and burnt. It
appears, however, to have soon recovered
from this severe visitation ; for Editha, the
Queen of Edward the Confessor, and daugh-
ter of Godwin, Eail of Kent, rebuilt the
abbey of stone on the site of tlie old wooden
edifice, in which she had been educated.
At the Norman Conquest, which happened
shortly after, it was considered one of tlie
chief religious houses m the kingdom ; and
at that epoch its possessions were rated at
five knights' fees, for whicli the abbess Avas
obliged to find five knights, with their attend-
ant esquires and ten harnessed horses, on
every occasion of war. During the violent
contests between Stephen and the Empress
Maud, Wilton Abbey, from its opulence and
importance, could scarcely escape some of
the effects of civil dissension ; and it seems
to have suffered much from an attack made
by the Earl of Gloucester. Yet, judging
from the public records, we do not find it
long depressed by tliis calamity ; and in the
next reign it flourished again in all its pris-



tine splendour. As a place of education it
was much resorted to. Matilda, Queen of
Henry I. and daughter of Malcolm, King of
Scotland, here passed her youth under the
tutelage of her aunt, the Abbess Christina,
sister of Edgar Atheling, tlie last male repre-
sentative of the Saxon royal line ; and many
other maidens of royal and noble lineage re-
ceived histruction in the cloisters of this
famous nunnery. In the state events of the
times, its great possessions secured for the
community considerable temporal power ;
and the Abbess of Wilton, in virtue of her
ofiice, was a Baroness of England. Without
further reference to the history of this reli-
gious foundation, we will simply add, tliat at
the Reformation, it fell to the Crown, and
was granted to Sir William Herbert, by
Henry VIII. Of the architecture of the
monastery itself we know nothing. That it
Avas proportioned to the dignity of the abbess,
the celebrity of its patron saint, and the
wealth of the establishment, may easily be
conceived, Avhen we contemplate edifices of a



Online LibraryBernard BurkeA visitation of the seats and arms of the noblemen and gentlemen of Great Britain (Volume 1) → online text (page 40 of 79)