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that a more extended and accurate research
would prove that it existed in many other
localities, and was itself but the sliadow of
some older custom. Sir "William Dugdale
indeed fancies that he has found the source
of it, so far as Tutbury is concerned, and he
thus quamtly describes it from an ancient
parchment roll in English, of the time of
King Henry the Eighth, which, however,
•was not the original, having been translated
from a roll in French, belonging to the age
of King Edward the Third. The person of
whom he is speaking is Sir Philip de Somer-
viUe, who held several manors of the Earl of
Leicester, then lord of the manor of Tut-
bury, " by two small fees, that is to say, when
other tenants pay for reliefe one Avhole
knight's fee, one hundred shillings, he, the
said Sir Philip, shall pay but fifty shillmgs ;
and when escuage is assessed throughe owtt
the lands, or to ayde for to make th' eldest
Sonne of the lord, knyght; or for to marrye
the eldest daughter of the lord, the said Sir
Philip shall pay bott the motye of it that
other shall pay.



Neverthelesse, the said Sir Pliilip shall
fynde, meyntienge, and susteygne one bacon
tlyke hanging in his hall at Whichenoure
redy arrayede all times of the yere bott in
Lent ; to be given to eveiyche mane or wo-
maue married, after the day and the yere of
their mariage be passed ; and to be gyven to
everyche mane of religion, archbishop,
bishop, prior, or other religious ; and to
everyche preest, after tlie yere and day of
their profession ihiished, or of their dignity
reseyved in forme followjnig; Avhensoever
that any suche byfore named vrylle come for
to enquire for the baconne, in their o-^ai
persone, or by any other for them, they
shall come to the baillyfe, or to the porter,
of the Lordship of Whichenoure, and shall
say to them in the manere as ensewethe : —

" ' Bayliife, or porter, I doo you to knowe,
that I am come for myself (or, if he come for
any other, shcAvuig for whome) to demand
one bacon tlyke, hanging in the halle of the
Lord of Wliicheuoure, after forme thereunto
belongyin.'

After wliich relacioun, the baillyfe or por-
ter shall assign a day to him, npon promyse
by his feythe to retourne, and yv^'ih him to
bryng tweyne of his neighbours, and in the
me}aie time the said baillyfte shall take with
him tweyne of the freeholders of the Lord-
ship of Whichenoure ; and they three shall
go to the manoir of Rudlowe, belongynge to
Robert Ivnyghteleye, and there shall sumou
the foreseyd Khyghteleye, or his baillyfie,
commanduig him to be ready at Whichenoure
the day appoynted, at pryme of the day,
witlie his cariage, that is to say, a horse and
sadylle, a sake and a spur, for to conveye
and carye the said baconne and come a jour-
ney owtt of the countee of Stafford at liis
costages. And then the sayd baillyife shall
Avith the sayd freeholders, sumone all the
tenaunts of the said manoir to be ready at
the day appoynted at "Whichenoure, for to
doo and perform the services which they owe
to the baconne. And at the day assign'd,
all such as owe services to the baconne, shall
be ready at the gatte of the manoir of
Whichenoure, from the sonne-rysinge to
none, attendyng and awatynge for the
comyng of hpn that fetcheth the baconne.
And when he is comyn, there shall be deli-
vered to him and hys felowys chapelotts, and
to all those whiche shall be there to do their
services dewe to the baconne; and they shall
leid the said demandant wythe trompes and
tabors, and other maner of mynstrelseye, to
the halle dore, AA'here he shall fynde the
Lord of W'ychenoure, or his steward, leady
to deliver the baconne, in this manere : he
shall enquere of hym whyche demandeth the
baconne yf lie have Ijronght tweyn of hys
neybors with hym, whiche must answere,
'they be here ready.' And then the



196



SEATS OF GKEAT BRITAIN.



steward shall cause tliies two neighbours to
swere yf the said demaundant be a weddytt
man, or have be a man Aveddyt, and yf sythe
his marriage one yere and a day be passed,
and yf he be a freeman, or a villeyn.

"xlnd yf his seid neighbors make othe that
he hath for hym all tliies three poynts re-
hersed, then shall the baconne be take
downe, and broghte to the halle-dore, and
shall there be layd upon one half a quarter
of wheatte and upon other of rye. And he
that demandeth the baconne shall kneel upon
his knee, and shall holde his right hande
upon a booke, which booke shall be layde
above the baconne and the corne, and shall
make othe in this manere :

' ' ' Here ye, Sir Philip de Somervile, Lord
of Whichenoore, mayntener and gyver of
this baconne ; that I, A, sithe I wedded B,
my wyfe, and sythe I hadde her in my
kepmg and at my -uylle by a yere and a day,
after our mariage, I wolde not have chaunged
for none other, farer ne fowler, rycher ne
pourer, ne for none other descended of
gretter lynage, slepyng ne wak}mg, at noo
time. And yf the seid B were sole, and I
were sole, I wolde take her to be my wyfe
before alle the wymen of the worlde, of what
condiciones soever they be, good or evylle ;
as helpe me God and his sepitis, and this
fleshe and all fleshes.'

"And hys neighbors .shall make othe that
they trust A"eraly he hath said truly. And
3'ff it be founde by his neighbors, before
named, that he be a freeman, there shall be
delyvered to liim lialf a quarter of wheate
and a cheese ; and yf he be a villeyn he shall
have half a quarter of rye Avj'thoutte cheese,
and then shall Knyghtley, the Lord of Rud-
lowe be called for to carrye all thies thynges
tofore rehersed. And the said corne shall
be layd upon one horse, and the baconne
above ytt ; and lie to whom the baconne ap-
perteigneth, shall ascend upon his liorse, and
shall take the cheese before hym, yf he liave
ahorse; and yf he have none, the Lord of
Whichenoure shall cause him to have one
horse and sadjdl to such time as he be
passed hys Lordshippe ; so shalle they de-
parto the manoir of Whichenoore with
the corne and the baconne tofore hym
that hath wonne itt, Avith trompets, tabourets
and other manere of mynstrelce. And all
the free teuaunts of Whichenoore shall con-
duct him to he be passed the Lordsliip of
"Whichenoore. And then shall all they re-
torne, except hym to whom apperteigneth to
make the carryage and journey without tlie
county of StaiFordo at the costys of his Lord
of "Whichenoore.

"And if the said Robert Ivnighteley do not
cause the baconne and corne to be convey-
ed as is rclicrscd, the Lord of "Whychenoore
shall do it be carreyd, and shall dystreign the



said Robert Ivnyghteley for his defaidt fo
one hundred shyllings, and shall kepe the
distres so taken irreplevisable."

It is not a little singular that a custom of
the same kind in substance, though differing
in the details, should have existed also at the
priory of Dunmow, in Essex, whence arises
the old saying that " He which repents him
not of his marriage, either sleepuig or waking
in a year and a day, may lawfully go to
Dunmow and fetch a gammon of bacon
away."

Whicnor Hall takes its name from a little
village so called, ^uic m the Anglo-Saxon
meaning "a village," or "a dwelling-place,"
and orra or orre, " a bank ; " for it stands
upon an emmence on the north side of the
river Trent, about half way between Burton
and Lichfield. The name has undergone even
more than the usual varieties of spelling,
being written as caprice dictated, either
"Whiclmour, Whichuor, Wichnor, "Wich-
noure, Whichenoore, &c., the h and the e
being sometunes used and sometimes omitted.

WINTHORPE HALL, near Newark, Not-
tinghamshire, the residence of Grosvenor
Hodkinson, Esq. It Avas originally built
about 1760, by Dr. Taylor, physician to
George the Second. By him it was disposed
of, with the rest of the parish, to Roger
Pocklington, Esq., and afterwards passed by
sale successively into the possession of
Colonel Elliott, and Thomas Slingsby Dun •
combe, Esq., Avliich last sold it about eighteen
years ago to Lord JMiddleton, and to him it
still belongs.

The building, which is of stone, is of the
composite order, and though perhaps not
marked by any architectural peculiarities, is
both handsome and convenient.

It stands upon a hiU, commanding a
tine view of tlie A-alley of the Trent, and
is surrounded b}^ extensive shrubberies and
plantations, in the formation of which much
taste has been displayed.

PLAS COCH, in the county of Anglesea,
North Wales, the seat of William Bulkelcy
Hughes, Esq., M.P. for Caernarvon, a ma-
gistrate for the counties of Caernarvon and
Anglesea, and deputy-lieutenant of the
former. This gentleman has also served the
office of High-Sherifi" for Anglesea.

Plas Coch is indisputably a part of the
uiheritance of Llowarch ap Bran, Lord of
CA\nnmwdd Menai in Anglesea, the founder
of the second of the fifteen noble tribes of
North Wales. From his time it lias always
remamed in the family of the present pos-
sessor, who is the nineteenth from Llowarch
in male descent.

This mansion, which is of tlie Elizabethiui
style of architecture, stands on the south



SEATS OF GREAT BEITAIN.



197



edge of Plas Newj'dd Park, and was rebuilt in
1569, by Hugh Hughes, Elsq., Attorney-
General'for North AVales to Queen Elizabeth.
He was the first that assumed the family sur-
name. The original appellation of the place
was Porthaml Issa ; but this was changed for
Plds Cock, or Red Hall, from the colour
of the stone of which it was built.

Of the founders of the fifteen noble tribes,
alluded to above, little is to be found m his-
tory. Philip Yorke of Erthig, who wrote
an account of the lioyal Tribes of AVales in
1799, would gladly have supplied this defi-
ciency ; but he would seem to have met
with little encouragement from those most
interested m such an undertaking. This is
much to be regretted ; for the recoids of the
events concerning them, cannot possibly be
increased, and may be lost or destroyed by the
various accidents which time usually brings
with it. Much material, of the kind the
indefiitigable writer desired, is no doubt
mouldering away m lil^raries, without having
seen the daylight for centuries.

APLEY, Isle of Wight, little more than a
quarter of a mile from Ryde, the seat of J.
Hyde, Esq. It stands upon the gentle ascent
of a hill, skii-ted by a wood, and contiguous
to the sea, commandmg some of the most
beautiful prospects in the island. From the
house, as weU as from the garden, the towir
of Portsmouth and the road of Spilhead are
seen to the greatest advantage, especially
■when the latter is occupied hy numerous
fihii^ping. No mland views, however varied,
or however lovely, can compare with the
moving panorama tlien presented to the eye,
as the white sails of the smaller craft
glance to and fro, while the larger ships of
Avar rest majestically at anchor, or sweep
along with wind and tide, bearuig the impress
of power, and m that containing the principal,
if not the only element of the sublime. Tlie
feeling thus produced is heightened, yet at
the same time tempered by the quiet beau-
ties of the landscape below, where, if we
may be allowed the phrase, as applicable to
earth, there seems to rest a sylph-like soft-
ness. At evening, or rather Avhen the dark-
ness that succeeds the twilight, has yielded
to the influence of the rising moon, it is just
the spot wliich fairies would choose for their
revels, and for a moment one may almost
believe the legends of Puck and the merry
coiu-t of Oberon and Titania. —

"On hiU, ill dale, forest, or mead,
By paved fountain, or by rushy brook,
Or on the beached margent of the sea.
To dance our ringlets to the whistling A^ind."



And do we not here find the
of what Sliakspeare has s(
described ?



greater part
so exquisitely



In the reign of Edward the Third, Apley
would appear to have belonged to the Lady
Matilda de Estur. For its subsequent
transmissions we have no authority, till we
find Dr. Walker residing there m a small
but elegant mansion. From him it passed
to Captain Hutt, and soon afterwards to Mr.
Bennett, at whose decease, about 1839, it was
purchased by J. Hyde, Esq., m whose pos-
session it still remains.

DAELEY HALL, parish of Worsborough,
CO. York, of about the time of Queen Anne,
the residence of William Newman, Esq., the
descendant of a respectable family of some
antiquity, in the county of Leicester. Mr.
Newman succeeded to the occupation of this
leasehold estate about thirty years ago, on
the death of his uncle, Chas. Bownes, Esq., a
well-remembered person in the county of York,
who, as the receiver of the English and auditor
of the Irish estates of the late Earl Fitz-
william, was as remarkable for his high in-
tegrity as for his boundless generosity and
liberality of feeling. Mr. Bownes Avas of
Derbyshire descent, almost the last member
of a family Avhich, in former times, had been
considerable landholders m that coimty, and
he inherited a smaU estate therein. The
Bouns or Bohuns were of Bakewell, co.
Derby, in the time of Henry VI. ; and m
Thoroton's Nottmghamshire, a pedigree of
the family is given down to the tune of
Charles II., Thoroton's Avife haA'uig been one
of the daughters of " Gilbert Boivn, serv., ad
legem f from a junior branch sprmagalso the
Bouns of Cowndon, co. Leicester, for the
genealogy of Avhich, refer to Nicholl's Leices-
tcrshh-e. The arms of the Bohuns or Bouns
of Derbyshire were A^ery smiilar to those of
the Bohuns, Earls of Hereford, but there is
no evidence of any descent from that great
house.

PENSHURST PLACE, Tunbridge, Kent, the
seat of Lord de ITsle and Dudley. Every
county in England has its sacred ground as-
sociated with some never-fading glory, or hal-
lowed by the memory of the illustrious dead.
In Kent, Penshurst has, in this respect, no
rival ; it is the sunny spot m the dull waste of
local history — the shrine at which the poetic
pilgrim pays his warmest adoration. Bright
are the recollections called forth by a visit to
this ancient Manor House ! In the days of
feudal pomp, the residence successively, of the
Penchesters, the Pulteneys, and the LoA'aines,
it became in the 15th century, j^artofthe
possessions of the Regent Bedford, and sub-
sequently passed to the Stailords, the ill-fated
Dukes of Buckingham. The halo, however,
that glitters around Penshurst owes its bril-
liancy to the chivalrous race, in whose
descendant the property still remains.



198



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN.



Penshurst takes its name from the old
British word Pen, the top, and hyrst, a wood,
and at the period of the Domesday Survey,
was the seat of a family to which it gave
designation. In the reign of Edward ]., we
find the lands enjoyed by Sir Stephen de
Peneshurste, Knight, Constable of Dover
Castle, and Warden of the Cinque Ports, and
after his death, by his widow i^Iargery. That
lady died 2 Edward II., when, on a partition
between the two daughters of the deceased
Sir Stephen, Penshurst, together with the
adjoining manor of Lyghe, was assigned to
the younger, Alice, wife of John de Co-
lumbers, and passed not long after, by sale, to
Sir John de Pulteney, Lord Mayor of Lon-
don, reno\vned for his extensive charities, and
not less for his wealth and magnificence.
Under him the property became greatly
improved, and a licence to embattle the
mansion was granted by Edward II. Sir
John Pulteney (who founded a college in
the church of St. Laurence, since called
Poultney, in London) died 2.3 Edward III.,
leavuig an only child William, at Avhose
decease Penshurst vested in ilargaret Lady
Pulteney, widow of Sir John and tlien wife
of Sir John Nicholas Lovaine. From Inn-
it descended to her son, Nicholas Lovaine.
This gentleman, allied by marriage to the
great house of De Vere, died s.|.)., and Avas
succeeded in the possession of his estates by
his widow, the Lady Margaret, who took to
her third husliand Sir John Devereux, Kjiight,
a gallant soldier, and a Banneret of the time of
Eichard II. He died before his Avife — who
suixived until 10 Henry IV., when the pro-
perty passed to Margaret the sister of her
second husband, Nicholas Lovaine. This
richly portioned heiress wedded twice, and
both her husbands seem, in turn, to have
possessed the manor. Tlie first was Pichard
Cliamberlayne, Esq., of Shcrburn, in Oxford-
shire, and the second Sir Philip St. Clere, of
Ightham. By the latter, the Lady of Pens-
hurst left a son John St. Clere, who alienated
his mother's inheritance to John Plantagenet,
Duke of Bedford, the hero of the French war,
and the renowmed Regent of England. This
famous soldier, whose achievements, glorious
as they were, lie for ever obscured beneath
one deed of inhumanity, his vindictive treat-
ment of Joan of Arc, clied in 1435, and as
he left no issue, his manors in Kent devolved
on his brother, Humphrey the Good, Duke
of Gloucester, at whose decease, also without
children, Penshurst vested in the King, his
cousin, and was shortly after granted to
liumpln-ey. Earl of Stafford, a nobleman of
great influence and power, nearly related to
the Royal Family through his mother, Lady
Anne Plantagenet. Serving witli great gal-
lantry in the French wars, his lordship re
ceived in requital, and in regard of his near



propinquity to the throne, a grant of the
Dukedom of Buckingham, with precedence
of aU dukes whatsoever. Before we pass to
the next possessors of Penshurst, we cannot
forbear glancmg at the fate of the illustrious
house of Stafford, marked as it was by a more
than ordinary degree of inisfort luie. Edmund,
Earl of Stafibrd, his sou Humphrey, Duke of
Buckingham, and his grandson Humphrey,
Earl of Stafford, all fell m the desolating war
of the Roses, and Henry, 2nd Duke of Buck-
ingham, avul his son Edward, 3rd and last
duke, were both beheaded, and sacrificed to
the feuds of party and to private malignity.
With the third duke sunk for ever the splen-
dour, prhicely honour and great wealth of the
ancient and renowned family of Stafibrd.

Its last male representative, Roger Stafibrd,
grandson of Henry Lord Stafibrd, by Ursula
Pole, his wife, grand niece of King Edward
IV., went ui his youth by the name of Fludd
— for Avhat reason has not been explained —
perhaps with the indignant pride that the
very name of Stafibrd should not be associ
ated with the obscurity of his lot. At the
age of sixty -five, he became, by the early
death of his cousin Henry, Lord Stafibrd,
heir male of his noble house ; and petitioned
Parliament accordmgly : but he eventually
submitted his claim to Kmg Cliarles, who
decided that, haAuig no part of the inheri-
tance of the Stafford lands, he should sur-
render the title to his Slajesty, Avhicli order
being obeyed by the petitioner, the honour
was conferred on Sir ^Villiam Howard and
jMary Stafibrd his wife. Roger Stafford died
nmnarried in 1640. His only sister, Jane
Stafibrd, married a joiner, ancl had a son a
shoemaker, living at Newport in Shropshire,
A.D. 1637. Thus the great-great-grandson
cf Margaret Plantagenet, the daughter and
heiress of George Duke of Clarence, sank to
the grade of a cobbler ! On the attainder of
Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham,
13 Henry VIII., Penshurst reverted to the
CroATO, and continued thus vested, untU Ed-
ward VI. conferred it on Sir William Sidney,
a celebrated soldier, who had held a chief
command at Floddcn, and had shared in the
glory of tlie Fi-ench campaign. This gallant
knight fixed his residence on his newly ac-
quired manor, and dying in 1553 was suc-
ceeded in its possession by his son, Sir Henry
Sidney, an eminent personage of his time, who
erected the tower over the gateway of the
principal entrance and caused the following
inscription to be thereon engraven, over the
Royal jVrms : —

Tlie most religiovs and renoAvncd Pi ince Edivard the sLxt,
King of England, I'rance, and Ireland, gave this Hovse of
Pcncester, with tlie lilannois, Laudcs, and Appvrtcn-
aiices there vnto holonging, vnto his trvstye and well
beloved Servant Syr William Sydney, Knight Bannaiet,
servingc him from the time of his Birth unto his Coro-
nation, in the Olficcs of Chamhcrlayne and Stvarde of
his Ilovsliohl, in Commemoration of which most worthic



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN.



199



and famous King, Sjt Henvye Sj'dney, Knight of the
most noble Order of the Garter, Lord President of the
Covnsell established in the Blarches of Wales, Sonne and
Heyer to the afore named Sjt AVilliam, caused this
ToTser to be bvylded, and that most excellent Prince's
Arms to be erected. Anno Domini, 1585.

Sir Heniy Sidney enjoyed, in an unpre-
cedented degree, the favour of Edward VI.,
who took guch delight in his company as
rarely to give him leave of absence from
court. Upon the death of the king, in 1552,
Sir Henry, oppressed by grief, retired to Pens-
hurst, and sought consolation in its calm and
pensive groves. Short, however, was the
term of his inaction. His country's service
soon claimed his attention, and in the 2nd of
Philip and Mary, he became Vice Treasitrer of
Ireland. Under Mary's successor, he still
basked in the sunshine of royal favour,
being appointed by Elizabeth Lord Presi-
dent of Wales, invested with the Garter,
and thrice constituted Lord Deputy of Ire-
land. In that kingdom he greatly signalized
himself in suppre.'^sing repeated rebellions,
and in executing several public works,
which Avere of lasting benefit to the country.
His death occurred on the 5th May, 1585, at
Ludlow, in Shropshire, whence his body was
removed by command of the Queen, and
buried with great pomp in tlie chancel of
Penshurst Clnirch. Sir Henry had married
Mary, sister of Kobert Dudley, Earl of
Leicester, and left by her a daughter, the
celebrated Countess of Pembroke, and tliree
sons, of whom the eldest, born at Pensliurst,
29th Nov., 1554, was Sir Philip Sidney —
the soldier, the scholar, the statesman, and
tlie poet ; eminent as each, the favourite of
his sovereign, and the idol of tlie people ;
possessed alike of gentle sentiment and
manly daring. His life was a romance, from
its commencement to its close. At an early
age he married the daughter of Sir Francis
Walsingham — a lady of exquisite beauty;
but his heart was given to another. The
Lady Penelope Devereux won it, and
kept it till he fell on the field of Zutphen.
"Family regards" (we quote an elegant
writer*) " had forbad their marriage ; but
she was united to the immortal part of him,
and that contract has not yet been dissolved.
She is still the Philoclea of the ' Arcadia '
and Stella in the poems of ' Astrophel.' "

It would be idle to attempt, in this space,
to give even a faint sketch of this celebrated
man —

" The president
Of nobleness and chivalrie."

We will only add, in the words of Camden,
that "he was "the great glory of his family,
the great hope of mankind, tlie most lovely
pattern of virtue, and the darling of the
learned world."

* S. C. Hall.



At Sir Philip's death (he left an only
child, Elizabeth, Countess of Rutland), his
next brotlier, Sir Robert Sidney, succeeded
as heir male. This gallant person, an heredi-
tary soldier, acquired renown in arms, first
under his uncle, the Earl of Leicester, in the
Netherlands, and afterwards with Sir Francis
Vere, when he shared in the victory achieved
at Turnholt in Brabant. For these services,
he was created by James I. Baron Sidney
of Penshurst, Viscount I'lsle, and Earl of
Leicester, and appointed Lord Chamberlain
to the Queen. His death happened in 1626.
The next inheritor of Penshurst, Robert
Sidney, second Earl of Leicester, son of the
preceding lord, lived to the age of eighty
years and eleven months, esteemed for his
great learning, and upright, unbending cha-
racter. During his lordship's time, the
young Duke of Gloucester and the Princess
Elizabeth, children of Charles I., were sent
to Penshurst, and remained there nearly
twelve months. The earl married Lady
Dorothy Percy, and had (with four daughters
— the eldest of whom, the Lady Dorothy,
Avas the Sacharissa of the poet Waller), four
sons, Phillip, his successor, Algernon, the
celebrated patriot, born at Penshurst, who
suffered death by decapitation on Tower
Hill, 7th Dec, 1683, Robert, who died in
1674, and Henry, created Earl of Romney.
Of these the eldest, Philip, third Earl of
Leicester, Avas father of Robert, fourth earl,
whose youngest and last surviving son,
Jocelyne, seventh earl, dying in 1743 with-
out issue, the estates (including Penshurst)
devolved upon the daughter of liis brother,
the Hon. Colonel Thomas Sidney, his niece,



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