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their position in Scotland may, in some
measure, be compared to that of the German
Baron of the Empire, who enjoyed many
important feudal privileges.

Johnstone of Alva is an immediate branch
of the Baronets of Westerhall, a family who,
on the death of the late IMarquis of Annan-
dale, became chief of the ancient and distin •
guished house of Johnstone.

Mr. Johnstone of Alva's grand uncle Sir
James Johnstone and Sir William Johnstone
Pidteney, the fourth and fifth Baronets of
Westerhall, were presumed to have been enti-
tled to the Marquessate of Annalldale,asbemg
the nearest heirs of the late marquess. How-
ever, they never prosecuted their claim with
vigor. This is unfortunate, as Sir William
Johnstone Pulteney from his immense fortune
and great political influence might have done
so with advantage. But he had no sori, and
his only daughter was created Countess of
Bath. Sir William's successors, Sir John and



236



SEATS OF GKEAT BRITAIN.



Sir Frederick, the sixth and seventh Baronets
of Westerliall, prosecuted their claims with
activity, and with the advantage of much addi-
tional proof in their favour, but as yet, there has
been no decision as to this distinguished title.
There are three brandies of tliis family —

1. Sir Frederick Johnstone, Bart, of Wes-
terhall, great-grandson of George, third son
of Sir James, the third Baronet of Westerhall.

2. James Johnstone of Alva, grandson of
John, fourth son of Su' James, third Baronet
of Westerhall.

3. Sir John Vanden Bempde Johnstone,
Bart, of Hackness Hall, in Yorkshire, grand-
son of Colonel Johnstone, younger brother of
Sir James, third Baronet of Westerhall, by
his wife, the Dowager Marchioness of Annan-
dale, through whom the Vanden Bempde for-
tune came to this branch of the Johnstones.

BAYONS MANOR, finely situated on the
Wokls of Lincolnshire, and commanding a
rich, varied, and very extensive view, is the
seat of the Right Honourable Charles Tenny-
son d'Eyncourt, M.P. for Lambeth, High
Steward of Louth, &c. It is a castellated
manor house, of dark-coloured stone, with
all the attributes of a baronial residence of
the middle ages.

Its external aspect and interior arrange-
ments suggest feudal associations, and recal
the expansive and dignified hospitality of the
olden tune. Its lofty but ruined donjon, —
tlie entrance over the moat by a drawbridge,
through a l^arbicau and three succeeding gates
of powerful architecture with two portcullises,
its towers, posterns, machicolations, and ivy-
mantled walls, of which tlie outer line con-
tahis five or six acres, produce a romantic
and picturesque eft'ect.

The manor house and grounds are chiefly
indebted to Mr. d'Eyncourt and his late
father, for their present condition. The
former has most effectively restored the man-
sion, and made extensive additions of a cha-
racter adapted to its progressive liistory.
Accordingly, the architecture is of different
periods in the middle ages. The keep is
Anglo-Saxon, or early Norman. The eastern
towers, tJie curtain, (lie large central flag
tower, and two of the gates, seem to
bear a date jnnor to, or ending about
Edward III. 'J'he great hall and its oak
fittings are in the style of Richard II.,
and the more decorated portion, towards
the Avest, represents, for tlie most part,
the period between Henry V. and Henry
VII. Antique and time-worn statues
of early English kings form interesting ob-
jects on the exterior of the inner wall.
In the Bishop's Tower (so named from Odo
Bishop of Bayeux, hereafter mentioned), and
in another tower, standing in the moat to
guard the bridge, ai'e curious examples of



concealed stairs, and in an approach to the
former from the outer court or ballium, part
of the stair forms a sort of drawbridge to
prevent sudden mtrusion. In the jMoat or
Barbican Tower a room occupying its entire
circumference is so effectually secreted that
its existence would not even be suspected,
and is always a surprise when disclosed to
the visitor. Within the outer line of wall,
seated on a steep and rocky eminence, is a
small Gothic Oratory with a groined roof,
shrouded by ivy and trees, adorned with
23ainted Avindows, and from its tone and cha-
racter disposing the mind to solitary and pious
meditation.

A lake, peoi^led by curious aquatic birds,
and studded with islands, one of which forms
a pleasaunce, spreads itself at the foot of the
eminence on which the manor house is
placed. The park, aboundmg with deer, is
broken by every variety of hill, dale, wood,
and water, and through it passes a rushuig
stream, which, rismg in the hills to the east
in the d'Eyncourt property, forms the source
of the river Ancholme, and turns several
mills in its progress through the country.

The interior cora]irises a long range of
noljle apartments. The stately and spacious
hall is entered through a Gothic oak screen,
alcove which is a minstrel's gallery ; its height
rises to the exterior roof of the building,
Avhich is loftily pitched, and gracefully
framed in the style of Westminster Hall,
Avitli open arched trusses of massive timber,
resting on stone corbels, carved into heraldic
lions and eagles, bearing shields of arms.
Tlie Avails are adorned by numerous suits of
armour, cross-bows, and other ancient
weapons of war and chace ; also Avith A-arious
banners, tilting lances, portraits, armorial
escutcheons in genealogical series, and other
characteristic accessories. Among the por-
traits are two A'ery fine pictures of EdAvard
HI., and liis Queen Philippa, in their royal
robes. The high and painted AvindoAvs, Avith
a deep Oriel in tlie western gable, shed a
mellow light through coats of arms and other
heraldic devices, and in this hall are sus-
pended the brazen chandeliers Avhich illumi-
nated the late House of Commons.

The library, Avliich is Avell stored in every
department of elegant literature, constitu-
tional history, topography, and antiquities,
contains some curious MSS. Here also is an
open and ponderous timber roof, resting on
massive stone corbels, and, like the hall, this
apartment equally occupies tlie Avhole height
of the house. Its general construction,
elcA'ated and painted Gothic avukIoavs,
hanging gallery, and dark panelling, bring
the "mind back to the monastic ages, and
are strikingly picturesque. At the east
end is an original bust of Queen Victoria
Avhen nine years of age, by Behnes ; a sweet,




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SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN,



237



and even yet, a remarkable likeness of her
Majesty. Above it is a portion of the canopy
which overhung the altar in Westminster
Abbey at lier coronation, and was a present
to Mr. d'Eyncourt, from the late Sir William
Woods,Garter King of Arras,whose perquisite
it was on that occasion.

The principal withdrawing-room is .cruci-
form, 54 feet in lengtli and 36 feet in the tran-
sept, with an oak ceiling. thro'uni into Gothic
arclies, resting on highl}^ decorated corbels ;
the windows rich both in architecture and
blazonry, illustrate the pedigree and quarter-
ings of the family, and all the adornments
maintain the combined dignity and elegance
of this beautiful saloon. Three or four other
rooms on the principal floor deserve no-
tice, especially the Gallery, which is re-
markable for its antique tone and character ;
but the Tapestry, or state bed chamber, on
the first floor, has perhaps the most quaint
and mediaeval effect. It has, like the other
apartments above mentioned, an open wooden
roof with interior arches above the cross-
beams. Fine tapestry on classical subjects
decorate the walls. A magnificent Gothic
window with ancient stained glass fills the
west end, and imparts a warm and subdued
colouring to the interior. On the east
stands an antique bed, with canopy and liang-
ings of rare and splendid Venetian bugle
tapestry. When a guest at Bayons JManor,
early in 1848, Sir Edward Bulwer Lyt-
ton A-iTOte his beautiful historical romance
of " Harold, the Last of the Saxon Kings,"
in this chamber ; and in the dedication
of that work to his host, describes its
ghostly character, and adverts to a local
superstition that on certain nights of the
3'ear the Saxon Thane dispossessed at the
Norman Conquest, winds his horn at the
gate, and in fuvma spcctri demands admis-
sion to his ancient inheritance, seized by
Odo, the Conqueror's brother.*

The windows and oriels of the mansion are
of stone. In the chief apartments they are con-
structed with rich tracery, and illuminated

* The author cannot resist quoting: a portion of the
passage referring to Rayons Manor : —

" Pausing from my labour," says Sir Edward, "again
I look thi'ougli that ca.stle casement, and heyond that
feudal moat, over the broad landscapes, which, if I
err not, took their name from the proud brother of the
Conqueror himself: and again I hear in those winter
nights, when the grim old tapestry waved in the dim
recesses, the Saxon thegn winding his horn, and de-
manding admittance to the halls from which the pre-
late of Bayeux had so imrighteously expelled him.
AMiat marvel, that 1 lived in the times of which I wrote,
Saxon with the Saxon, Norman with the Norman— that
I entered into no gossip less venerable than that current
at the Court of the Confessor, or startled my fellow-
guests (when I deigned to meet them) with the last news
w'hieh Harold's spies liad brought over from the Camp
at St. Valery ? v\-ith aU those disburied spectres rampant
in thy chamber, all the armour rusting in thy galleries,
all those mutilated statues of early English kings
(including St. Edward liimself) niched into tliy grey,
ivied walls— say, in thy conscience, O host, shall 1 ever
return to the niiieteentli century again ] "



by heraldic bearings. Badges are carved on
the hoodmoulds and elsewhere, appertaining
to the families of d'Eyncourt, Lovel, Beau-
mont, Marmion, Grey, Plantagenet, Leke,
Lancaster, Bardolf, &c., &c.

The floors are of fine oak. Some
of the stone chimney-pieces are remark
ably handsome, and elaborately sculp-
tured with appropriate devices and niottos.
That in the hall has this inscription, " Be-
iiisses Dieu, et soycz heureux^^ — applicable
equally to a banquet or to those commenda-
ble enterprises in life, to which the d'Eyn-
court motto, " i??i«r«?!?," at the same time
presents an invitation. Valuable pictures,
statuary, armour, &c., are mingled through-
out with furniture which corresponds with
the character of the building. In the gallery
are original and exquisite busts of Napoleon
and Byron, the former by Chaudet, and the
latter by Bartolini, for which the sculptors
had the benefit of several sittings from the
living subject of each. The bust of Napoleon
Avas executed for, and given by him to, his
uncle Cardinal Fesch, and was purchased
from the effects of that dignitary ; the
bust of Byron was done at I'jsa before he
went to Greece, and is mentioned by him in
his correspondence. It was purchased of
Bartolini by the late Lord Weymouth, and
on the death of that nobleman his executors
disposed of it to Mr. d'Eyncourt. In another
apartment may be seen some large Etruscan
vases — among the finest in this country

In a tower connected Avith the entrance to
the inner court is a clock and deep-sound-
ing bell, with beautiful chimes at each quar-
ter. The bell on which the hours are struck
has this peculiarity, that it Avas founded
upon the death of Captain Eustace d'Eyn-
court, a son of the present owner, who died
of the yelloAv fever at Barbadoes in 1842,
and is intended as a sj^eaking monument to
tlie memory of this lamented son. It bears
the following inscription : —

Me posuit

Carolus de Eyncourt,

Filiiun flore a?tatis abrcptum,

Eustachium dilectisshnum

Deflens.

Revocet vox mea dtdces amoris horas :

Moneat quoque — quara fugaces !

Quantula sit Vita !

thus hourly reminding the family and neigh-
bourhood of the instability of life even during
the buoyant period of youtli and strength,
and, generally, of the fugitive character of
human existence. It Avas this elegant inscrip-
tion which Avas amplified by its author into
the elegiac poem, " Eustace," known to the
public as a touching record of paternal grief
tempered by Christian pliilosophy.

Among the relics of former ages at Bayons



238



SEATS OF GKEAT I3KITAIN.



Manor, are some curious antique chalices ; and
one of them is referred to in the above-men-
tioned poem, Avhich is iUustratedby an engrav-
ing of it. There is also a very ancient cup,
called a Peg -Tankard, of which it is said that
only five or six genuine specimens are extant —
evidencing the custom of " drinkmg to Pegs
and Pins," forbidden by some Anglo-Saxon
laws. Among the pictures of fuie quality, is
one by Van der Werf, of the tii-st George
Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, from which
several engravings have been taken ; one of
Charles I., by Walker; a Sun-set, which isa
masterpiece by the Dutch Claude, 'Van der
Neer ; a remarkable picture of Venice, by
Guardi,and several curious portraits of Koyal
and distinguished personages, especially con-
nected Avithtiie conflicting claims of Yorkand
l^ancaster, fatal at their close, as we shall
shortly see, to the representative at tliat time
of the ancient line of d'Eyncourt, proprietor
of tins manor. There is also a spirited
and admirable painting by Stothard of tlie
battle of Neville's Cross, near Durham, in
1346, 20th Edward III., Avhere AVilliam
Lord d'Eyncourt, one of the Commanders,
is represented, actively engaged in the con-
flict round David, King of Scotland, at the
crisis when that prince was taken prisoner.
Queen Philippa is seen on horseback, viewing
the Ixittle from a distance. It was this Lord
d'Eyncourt to whom the custody in Lmcoln-
shire of John, King of France, was com-
mitted for a long period, after his capture
at the battle of Poictiers, and until his
release in 13G0. V\'e cannot avoid men-
tioning another very interesting picture,
which was found m the old mansion at
Sutton, in Scarsdale, formerly the seat
of the Lords d' E}mcourt of Sutton.
It was found behind the wainscot in a room
there, and kindly presented, with some
other antique memorials of the family, by
Robert Arkwright, Esq., the owner, to JMr.
d'Eyncourt's father, as the eldest co-heir
and representative of the Barons d'Eyncourt,
of Sutton, Earls of Scarsdale. The painting
represents a person of aristocratic bearing,
but in the habiliments and attitude of a beg-
gar. Mr. Arkwriglit, when the picture was
discovered, upon inquiry, found in the neigh-
bourhood a tradition, to which it was sup-
posed to relate, and the account of it, writ-
ten by that gentleman, was sent witli the
picture to Bayons Manor. According to
this tradition, 'the head of the family, cen-
turies ago, was made prisoner on the coast
of Barbary. On quitting his lady at Sutton,
he divided a gold ring with lier, according to
a custom of the old time. After years of cap-
tivity and slavery, during which he was sup-
posed by his i'amily to be dead, he escaped
and hegged his way to England. AVhen he pre-
sented himself at Sutton, llie guardian of tlie



gate, unacquainted with, or not recognising
his person, refused to admit him. He pressed
to see the ladj^. The warder replied that she
was too much occupied with preparations
for her wedding, which was to take place on
the following day. The heart struck stran-
ger then produced the half-rhig, and desired
that it might be presented to her. At sight
of it her painful agitation plainly denoted an
agon)' of disappointment, instead of the joy
her unhappy and Avay-worn lord had fondly
anticipated. He died of grief in a few days.
The lady fell into a state of derangement.

The picture is a good painting, in the
style of Charles the First's peiiod; it was
probably executed to commemorate this
romantic story ; and as it has all the appear-
ance of a portrait, might represent the head
of the family at the time, Francis, Lord
d'Eyncourt. Sutton was besieged in 1643, by
a parliamentary force of 500 men, with three
pieces of cannon, and was resolutely defended
by Lord d'Eyncourt, but at length taken.
This picture, when found, had two round
holes in the canvas (since repaired), appa-
rently bullet-holes : and it is proliable, that
havingbeen secreted with other articles behind
the wainscot when the parliamentary force
was seen approaching, it was afterwards neg-
lected and then forgotten.

We must now give some historical accoimt
of this manorial residence and property.

Baj'ons (otherwise Bayeux*) Manor, and
that of Tealby which adjoins it, appear from
Domesday Book to have been assigned as
part of the property of Odo, Bishop of Bay-
eux, by his brother, William tlie Conqueror.
Wlien forfeited by him, it was again granted
to be held in capite of the crown as a barony.
The name thus became territorial, and the
Barons de Bayeuxf (see Dugdale's "Baron-
ges," vol. 1, p. 573. Title, " Bayeux ") held
it from the reign of Henry I. to that of Ed-
Avard II., flUing during that period import-
ant offices for the military and judicial ser-
vice of the crown in the county of Lincoln,
and members of this iamily representing that
county ill several Parliaments. In the time
of Edward II. the barony fell again into the
King's hands, and in the 12tli year of his
reign was regranted to Henry Lord Beau-

4 BayciLx was frequently Trj-itten in pjiiglish " Bayo«s,"
and the inistalve of u for w seems to lui\'e caused the
change. The country people yet call the jMansion Bays
(Bayeux) Hall or Manor, and the JMauoriul Court KoUs so
style it. Ill like manner, ytejiheu de Bayeux is called
Stephen De Bays, when found heir to liis' brother John
De Baijeux. — 5 Esc. 33 Hen. III. No. 57 Line. Vide Dugd.
Bar. p. &S3.

t The first of this family was probably that illegitimate
sou of Odo, who is related by Dugdale to have been
a man of great esteem in the Court of Henry I.
That Kbig being Odo's nephew, was likely to make such
a gi'ant, and we find the family of De Bayeux flourishing
in and after that reign with great possessions in Lin-
colnshiic, some identical with those standing in tlie
name of the Bishop of Baveux in iJomesdav Book. —
l)ugd. Bar. -l\, and Odcric. Vital, p. GGi. D.



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN.



239



jnont. Joan de Beaumont, tlie eventual
heiress of that ancient house, temj). Henry
VI., married John, Lord Lovel, son and heir
•of Alice, Baroness d'Eyncourt in her own
right, by her husband, William, Lord Lovel,
and the Manors of Bayons and Tealby de-
volved on their only son, Francis, Lord
Lovel and d'Eyncourt. His Arms, quarter-
ing Lovel, d'Eyncourt, Grey, and Holand,
appear on a tower at Bayons which bears
his name.

This nobleman (created a Viscount 22nd
Edward IV.), adhered to the house of York,
and, being in high favour wqth King Richard
the Third, was Lord Chamberlain of his
household, and Chief Butler of England ;
Constable of Wallingford Castle ; also, of
tlie Honour of St. AValeries, and a Knight
of tlie Garter.* Pie fonglit under Richard's
banner in Bosworth Field, and that King
being slain, and his army routed, he fled to
St. John's at Colcliester, and there took
sanctuary; but afterwards he got privily
away to Sir Thomas Broughton's house in
Lancashire, and thence escaped to Flanders,
aided by Ricliard's sister, tlie Duchess of
Burgundy. He appeared in Ireland, and
afterwards in England, in 1487, with ^lartin
Swart and John de la Pole, Earl of Lincoln,
attended by two tliousand soldiers, and was
in the battle of Stoke. After the battle he
was seen endeavouring to swim the River
Trent, and it Avas rumoured that he lay con-
cealed for years in some cav'e or secret place.
This rumour seems to have been confirmed
by a very peculiar circumstance, related in a
letter from Wm. Cowper, Esq., Clerk of the
Parliament m 1737.

" Heriingfordbury Parle,
" 9th August, 1737.
" Sir, — T met t' other day with a memoran-
dum I had made some years ago, perhaps not
unworthy your notice. You may remember
tliat Lord Bacon, in his History of Henry
VII., giving an account of the battle of Stoke,
says of the Lord I-ovel who was among the
vejjels, 'that he fled and swame over the
Trent on horseback, but could not recover
the further side, by reason of the steepnesse
of the banke, and so was drowned in tlie river.
But another report leaves him not there, but



*_To this Lord Lovel, the famous distich applied, for
■which the unhappy Coliugbourue was cruelly executed
under Richard III.

" The Cat, the Rat, and LotcI that Dog-,
Doe rule all England under the Hog."

See Sterens's edition of Shakspeare's Richard III., and
Mirror for Magistrates, vol. ii., part iii., p. 3C9. Edit.
1815. The "Cat" referred to Catesby; the "Rat" to
Ratcliife ; a Dog or AVolf was the crest of Lovel, and a
Boar was the badge of Richard III.



that he lived long after in a cave or vault.'*
Apropos to this : — On the Gth May, 1728,
tlie present Duke of Rutland related in my
hearing, that about twenty years before,
viz., hi 1708, upon occasion of new laying a
chimney at Minster Luvel [Oxfordshire],
there Avas discovered a large vault or room
under ground, in wliich Avas the entire ske-
leton of a man, as having been sitting at a
table, Avhich Avas before him, with a book,
paper, pen, &c. &c. In another part of the
room lay a cap, all much mouldered and
decayed, Avhich the family and others judged
to be this Lord Luvel, Avhose exit has
hitherto been so uncertain."

Hence it may be concluded, that it was
the fate of this unhappy lord (then only
about thirty-tAvo years of age) to have re-
tired to his house in Oxfordshire after the
battle, and there to have intrusted himself
to some servant, by Avhom he Avas immured
and afterwards neglected, either through
treachery, fear, or some accident Avhich befel
that person — a melancholy period to the
life and fortunes of one of the greatest and
most active noblemen of the era Avherein
he lived. To complete the tragedy. King
Henry VII. aspiring after the A'ast inhe-
ritance of this powerful nobleman, by an act
of attainder (11 Hen. VII. c. 63, his name
having been omitted in the act 3 Hen, VII.)
confiscated his whole estate, then inferior to
fcAV or none in the kingdom. (See Banks'
Baronage and Burke's Extinct Peerage.)
Under his attainder, the Baronies of Lovel,
d'Eyncourt, Holland, and Grey of Rother-
fleld, A\'hich centred in this great person,
fell and could not be inherited. He had
married Anne, daughter of Henry, Lord
Fitzhugh, but had no issue.

Amongst the muniments at Bayons
]\Ianor in Mr. d'Eyncourt's possession
relating to his manors and lands in the
county of Lincoln, is an exemplification
of an Act of ParHament, 28 Hen. VIII.
(Stat, of the Realm, c. 46,) by Avhich it
appears that the manors of Bayons and
Tevilby, otherwise Tealby, held of the
King in capite, "having been the inheritance
of Viscount Beaumont, came into the hande
of the late kyng of famous meraoric Henri the
Vllth by the atteyndre of Francis late Lord
Lovell, and after came to our Sovereign Lord
the Kyng [Hen. VIII.] by due course of
inheritance as sonue and heire unto the said
late Kyng his Father, and were afterwards
by our said Soveraign Lord the Kyng

* See Bacon's Hem-y \'IL, p. 35. See also in Leland's
Collect, vol. iv., p. 214, Hearue's AA'orks, where it ap-
pears, from a MS. of the time of Henry A'll., in the
Cotton Library, speaking of the battle of Stoke, that
"ther was slayne th' Erie of Lincoln (John), and dj-^-ers
other gcntilmen, and the Viscount Lorde Lovell vul to
flUjht:'



240



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN.



[H. VIII.] given and granted unto Henri
Norris, Squyre, and to Iiis lieires, whicli
Henri Norris was of late attainted with High
1'reason."

Henry Norris, the object of this grant, was
the nephew of Lord Lovel and d'Eyncourt,
being the sou of his sister, Frideswide. He had
been appointed to offices about the Court,
and Constable of Wallingford Castle, pre-
viously held by his uncle. Dearly did he
pay for tliese honours, and terrible was iiis
end; for it answered the purpose of Henry
A''! II. to sacritice him, in order to rid him-
self of his unfortunate and innocent Queen
Anne Boleyn. But these manors have, by
subsequent grant and repurchase, reverted
to a descendant of tlie uncle and heir
male of the said Francis, last Lord Lovel
and d' Eyncourt — namely, through Wil-
liam Lovel, Lord Morley, second son and



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