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Biographical review of Cass, Schuyler and Brown counties, Illinois. Containing biographical sketches of pioneers and leading citizens .. online

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NYPL RESEARCH LIBRARIES



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BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW



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Containing Biographical Sketches of poneers ana Ccaoing Citizens.



"Biography is the only true history."- -Emerson.




CHICAGO:

BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW PUBLISHING CO.

1892.






>JL^"



THE - ;•.. louK
PUBLIC LIBRARY

405470B

ASTHK, Ll.<"\ AND

TUA>tuN KOL.NHAliU.NS

B 194? L








PRESIDENTS OF THE I'NITED STATES.



George Washington 9

John Adams 14

Thomas Jefferson 20

Jam's Mudi son 26

James Monroe 82

John Quincy Adams 38

Andrew Jackson . . 47

Martin Van Buren 52

William Henry Harrison ... 56

John Tyler 60

James K. Polk 64

Zachary Taylor . . 68



Millard Fillmore 7

Franklin Pierce 76

James Buchanan 80

Abraham Lincoln 84

Andrew Johnson 93

(Jlysses S. Grant 96

R. B. Have- 102

J. A. Garfield 10!)

Chester A. Arthur 113

Grover (level and 117

Benjamin Harrison 120




CONTENTS.



BIOGRAPHICAL S^ETGHES.



A

A.lam>, Win I 244

Agnew, .la- M

Alexander, W. I.

Allard, i ':ni

Allen, A R

Alien, n II

Allison J oa

AllphiD.G U

All |. Inn, Z 134

Amler>..n. E. M

Anderson, Frank 820

Anderson, Robert

Anderson, V 405

•r. F I

Arenz, J. A 288

Armstrong, Thomas

Hen ■ 1 438

Aten, Roberi 391

Avery Philandei 181

Ayers, M 144

B

ill M

Bader, Win 291

Bagby, John. O 150

Baker, N. W .-,41

Baujan, John (96

Baujan, II .1 508

■ ■ W _ ' s| i

Barry, I.. T

Barton, Thos 408

Baxter, II, B 837

Beany, J.J 568

Becl ei , i ■ .iii.i.l 538

Beckwitb, E. W 203

Bell, I in 589

Bennett, Jobn. L 238

Berry, F. K 139

Berrv. <> A 232

Bertbolf, Edward

Black, Isaac 549

Black,.!. F 128

Black. John. H 296

Black,. I. M 174

Black, |{. S G16

Black. W.T 132

Blackburn. B. M 369

Bleyer, J. W

Blose, I). A 471

Bokemeier, (has 246

Bolle, H. II 188

Bullmuii, W. (' 201

Boone, N. 11 471

Bordenkircher, Geo 143

Bowe, Mrs M. F 606

Boyd, Mark 160

Boyd, Riclianl 540

Brackenridge, W H 357



Bradbury, J. T 159

Brannan, Stephen

Briar, Joseph 073

Brock man, Wash 131

Brockschmidt, Christian 503

Broker. Win A

Brooks, Martin 164

Brown, Robt 280

Browning, J- J 8;ts

Brum back, W. 1 504

Buck, J.J

Buracker, Win 153

Burnside, Wm. II 301

bard

Byrns, 6. A 341



Ta.lv, P. E

Cady, 1 1. -in \ 209

Cady, M E. 283

SI. 146

Campbell, <;. s 220

Camp ■ ■• Qeo.W 515

pbell, L. c 313

< lampbell, Pauline 464

pbell, Win 365

Carles, I. M 166

Carls, .1 II 458

Can, David 446

Carter, I nomas II 259

Challant, T .1 197

Clark, Aimer A 323

Clark. Elias 522

Clark. P. A 489

Clark, J. II 529

Clark. .1 K 187

Clark, J.T 316

Clark, I.. W 188

Clark, T.J 206

Clark. W. A 316

., M. M 408

Clifford, Michael 176

Coil, A S 488

Coleman, Win. II 270

Coll, DP 389

Coningbam, Grove 289

CoDOver, < leo 867

Cook, 8 W 541

( '..sner, Jos. L 350

Cox, Wm M 164

Cramer, Englebert. 576

Cram |. Ion, S C . . 391

1 1 ,i-L>' Henry 151

Crawford, Jas 170

Crum. G. W 219

Crum, H.J 443

Crum, Jas 436

Crum, Thos. J 312

Cunningham, A 343



Cunningham, James 4ltj

Cuningbam, T. E 513

Curry, F. M 1(51

D

Daniel, .1. \\* 413

Darnell, Jesse 597

Davis, F. E 360

Davis, J. A 307

Davis, J. H 415

Davis, W. B , 180

Da\ is. Win. J 199

De ( lounter, Samuel 311

Denial 'ee, W. I. 381

Deppe, ,). H 395

De Witt, Jas 262

De Witt, Jas. L 497

Dick, Levi 216

Dirreen, John 345

Dodds, David :;71

Dodge, .1 s 290

Dorsett, C , 4J(t

Dorsett, W. D 157

Downing, P. E 584

Druse, \V. H 577

Duchardt, Christian 357

Dunlap, CM 4!U

Dunn, Chas. N 136

Dunn, It. II 865

Dupes, Christian 239

Dyson. Edwin :!38



E



Edgar, A. C 137

Edmonston, Enoch 195

Edwards, J. M 507

Eifert, Geo. H 260

Elliott, John 3lj:i

Ellis, S. E 304

Emmerson, Wm. T 588

Erwin, Qeo.W 599

Erwin, Lewis D 4ijl

Evans, Hiram 487



F



Fields, G. 1 2411

Fischer, Henry Jr 545

Flinn, .1.0 387

Foote, John 618

Foster. H. T 179

Frank, Ed S 449

Franken field, Theo 473

Freesen. Wm 594

Frey, John. Geo 485

Frisby, Geo. \V 525

Fulks, Ft. B 512

Funk, H, C 612



CONTENTS.



6

Gapeu, Thos 587

Garni, Henry 442

Garner, I. R 581

Garner. W. S 423

Gaut. W. P 493

Gen ish, Cynthia 466

Gerrish, Jacob D 466

Gibson, Ira X 480

Gifford, Jos 233

Glandon, John 454

Glaze. W. \V 245

Glover, W. S 561

Goodell, J. H 385

Green, Nancy 198

Greenwell, Wm. M 170

Greer, Geo 302

Greer, J. L 578

Greer. M. W 130

Greve, Henry 417

Griffith, R. H 478

Griffith, W. H 558

Grimwood W. M 516

Grover, J as 519

Grover, H. P 530



H



Hackman, E. F 211

Hackman, Win 235

Hageman, A. L 567

Hagener, Ed 495

Havener, John H 320

Hager, Lyman 432

Hale, Win 505

Hall, E. G 445

Hambaugh, J. M 601

Hammer, F. A 242

Bansmeyer, H 127

Harbison, Martha J 352

Harbison, Muses 470

Harding, Peyton 548

Harris, Maro 557

Harshey, Amos 450

Hash. Zachariah 490

Hayes, J. W 579

Heaton, Henry W 401

Heaton, John. 379

Hedgcock, A. J 193

Hedgcock, Joshua 344

Herron, David 143

Herzberger, ( lonrad 399

Hierman II. A 537

Higgins, .larks. >n 279

Hiles,Jas 219

Hill, A 575

Hill, Chas 451

Hill, Israel 359

Hills, John. T 517

Hindman, Samuel 552

Hiues, II 433

Hinman, Mrs. M 556

Hiues, H 433

Hotlmau, Geo. H 551

Hoffman. J. (' 511

Hood, S.J 271

Horrom, Cyrus 181

Hortou, John. D 324



Howell, Jacob 524

Howell, Thos. S 383

Hueschen, John 421

HuffG. P 479

Huge, F. W 512

Hunt, Jos 197

Huppers, Wm 136

Huss, C. J fill

Huss. John. F 301

I

Irwin, C. X 411

J

Jackson, Ezra 205

Jackson, Mary 590

Jaques, Hiram 256

Jockisch, Ernest 620

Jockisch, Wm 346

Johnson, ('. F 294

Johnston, D W. C fiOO

Jokisch, C. T 145

Jokisch, C. G 141

Jokisch, Philip 377

Jones, C. E 210

Jones, Thos 353

Juett, (has. II- 535

K

Kallasch, Adolph 402

Keil, H. C 241

Keith. P. R 486

Kendrick, John. G 612

Kennedy. Charles 426

Kerley, King 410

Kerr, John 196

Kircher, John 607

Kirkham, Geo H. 527

Kloker, L. F 298

Knight, Thos 252

Korsmeyer, F. W 153

Korsmever, II. H 400

Korle, Henry C 273

Krobe, August 562

Krone, Henry W 282

Krone, Fred 259

Krone, Henry C 310

Krone, Lewi's E 395

Krueger, C. 8 467

Kruse. F. H. D 465

Kuhl, George 277

Kuhlmann. Chris 381

L

Lambert, Wm J 534

Lancaster, Reuben 352

Lane, CM.... 484

Lang, F. C 340

Larash, W I 308

Launer, T. C 595

Lawler, J. Thomas 480

Lawreuce, Frank 429

Leach, EI) 317

Lee, W. II 392

Leek. H 477



Leeper. A. A 330

Leib, E 571

Lewis, Azariah 222

Linn, DC 570

Listmann, John 374

Little. Robt 574

Logsdon, Aaron 470

Logsdon, Andrew £26

Logsdon, Joseph 531

Logsdon, Perry 263

Lovekarnp, H. H 554

Lowiy, A. K 175

Lucas, G. W 407

Lucas, Xewton 155

Lucas, Wm 384

Lutterell, Mrs. S. B 348

Lyons, Daniel 593



M

Main, Z. E 318

Maulove, Wm B 248

Marshall, A. L 399

Martin, Rachel D 414

Matthew, James D 332

Mayreis, Conrad 314

McCabe, Dr. A. A 500

McCabe, John 159

McCaskill, W. H 583

McClintock, J. W 539

McCormick, A. B 425

McCoy, G. W 344

McCreery, W. T 494

McDannold. J. J 194

McDaunold, T. 1 246

McFarland, R. X 324

McKee, Wm 334

McMaster, R. B 230

McPhail, Angus 536

Mead,A.J .'." 200

Mead, R. II 212

Meat.-. Isaac 459

Merscher, J. W 356

Merz, John 4 Si

Meserve, X. P 563

Meservey, Joseph 297

Meyer, Fred 551

Meyer. F. W 204

Meyer, Henry 535

Meyer, H. C 329

Meyer, II. W 274

Mil'bv, E.T 551

Miller, Aaron 280

Miller, Samuel 592

Mills, R. W.... 253

Milne;-, R 390

Misenhimer, Isaac 515

Mohlmann, W. G 234

Moore, Alex 481

Moore, J. B 278

Moore, S. A 566

Morrell, Wm 434

Morris, J. W 473

Muhlert, Francis 585

Mumford, Wm. X 404

Munroe, Thomas 125

Murphy, J. P 502



CONTEXTS.



N

Neeley, James I^i

Neeley, J. E , 544

Newbold, H. V

Newman, Robl ... 453

N icholson, .1 v .'II

Nieman, ( !. E

Niestradt, II C

Noble A. L 343

Nok.M, S. 1 1 361

Norbury, C. J... 387



Oetgeu. Win 142

Oetgen. II W (55

Orr, I) W

Orwig.J W

Osbom, It. J 370

Owens, I). W 304

P

Parke, J09 544

Parke, Overton 349

Parrott, Thos. P

Parsons, Norman

Patteson, Jonathan ...
Patterson Jas. M i i9

-fj ili

Perry, I : 1 1

Perry, .las 509

Pel iv Wni

Peremger, I. G

Peteflsh, S. II

Pev'ebouse, I. N

Phelps, (Has II

Philippi, P. P

er, C

Pilger, Win 506

P ister, Jeptha 198

Price. F. C 24H

Price, Mrs. Wm 1 JO

Price, Wm. T 305

Prince, F. H . |

Pruett, J. S 167

R

Ranney, B. T 174

Ravenscroft, Mary F 411

Read, Jas. M.... 168

Redman, 15 F

Redfleld, T. M 361

Reeve, S. A J02

Reid Duncan 294

Reno, W. C 563

Rii e, 1 h auncey 163

Rich, Robert 435

Richardson, Geo. E 574

Rickard, P. W 189

Rigg, J. N 287

Rigg, Peter 309

Rink, Anton 295

Hitcbea, George 319

Ritchey, Chas D 546

Ritchey, F. T 601

Ritchey, Jacob 335

Ritter, Henry D 250



Robinson. .IF 181

Robison, Jas. N 172

Rogge, II. II 404

Holm, Caspei 228

Robn, J. Itenry .231

Rohn, Wm ' [83

Rottger, I'. W 179

l.'"'>\ [and, B I Mi4

Rowland, T. .1 510

Runkle, Darius 452

Ryan, Thos 249



S



lidge, John 299

Sands, K E 604

Saunders, Mrs. <

Savage, Henry s 355

Scanland, 8. W 261

Schaad, Andrew 275

Schaar, Theodore 4G()

Schaeffer, C. A 336

Schewe, Wm 569

Schisler, Lewis oi">

Schmitt, lim .1 485

Schmoldt, II. M .182

Schroder, Samuel M 292

II. .J 274

Schultz, lie 1 .

Liz, John 468

LUl 154

- in, \\ 11 172

i: .1 HIT

I IlUl:i~ 139

Scott, T. W 188

Scott, T H 196

Seaman, .1 W 221

LdamP 226

Seckman, Nam \ P 264

ey, K Ho' 184

t, l.e ud 44S

1 lilderoy 444

II, Wm (56

Shafer, Mrs. E 161)

Shank, John 147

Shupe, W. K 331

Bielschott, A. H 177

Six, A. I) 214

Skiles, II. A 518

Skiles, Oswell 375

Mark, N. G 565

Smith, A. .M 362

Smith, I) G 431

11. J. J 495

Smith, T. L 469

Snyder, Geo. E 500

Snyder, J. F 604

Snyder, J. II 397

Snyder, J. W 135

Spencer, J. M 207

Spring, Ebenezer

Stark, Henry 429

Stephens, Daniel 229

Stevenson, Wm 373

Stock, Casper 422

Stout, A. L 532

Stout, F. M 350

Stover, D. Marion 165



Stribling, 1. M 41s

Stutsman, J. S ;■_■.-,

Sutherland, II. 1! 56?

Sutton, Nathan 327

T

Talkemeyer, Wm 459

Taylor, Duncan 192

Taylor, H. W 217

Taylor, Robt 427

Teel, Jas. A 185

Chomas, Peter 447

Thomas, Wm 571

Thompson, AM 301

Thompson, J. D 218

Thron, David 525

Tinney, C. M 368

Treadway, E. N 269

Treadway, W. T 213

Trone, Geo. W 149

Tureman, .1.11 614

Tyson, Wm. T 266

D

I aland, John 284

I'll land, Dr. W. G 591

I iter, G. D 257

V

Van Deventer, J. F 191

Van Deventer, L. J 419

Van Deventer,!'. R 285

Ventres. Henry 347

Velte, Heury 475

W

Wagner, George 388

Wagner, Gregory, Jr 364

Walker, ('. T . .' 300

Walker, D.N 265

Walker, John II 538

Walker, J. S 617

Ward. Win. W 393

Warden, F. A 156

Watkins, Jas. M 224

Watts, Thos. W 463

Way, Wm. A 309

Webb, Allen 542

Webb, John 586

Webb, J. W 487

Weigard, Wm 503

Wellfare, F. E 162

Wells, R 149

Wetzel, John. B 311

Whetstone, Marcus 462

Wier, Geo. II 598

Wight, Jesse 308

Williams, G. W 247

Williams, P. S 420

Williams, R. E 501

Williams, T.R 207

Wilson, B. R 613

Wilson, D. D 276

Wilson, Geo. W. & F. M 619

Wilson, Jas. M 613



CONTENTS.



Wilson, Thos 293

Wilson, Wm. B 613

Winhold, F 596

Witte, Henry F 251

Wood, Wm 489



Wright, S. G 492

Wyatt, W. M 408

Y

Young. Mrs. Almira 543

Young, J. A 'i'-W



Z

Zaun Henry 550

Zirnmer, Lewis, Sr 573

Zimmer, Lewis, .Ir .V.)7

Zimmerman, Geo. W 440

Zimmerman. Jacob 389




C, FORGE WASHINGTON.





EORGE WASH INC.
TON', the •• Father of
his Country" and its
first President,
'97, was born Febru-
ary 22, I732, ill Wis)).

V "* ington Parish, West-
moreland C o u 11 1 v, Virginia.
His father, Augustine Wash-
ington, firsl married Jane But-
ler, who bore him four chil-
dren, and March 6, 1730, he
married Mary Ball. Ol six
children by his second mar-
George was the eldest,
the others being Bettv, Samuel, John, Au-
gustine, Charles and Mildred, ol whom the
youngest died in infancy. Little is known
of the early years of Washington, beyond
the fact that the house in which he was
born was burned during his early child-
hood, and that his father thereupon moved
to another farm, inherited from hi^ paternal
ancestors, situated in Stafford County, on
the north bank of the Rappahannock, where
he acted as agent of the Principio Iron
Works in the immediate vicinity, and died
there in 1743.

From earliest childhood George devel-
oped a noble character. He had a vigorous
Constitution, a fine form, and great bodily
strength. His education was somewhat de-



tective, being confined to the elementary
branches taught him by his mother and at
a neighboring school. He developed, how-
ever, a fondness for mathematics, and en-
joyed in that branch the instructions of a
private teacher. On leaving school he re-
sided for some time at Mount Vernon with
his half brother, Lawrence, who acted as
his guardian, and who had married a daugh-
ter of his neighbor at Belvoir on the Poto-
mac, the wealthy William Fairfax, for some
time president of the executive council of
the colony. Both Fairfax and his son-in-law,
Lawrence Washington, had served with dis-
tinction in 1740 as officers of an American
battalion at the siege of Carthagena, and
were friends and correspondents of Admiral
Vernon, for whom the latter's residence on
the Potomac has been named. George's
inclinations were for a similar career, and a
midshipman's warrant was procured for
him, probably through the influence of the
Admiral ; but through the opposition of his
mother the project was abandoned. The
family connection with the Fairfaxes, how-
ever, opened another career for the young
man, who, at the age of sixteen, was ap-
pointed surveyor to the immense estates of
the eccentric Lord Fairfax, who was then
on a visit at Belvoir, and who shortly after-
ward established his baronial residence at
Greenway Court, in the Shenandoah Valley.



PRESIDENTS OE THE UNITED STATES.



Three years were passed bv young Wash-
ington in a rough frontier life, gaining ex-
perience which afterward proved very es-
sential to him.

In 1 75 1, when the Virginia militia were
put under training wiih a view to active
service against France, Washington, though
only nineteen years of age, was appointed
Adjutant with the rank of Major. In Sep-
tember of that year the failing health of
Lawrence Washington rendered it neces-
sary for him to seek a warmer climate, and
Ge >rge accompanied him in a voyage to
Bai ladoes. They returned early in 1752,
and Lawrence shortly afterward died, leav-
ing In 5 large property to an infant daughter.
In his will George was named one of the
executors and as eventual heir to Mount
Vernon, and by the death of the infant niece
soon succeeded to that estate.

On the arrival of Robert Dinwiddie as
Lieutenant-Governor of Virginia in 1752
the militia was reorganized, and the prov-
ince divided into four districts. Washing-
ton was commissioned by Dinwiddie Adju-
tant-General of the Northern District in
1753, and in November of that year a most
important as well as hazardous mission was
assigned him. This was to proceed to the
Canadian posts recently established on
French Creek, near Lake Erie, to demand
in the name of the King of England the
withdrawal of the French from a territory
claimed by Virginia. This enterprise had
been declined by more than one officer,
since it involved a journey through an ex-
tensive and almost unexplored wilderness
in the occupancy of savage Indian tribes,
either hostile to the English, or of doubtful
attachment. Major Washington, however,
accepted the commission with alacrity ; and,
accompanied by Captain Gist, he reached
Fort Le Boeuf on French Creek, delivered
his dispatches and received reply, which, of
course, was a polite refusal to surrender the
posts. This reply was of such a character



as to induce the Assembly of Virginia to
authorize the executive to raise a regiment
of 300 men for the purpose of maintaining
the asserted rights of the British crown
over the territory claimed. As Washing-
ton declined to be a candidate for that post,
the command of this regiment was given to
Colonel Joshua Fry, and Major Washing-
ton, at his own request, was commissioned
Lieutenant-Colonel. On the march to Ohio,
news was received that a party previously
sent to build a fort at the confluence of the
Monongahela with the Ohio had been
driven back by a considerable French force,
which had completed the work there be-
gun, and named it Fort Duquesne, in honor
of the Marquis Duquesne, then Governor
of Canada. This was the beginning of the
great " French and Indian war," which con-
tinued seven years. On the death of Colonel
Fry, Washington succeeded to the com-
mand of the regiment, and so well did he
fulfill his trust that the Virginia Assembly
commissioned him as Commander-in-Chief
of all the forces raised in the colony.

A cessation of all Indian hostility on the
frontier having followed the expulsion of
the French from the Ohio, the object of
Washington was accomplished and he re-
signed his commission as Commander-in-
Chief of the Virginia forces. He then pro-
ceeded to Williamsburg to take his seat in
the General Assembly, of which he had
been elected a member.

January 17, 1759, Washington married
Mrs. Martha (Dandridge) Custis, a young
and beautiful widow of great wealth, and de-
voted himself for the ensuing fifteen years
to the quiet pursuits of agriculture, inter-
rupted only bv his annual attendance in
winter upon the Colonial Legislature at
Williamsburg, until summoned by his
country to enter upon that other arena in
which his fame was to become world wide.

It is unnecessary here to trace the details
of the struggle upon the question ol local



CEORC.E WASHINGTON.



self-government, which, after ten years, cul-
minated by act of Parliament of the port of
Boston. It was at the instance of Virginia
that a congress of all the colonies was called
to meet at Philadelphia Septembers, 1774,
tosecure their common liberties — if possible
by peaceful means. I" this Congress
Colonel Washington was sent as a dele-
gate. On dissolving in October, it recom-
1111 ruled the colonies to send deputies to
another Congress the following spring. In
the meantime several of the colonies felt
impelled to raise local forces to repel in-
sults and aggressions on the pari "I British
troops, so that on the assembling of the next
Congress, May to, 1775, the war prepara-
tions of the motliei' country were unmis-
takable. The battles ol Concord and Lex-
ington had been fought. Among the earliest
acts, therefore, of the Congress was the
selection of a commander-in-chief of the
colonial lurces. This office was unani-
mously conferred upon Washington, still a
member of the Congress, lie accepted it
on June 19, but on the express condition he
should receive n<> salary.

He immediately repaired to the vicinity
of Boston, against which point the British
ministry had concentrated their forces. As
early as April General Gage had 3,000
troops in and around this proscribed city.
During the fall and winter the British policy
clearly indicated a purpose to divide pub-
lic sentiment and to build up a British party
in the colonies. Those who sided with the
ministry were stigmatized by the patriots
as " Tories," while the patriots took to them-
selves the name of " Whigs."

As early as 1776 the leading men had
come to the conclusion that there was no
hope except in separation and indepen-
dence. In May of that year Washington
wrote from the head of the army in New
York: "A reconciliation with Great Brit-
ain is impossible When I took

command of the army, I abhorred the idea



of independence; but I am now fully satis-
fied that nothing else will save us."

It is not the object of this sketch to trace
the military acts of the patriot hero, to
whose hands the fortunes and liberties of
the United States were confided during the
seven years' bloody struggle that ensued
until the treaty of 1783, in which England
acknowledged the independence of each of
the thirteen States, and negotiated with
them, jointly, as separate sovereignties. The
merits of Washington as a military chief-
tain have been considerably discussed, espe-
cially by writers in his own country. Dur-
ing the war he was most bitterly assailed
for incompetency, and great efforts were
made to displace him ; but he never for a
moment lost the confidence of either the
Congress or the people. December 4, 1783,
the great commander took leave of his offi-
cers in most affectionate and patriotic terms,
and went to Annapolis, Maryland, where
the Congress of the States was in session,
and to that body, when peace and order
prevailed everywhere, resigned his com-
mission and retired to Mount Vernon.

It was in 1788 that Washington was called
to the chief magistracy of the nation. He
received every electoral vote cast in all the
colleges of the States voting for the office
of President. The 4th of March, 1789, was
the time appointed for the Government of
the United States to begin its operations,
but several weeks elapsed before quorums
of both the newly constituted houses of the
Congress were assembled. The city of New
York was the place where the Congress
then met. April 16 Washington left his
home to enter upon the discharge of his
new duties. He set out with a purpose of
traveling privately, and without attracting
any oublic attention ; but this was impossi-
ble. Everywhere on his way he was met
with thronging crowds, eager to see the
man whom they regarded as the chief de-
fender of their liberties, and everywhere



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES.



he was hailed with those public manifesta-
tions of joy, regard and love which spring
spontaneously from the hearts of an affec-
tionate and grateful people. His reception
in New York was marked by a grandeur
and an enthusiasm never before witnessed
in that metropolis. The inauguration took
place April 30, in the presence of an immense
multitude which had assembled to witness
the new and imposing ceremony. The oath
of office was administered by Robert R.
Livingston, Chancellor of the State. When
this sacred pledge was given, he retired
with the other officials into the Senate
chamber, where he delivered his inaugural
address to both houses of the newly con-
stituted Congress in joint assembly.

In the manifold details of his civil ad-
ministration, Washington proved himself
equal to the requirements of his position.
The greater portion of the first session of
the first Congress was occupied in passing
the necessary statutes for putting the new j
organization into complete operation. In
the discussions brought up in the course of
this legislation the nature and character of
the new system came under general review.
On no one of them did any decided antago-
nism of opinion arise. All held it to be a
limited government, clothed only with spe-
cific powers conferred by delegation from
the States. There was no change in the
name of the legislative department ; it still
remained " the Congress of the United
States of America." There was no change
in the original flag of the country, and none
in the seal, which still remains with the
Grecian escutcheon borne by the eagle,
with other emblems, under the great and
expressive motto, " E Pluribus Unum"

The first division of parties arose upon
the manner of construing the powers dele-
gated, and they were first styled " strict
constructionists" and " latitudinarian con-
structionists." The former were for con-
fining the action of the Government strictly



within its specific and limited sphere, while
the others were for enlarging its powers by
inference and implication. Hamilton and
Jefferson, both members of the first cabinet-
were regarded as the chief leaders, respect
ively, of these rising antagonistic parties
which have existed, under different names
from that day to this. Washington n-as re-
garded as holding a neutral position between
them, though, by mature deliberation, he
vetoed the first apportionment bill, in 1790,
passed by the party headed by Hamilton,
which was based upon a principle construct-
ively leading to centralization or consoli-



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