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the seat of Baron de Teissier, a lineal de-
scendant of the Barons de Teissier de Mar-
guerittes, and Barons des Etats de Lan-
guedoc. The title was assumed by the
present bearer in 1819 with the permission
of the Prince Regent, and at the desire of
Louis XVIIL, King of France. The family
name was originally Teissieri, High Justi-
ciary of the county of Nice at the end of
the fifteenth century.

At one period the manor of Horton, with
"Woodcote Park, belonged to the family of
Mynn ; but in 1668 it passed to Richard
Evelyn, Esq., in right of his wife, Elizabeth
Mynn. Up to this time the old manor-
house at Horton had been the abode of those
possessing the estate, a large building, sur-
rounded by an unsightly moat ; Mr. Evelyn,
deeming Woodcote Park a much more de-



sirable situation, erected a new mansion
there, witli a small but handsome chapel,
and spared no expense in the decoration.

Upon the death of Mrs. Evelyn, she be-
queathed Woodcote to her nephew. Lord
Baltimore, about whom an idle tale was in
circulation, that he forcibly carried off Mis.s
Woodford, and detained her here against her
inclination ; but the tale is sufficiently re-
futed by Gurney's short-hand notes of the
trial to which the report gave rise. In 1771
the estate was sold to Arthur Cuthbert, Esq. ;
and in 1787 it came, by purchase, into the
family of the present owner.

The mansion may be called an Italian
villa, with a handsome centre and two wings,
or pavilions, united by a colonnade. The five
principal apartments are en suite, profusely
gilded, Avith arabesque ceilings, and adorned
with paintings, by Rubens and Zuccharelli.
There is a chapel-room, the ceiling of which
is painted with our Saviour's Ascension.
For this work the artist, Verrio, received
two hundred guineas. Another room — called
from that circumstance the Painted Room —
is covered with designs by the same artist,
illustrating the Greek pastoral of Daphnis
and Chloe, the work of Longus, the sophist.
The chief apartment on the first floor is
eighteen feet high, forty feet in length, and
in breadth twenty-eight feet.

The park and grounds comprise about
three hundred and thirty acres, including a
farm, within the circuit of the wall and
fence. So thickly do the trees grow about
the house that it is hardly visible beyond
the park, the timber being principally beech,
lime, and fir, and many of them of unusual
growth and beauty ; the plantations having
in a great measure been formed by the late
Mr. de Teissier.

NORMANTON, Rutlandshire, the seat of
Sir Gilbert John Heathcote.

Normanton is not mentioned in the Dooms-
day Survey, but soon after the Conquest we
find it included in the possessions of the fa-
mily of Normanville, from which, doubtless, it
derived its appellation. The Isl'ormanvilles
were Lords of Empingham, in Rutlandshire,
and of Ivenardyngton in Kent,and seem to have
pricipally resided in the latter county. The
most distinguished inheritor of the name was
Thomas de Normanville, King's Seneschal,
north of the Trent, temp. Edward I. Even-
tually the heiress of these original proprie-
tors of the land we are describing, Margaret
de Normanvill, conveyed Normanton, and
the other estates of her family, in marriage
to William de Basynges, a gallant warrior of
his time and one of the companions in arms
of EdAvard [., in the victorious expedition
into Scotland, A. d. 1288. For his services
in that memorable campaign, he received the
honour uf knighthood, and on the outbreak



232



SEATS OV GKEAT RRITAIN.



of fresh hostilities, hatl summons to attend
the King at Berwick-on-Tweed, fitted with
horse and arms to march against the Scots.
In the next reign he sat in parliament as
knight of the shire for Rutland, and subse-
quently for Kent, wherein he had the cus-
tody of the Castle of Canterbury. Sir Wil-
liam de Basynges, who appears to liave been
nearly related to Adam de Basing, Lord
Mayor of London, 1251, from whom IJasing-
hali Street takes its designation, 9 Edward XL,
leaving his sou and heir Thomas, and his
widow Margaret, surviving ; the latter took,
not long after, a second husband, Edmund de
Passeleye, of Passeleye in Sussex, and sur-
vived for several years. At her decease tlie
lordship of Empingham, with her other lands
in Rutlandshire, devolved on her son Sir
Thomas de Basyng. who fixed his residence
at Normanton, and there died 23 Edward III.
lie was father of Sir John de Basyng, Knt.
M.P., whose daughter, Alice, (ultimately
heiress to her brother Sir John de Basyng)
marrying Thomas Mackworth, Esq., of
Mackworth, co. Derby, henceforward Nor-
manton, vested in the representatives of
that ancient family, and was the designation
of the baronetcy conferred in 1619, on Sir
Thomas Mackworth, the sixth in descent
from Alice Basyng, the Lady of Emping-
ham. During the great Civil War, the tliird
baronet, taking up arms for King Chailes,
suflfered severely from sequestration, and in
about seventy years after, the expensive con-
test for the representation of Rutlandshire,
between his son, Thomas Mackworth, Lord
Finch and I\Ir. Sherard, consummated the
ruin of the famil3^ The manors of Emping-
ham and Normanton were alienated, for
£39,000, to Charles Tryon, Esq., ancl tlie
baronet himself retired to an obscure district
in London, where, at Kentish Town, he
died issueless, in 1745. Mr. Tryon held the
Mackworth inheritance for a brief space
only; in 1729, just six years after its pur-
chase, he sold the whole estates to Gilbert
Heathcote, Esq., Alderman of London, and
its representative in Earliament. This opu-
lent citizen, one of the original projectors of
the Bank of England, received the honour
of knighthood from Queen Anne, and was
created a baronet in 1732. To liim the pre-
sent mansion of Normanton, occupying the
site of the ancient seat of the Mackworths,
owes its erection. The structure is of great
architectural beauty, consisting of a centre
of chaste elevation, flanked l:)y two wings in
excellent proportion. Some idea may be
formed of the liberal scale upon wliich this
edifice was built from the fact, that the stone
alone used in its construction, cost £10,000.
A capacious park, remarkable for the verdant
lawns, tlie majestic oaks, and the towering-
limes, so peculiarly English, surrounds this



statel}" residence, and thus is formed one of
the most delightful of our country's envied
seats ;

" The clovev'd la-wns,

And sunny mounts of beauteous Normanton,
Health's clieerful haunt, and the selected walk
Of lleathcote's leisuve."

Normanton is situated in the east hundred
of Rutlandshire, and almost equi-distant six
miles from Stamford and Okeham.

BOLTON CASTLE, co. York, the seat of
Lord Bolton. Bolton Castle, in Wensley-
dale, at one time the prison of Mary Stuart,
was for three centuries the stately residence
of the Lords Scrope. It is situated on a
high, bleak, and barren hill, approachable by
a toilsome ascent, and over the bed of a rapid
torrent, and we cannot easily imagine why a
great famil)', who had at their command all
tlie luxuriant fertile plain beneath, chose to
take up their abode, generation after genera-
tion, exposed to storms and tempests without,
and to darkness and discomfort within. Com-
pared to Bolton Hall — the mansion of the
present noble possessor of the demesne- -its
frowning predecessor forms a striking con-
trast : the one, the emblem of modern,
polished life ; the other, the type and gloomy
reliquc of feudal manners. Leland thus
describes this historic spot: "Bolton village
and castell is four miles from IMidleham. Tlie
castell standethe on a roke syde, and all
snhstaunce of the lodgyngs in it be includyd
ui 4 principall toAvres. Yt was an 18 yeres
m buildynge, and the expends of every yere
came to 1000 marks. It was finiched or
Kjnige Richard the 2 dyed. One thinge I
muche notyd in the haulle of Bolton, howe
chimeneys were conveyed by tunnells made
on the syds of the waul bitAvyxt the lights in
the ha^Adl ; and by this meanes, and l^y no
covers, is the smoke of the harthe in the
hawle Avonder strangly convayed. jMoste
parte of the tymber that was occupied in
buildyng of this castell was fett out of the
Forest of Engleliy in Cumberland; and Rich-
ard Lord Scrope, for conveyaunce of it, had
layde by the way dyA'ers drawghts of oxen to
carry it from place to place till it cam to
Bolton. There is a very fayre cloke at
Bolton, cum motn soJis et luna?, and other
conclusyons, and there is a parke wallyd
withe stone at Bolton." Such is Leland's
quaint description of the place at a time
when its erection was within the scope of
recent tradition, yet it is difficult to believe
that such a structure, in the reign of the
second Richard, cost so large a sum as
£12,000.

From "time immemorial" we trace the
Scropes as resident in the lovely vale of
AVcnsleydale — the most romantic and pic-
turesque of the northern valleys — and, in the



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN.



233



whole range of our nobility, we can scarcely
point to a family more illustrious. An un-
broken male descent from the Conquest, if
not from the time of Edward tlie Confessor,
their alliances, their achievements, and their
possessions, sufficiently attest their antiquity
and importance ; whilst the mere enumeration
of the dignities they attained, between the
reigns of Edward II. and Charles I., proves
the high rank they enjoyed. In this interval
of three liundred years, tlie house of Scrope
produced two Earls and twenty Barons, one
Chancellor, fom' Treasurers, and two Chief-
Justices of England, one Archbishop and two
Bishops, five liiiights of the Garter, and
numerous Bannerets — tlie most distinguished
soldiers in the days of chivalry. The foun-
dations of the pre-eminent greatness of the
family were laid by Sir AVilliam Le Scrope,
who obtained a grant of free warren in all
his domestic lands at East Boulten and West
Boulten in Wensleydale, 24 Henry III. Se-
veral deponents in the Scrope and Grosvenor
controversy report him to have been cele-
brated for his conduct in the field, and style
him " the best Knight of the whole country
at jousts and tournaments." Of his two sons
— Sir Geoffrey Le Scrope, the younger, was
progenitor of the Lords Scrope, of Masham
— wliile the elder. Sir Henry Le Scrope, in-
heriting Bolton, continued the noble line there
seated. Sir Henry was bred to the law, and
throve accordingly. In 1317 he became
Chief Justice of the King's Bench, and sub-
sequently was Chief Baron of the Exchequer.
The vast estates he died seized of, show how
profitable a use he had made of his offices,
through a long life of Court favour and pro-
fessional emoluments ; and the religious and
charitable endowments he bestowed on the
church and the poor, indicate that he was
not unwortliy of the riches he possessed.
His eldest son. Sir William Le Scrope, died
of a wound received at the siege of IMorlaix,
and was succeeded by his brother Sir Richard
Le Scrope, a man even more distinguished
for activity and talents than his father.
Without attempting to follow this nobleman
through all his martial exploits, which, how-
ever, stand recorded by their eye-witnesses,
the several royal, noble, and knightly de-
ponents in the celebrated controversy sus-
tamed by him with Sir Richard Grosvenor,
for the right of bearing his family coat of
arms, it will suffice to say that, between 1346
and 1385, a period of forty years, there was
scarcely a battle of note m England, France,
Spain, or Scotland, where the English forces
were engaged, in which Scrope did not gam
honour. But as a statesman, he was even
still more renowned. Lord High Treasurer
to Edward III., he was twice Chancellor of
England, under that monarch's grandson,
liichard II. : and Walsmgham states him to
have been, in those dignified stations, pre-



eminently conspicuous for wisdom and in-
tegrity. It was this illustrious personage
by whom Bolton Castle was erected, and as
Baron Scrope, of Bolton, he received sum-
mons to Parliament. At length, full of
honours, and the world's esteem, he died
A.D. 1403. His lordship's eldest son, Wil-
liam, Earl of AViltshire, and King of Man,*
having been beheaded a few years before for
his devoted fidelity to Richard II., Bolton
Castle and tlie other princely demesnes of
Lord Scrope devolved on his second son
Roger, from whom derived a race of nobles
— the Lords Scrope of Boltcn — distinguished
in all the martial achievements of successive
ages. To Henry, the ninth lord, was as-
signed the custody of jMary Queen of Scots,
but fortunately for him, the near connexion
which existed between his lordship and the
suspected house of Howard soon caused him
to be relieved of his charge. The grandson
of this nobleman Emanuel, eleventh Lord
Scrope of Bolton, President of the King's
Council in the North, was created by Charles
I. Earl of Sunderland, but died without issue
in 1627, when the earldom became extinct,
and the barony, devolving on Mary, only
daughter of Ileiu-y, ninth lord, and wife of
William Bowes, Esq., continued vested in
her descendants until 1815, when the issue
of all the other coheirs having failed, the title
passed to Charles Jones, Esq., but was not
assumed by that gentleman.

At the decease of Emanuel, Earl of Sun-
derland, the estates of the Scropes were
divided amongst his lordship's three illegi-
timate daughters. Of these ladies, the eldest,
IMary, wife of Charles Paulet, Marquis of
Winchester, took the lands of Bolton, and
her liusband, on his elevation to a dukedom,
chose Bolton for its designation.

The Powletts who thus succeeded to the
estates of the Scropes, with great taste and
judgment, fixed the site of the new jnansion
they erected m the vale below the ancient
castle, in a situation of warmth, fertility, and
beauty, and here resides the present William
Henry Orde Powlett, Lord Bolton.



PECKFORTON

miles and a half
seats of J ohn
South Chesliire.
proprietor upon
and which ovei
estates, perhaps



CASTLE, Cheshire, about four
from Tarporley, one of the

Tollemacho, Esq., I\I.P. for
It was built Ijy the present

a hill that he had purchased,

rlooked the original family
the largest in all Cheshire.



* To this nobleman, Shakspeare makes the Lord Roos
thus refer :

" The Earl of Wiltshire hath the realm in farm."

Rich. II, Act 2, So. 1.

He purchased the sovereicntv of the Isle of Man from the
Earl of Salisbury, and in^lStU, Mhcn the truce was con-
firmed with France, " Guilliam Le Scrope" is recorded to
have assented to it, "pour le seigneurie de -Man" as one
of the allies of the King of England."

H H



234



SEATS OF GREAT BlilTAIN.



The chief portion of them was granted by
Henry VIII. to the Wilbrahams ofWoodhey
Hall, the head of the Wilbraham family,
though it has been supposed by some, that the
chief portion of this estate was acquired by
Thomas de Wilburgham, or Wilbraham, of
Radnor, by his marriage with Margaret,
daughter and heiress of John Golborne, Lord
of Woodhey. Be this as it may, the daugh-
ter of Sir Tlioraas and Lady Wilbraliam, wlio
had no son, married a Tollemache, and from
her the Cheshire estates liave descended to
the present proprietor.

In the castle, are some of the finest of Sir
Joshua Reynolds' paintings, as well as those
of Gainsborough, Wilson, and Jiloreland.
There is also a large collection of family and
other portraits.

Woodhey Hall, alluded to above, is four
miles from Peckforton, and still forms a part
of the estate.

BADGEMOKE, Oxfordshire, the seat of
Charles Lane, Esq. This was originally
built by Mv. Jenkins, clerk of the works to
Sir Christopher Wren, while employed in
building St. Paul's. It was at first rather
small, but considerable additions were made
to it by Joseph Grote^ Esq., m Avhose family
it had been for many years, and it now pre-
sents the appearance of a substantial thougli
somewhat irregular brick building. The pad-
dock and grounds comprise about fifty acres,
the latter laid out by i\Ir. Grote. The views
from a marble temple in the Italian style
of architecture are very beautiful. Long
ranges of trees form three avenues conducting
to the prospect, while the whole of a deep
dell at the foot of the building is thickly
matted with laurels. Through tliese vistas, is
seen the river Thames, winding along through
wood and mead, and lending an additional
cliarni to the landscape.

ALVA HOUSE, in the county of Clack-
mannan, the beautiful seat of James John-
stone, Esq., is situated on the south side
of the wood hill of Alva, one of tlie Ocliils,
a range of mountains remarkable for
tlie peculiarity of running east and west,
thus throwing the sliadows which are pro-
jected from them into the intersecting
ravines, with unusual depth and distinct-
ness. The estate of Alva comprises five of
these noble hills — viz., Myrefon, Craig
Leith, Mid Hill, Alva Hill, and Aliller's Hill
■ — each separated from its neighbour by a
rocky glen, abounding in waterfalls of con-
siderable height and size. The mansion-
house was built in the reign of Charles tlie
First, and has been frequently altered since.
It cannot boast of any architectural beauty ;
but it is large and commodious, four stories
high, with tliirteen spacious rooms upon a
floor, with u large imposing front, a portico.



covered in by glass, and a conservatory at-
tached to one side, so as to open into the
library suite. It stands between two groves
of very fine lime trees, planted on the land-
ing of William of Orange, whose party badge
was the lime. The hill behind the house is
1800 feet high, and completely covered with
thriving timber, excepting where broken by
cliffs or masses of rugged rock. The slop-
ing lawn in front is laid out in terraces
and flower-gardens, and adorned by foun-
tains which might be made to play to any
height, as the spring which supplies them
rises 1000 feet above. They have been com-
pared to the fountains at Versailles.

An old and grand avenue, cliiefly of oak,
leads from the house to the church, a mile
distant. About midway lies the kitchen-
garden, Avhich used to be a model and show-
garden in the time of the late proprietor, and
which contains 300 feet of glass. It is bounded
on the west side by the romantic Silver
Glen, so called from its silver mines — no
longer worked, but still believed to be work-
able, and whicli are valuable also for con-
taining lead and cobalt. It is beautifully
wooded, and the walks through it conduct
to waterfalls and bathing-pools, with which
it abounds.

The next glen, behind the village of Alva,
is called "The Stronde," and is one of the
most picturesque in the centre of Scotland.
Lofty coliunns of rock, formed like the bas-
tions of a Norman fort, approach each other
from opposite sides of the moimtain, and
have falls of water dashing over them ; or
else they secede into hollow amphitheatres,
and form dark overhanging caverns, from the
back of Avliichthe water rushes and falls into
wide pools beloAv. In one of these ca\'erns
an outlaw was long concealed during the re-
bellion of 1715.

The Ochil Hills are famous for their pas-
turage, and for the extensive and lovely
views which they command over the Carse
of Falkirk, and the fertile valleys of the
Teith, the Dc'von, and the Forth. From
Ben Cloch (the hill of stones) the view ex-
tends into twenty-three counties, embracing
almost the whole cliain of the Grampiaris,
and the courses of the Tay, the Clyde, and
the Forth, to their expansion into friths,
and their absorption in the ocean. Alto-
gether, Alva is one of the most beautiful
estates upon the borders of the Higjdands,
comprising the grandeur of Avild and stern
mountain scenery, with the richness and
fertility of well-watered, well-cultivated, and
well-inhabited plains.

Two large columnar stones used to stand
outside the village of Alva, to mark the
battle-field in Avhich the villagers of old de-
feated their Highland foes. From the cry
then used Ai-a jI-ihi, the liamlet is said to
have derived its name. The parish is a



SEATS OF GKEAT BRITAIN.



235



barony, and the whole of it belongs to its
present laird.

This picturesque and lieautiful mountain
barony was purcliased from the family of
Erskine by John Johnstone, Esq., the grand-
father of the present proprietor. John,
seventh Earl of Mar, who died in 1634, by
his wife, Lady Mary Stewart, daughter of
Esme, Duke of Lennox, had a younger son,
the Hon. Charles Erskine, who acquired the
Barony of Alva, which continued in his
family until it was sold by his descendant,
Sir Henry Erskme, Bart., of Alva, grand-
father of the present Earl of Rosslyn, to his
uncle, Charles Erskine, Lord Justice Clerk,
who died iu 1763. The second wife of the
Justice Clerk, " the Lady Alva," was grand-
mother and guardian to the Duchess Countess
of Sutherland. His eldest son. Lord Alva,
sold this estate to Mr. Johnstone.

Tills gentleman was younger son of Sir
James Johnstone, Baronet of Westerhall, by
Barbara Murray, daugliter of Lord Elibauk.
His brothers and sisters were numerous.
One of them. Sir William Johnstone Pul-
teuey, Bart., was the richest commoner in
England of his time. His only child was
created Countess of Bath, and died without
issue. One of Mr. Johnstone of Alva's
sisters was the beautiful and gifted Avife of
Lord Ogilvie, eldest son of the Earl of Airlie,
and was heroine of the rising in 1745. Her
romantic escape from Edinburgh Castle and
flight into France, are well known, and re-
mind us of the adventures of the Countess
of Nithsdale, in 1715.

Mr. Johnstone was born in 1734. He was
a distinguished member of the civil service
of the East India Company in Bengal, and
commanded the artillery at the famous battle
of Plassey, contributing, in a great degree,
to that victory, by his skilful management
of the guns. He married Elizabeth Caro-
line, daughter of Colonel Keene, and niece
to Sir Benjamin Keene, Minister at the
Court of Spain, and Dr. Keene, Bishop of
Ely, Besides the Barony of Alva, he pur-
chased the estate of Donovan, in Stirling-
shire and Hangingsha>v, tlie beautifid seat of
the ancient family of Murray of Fhiliphaugh,
in Selkirkshire. Mr. Jolmstone was Mem-
ber of Parliament for Kinghorn, and died at
Alva in his sixty-second year, in 1795.

His only son, James Raymond Johnstone,
of Alva, married Mary Cholmeley, sister of
the late Sir Jlontague Cholmeley, Bart., of
Easton Hall, in Lincolnshire, by whom he
had a very numerous family. His younger
sons all entered the army, the navy, or the
church; and two of them are now^ colonels,
who have served with distinction. Among
his daughters, we may mention Mrs. Hamil-
ton Gray, a lady of distinguished literary
eminence, the Hon. IMrs. King Ilarman,



Lady Frederick Beauclerk, and Lady Muir
Mackenzie.

Mr. Johnstone died 17th April, 1830, and
was succeeded by his eldest son, James
Johnstone, now of Alva, Member of Parlia-
ment for the counties of Kinross and Clack-
mannan. Besides greatly improving the
beauty of his pleasure-grounds at Alva, he
has built a house on his Selkirkshire estate
of Plangingshaw, which is a place of singular
and romantic loveliness, on a smaller scale
than Alva, but not at all inferior to it in
picturesque effect. Pie has also begun to
work valuable seams of coal and ironstone
on his estate of Alva, which promise to be
much more productive than were the silver
mines of the Silver Glen a century and a
half ago. It is said that Erskine, of Alva, who
had worked these silver mines to a consider-
able extent, realized £10,000 from one of
them ; and showing the mouth of this mine
to a friend, said, " Out of this hole I cleared
ten thousand pounds ;" but pointing to the
mouth of another mine by its side, he con-
tinued, " I however very soon put it all into
that other hole !" Mr. Johnstone married
January, 1846, his cousin, the Hon. Augusta
Norton, sister to Lord Grantley, by Avhom
he has a son and a daughter.

It has been stated that Alva is a barony.
It may be worth while to inform our readers
that many estates m Scotland were, by the
favour of the Sovereign, erected into baro-
nies, whereby certain rights and privileges
were annexed to them which were not enjoyed
by estates not thus dignified. Each proprie-
tor of a barony, or lesser baron, had a right
to hold courts, over which a judge, styled
Baron Bailiff, presided, who was competent
to decide in many questions of law. The
barons had, even, in certain cases, the power
of life and death within their baronies; and



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