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main denuded of hair.



INFLAMMATION UNDISCOVERABLE

would not be so common, if people would only
take the trouble to read over quietly the dif-
ferent inflammations in the stable, in presence
of their horse when reported sick ; yet some,
who do take that trouble, are often in such a
fright, if the horse is valuable, or in such a
hurry, that they fail in catching the symptoms
indicative of the part affected.

If the lungs are the seat — the purple nos-
tril ; the stiff fixed standing, with the forelegs
rather apart ; and the deathly claylike coldness
of the ears and legs, are the principal distin-
guishing signs.

If the bowels — the redness of the eyelids,
when turned down ; the lying down and get-
ting up again ; and coldness of the ears and legs.

If the liver — There will be yellowness about
the eyes, added to the other symptoms of in-
flammation of the bowels : and if you here make
a mistake, the treatment for this will possibly
cure the other, although, of course, not so well,
nor so safely, as purging is dangerous when the
bowels are the seat.



INFLAMMATION UNDISCOVERABLE. 255

If the kidneys — the stradling of the hind
legs, and shrinking on pressing the loins.

If the feet — they are hot, instead of cold;
the muzzle often resting on them when lying
down, and the great disinclination to stand.

The note at the bottom of the page, how-
ever, ought to serve as a guide and warning,
to convince yourself that inflammation really
does exist in some part before you commence
to cure.*

* A horse that had been for some months having only very
gentle exercise^, was taken out and galloped after a hog.
On return to his stall, he immediately lay down. The
alarmed master, without feeling the pulse or asking any
body's opinion, took five quarts of blood. The poor animal
not being much refreshed by this, a friend recommended
he should be clystered and physicked. The horse, after
this, getting more " gureeb" still, they both allowed that it
was a most extraordinary case, but that, as he appeared so
near dead, bleeding again could not do harm, if it did not
do good. At this stage, as I lived close by, my advice
was solicited. I had seen the horse on his first return ; his
case was plain enough — a little overgalloped when not in
wind, and brought home hot. Out of pity for the poor
brute, I undertook to do all I could, saying, I had a
bottle of Elixir lately sent me from London, just adapted
for these obscure cases. I then mixed some sawdust, red-
ink, and blue-paint, in a quart of sour claret for the master
to smell at, and putting the sufferer, half-dead from treat-
ment, into a loose open stall, with a large soft bed, washed
his mouth out with the Elixir of warm water, and left



256 TREATMENT OF DISEASES,



CLASS VII.

RED URINE,

in India, must be considered as arising more
from some little derangement in the digestive
functions, than as a primary disease of the kid-
neys ; and what would alarm in England, is here
allowed to pass almost unnoticed. The native
remedy is ghoor and ginger, six drachms of each,
mixed, and given daily, for three days ; and if the
pulse is not increased beyond its natural stand-
ard, half of this may be tried. If there is
too much excitement, a pint of the dhye (sour
milk) sweetened with a small lump of ghoor,
and given every morning, would be preferable.
Some boiled food, with a little bran mash, and
dried green grass, or lucern, should never be
forgotten.

Red urine, as a disease of the kidneys, or from
inflammation, must be treated of separately.

him with a little green grass till the following morning.
The horse survived; and the owner gave me a gold mohar
for a pint of the mixture ; and his hunter, from henceforth,
went by the name of, Impostor.



257



BURSANTEE.



Various are the remedies that have been
employed for this disease, and it is rather un-
consolatory to find, that no veterinary surgeon,
at either of the Presidencies, has yet con-
descended to favour the public with a paper
on the subject. If, then, we are to be doomed
to grope out a cure ourselves, I cannot too
soon add my ideas to those of other amateurs,
who have already written for our benefit in the
"Sporting Magazine;" such recommending the
madar, blue vitriol, &c.

In accordance with its name, the months of
June, July, August, and September, generally
the two middle ones, are the periods at which this
disease breaks out. The worst cases are always
low, damp, and "feverish," situations. It rarely
occurs in a bad form in the Deccan ; a dry
" liverish" climate, like this, is one of the most
effectual ingredients in the cure. When a horse
is predisposed to break out with bursantee, and
it happens to be at an unfavorable station, and
he is at the same time neglected, the usefulness
of the animal is then destroyed for seven or
eight months, and he will too often retain the
scars, and loss of hair, for ever. It being my opi-

s



258 TREATMENT OF DISEASES.

nion, that the cause lies in a constitutional pre-
disposition, which cannot be discovered till the
complaint appears, and the only likely safeguard,
against its breaking out severely, being a dry
climate, I shall proceed to recommend a trial
of that which in most cases will be found to
expedite the cure. On the first appearance of
the disease give a mild, warm drench of physic, *
consisting of aloes and Epsom salts, with a
drachm of ginger, in rice congee. Three days
after the physic has set, give half of a common
masallah ball daily, for three days, then omit
one day, and commence with two grains of can-
tharides, one drachm of ginger, one drachm of
gentian, or chrecate, and one drachm of anise-seed,
in a ball ; this to be given every evening, after
the last seven o'clock feed. After six days
increase the cantharides to four grains, and after
twelve days, to six grains. After eighteen days,
if the appetite improves, increase the cantharides
to eight grains. After twenty-four days, discon-
tinue the ball altogether for three days, and then
commence again with the first quantity of only
two grains, increasing to the second, as before,
and so on through the whole monsoon. The
food during this time, whether the horse is fat
or thin, is to be boiled sago, boiled barley,

* See '' Physicking/' p. 89.



BURSANTEE. 259

boiled oorucl and sheeps' heads, — try everything*
to induce him to eat the sheeps' heads, or in
default, any strong meat broth, — and the more
black salt he will willingly eat with his grain
and bran mash the better.

If the horse is gross, and unable to take much
exercise, from the largeness of the sores or swell-
ing of the limbs, still liberal (not over) feeding
on this kind of diet cannot be dispensed with :
you must muzzle occasionally at night. Lucern
and green grass, cut the day before, I am also
friendly to in small quantities. Keeping the
horse in a dry loose stall, well littered at night-
time, is of course to be remembered, and as
much walking, or gentle trotting exercise should
be given, morning and evening, as possible, for
w^hich you may as well take off the shoes. The
external application for the sores (and to apply
which, you should endeavour to obtain the as-
sistance of a clever native farrier) is the native
poultice : —

Seem ke putta, as much as the size of an o^gg.
Chitrawal ke putta, ditto.

Vikmar, as much as two peas, or two gram.
Fulkeree, a quarter of a rupee weight.

When the sores are small, four tea-spoonsful
of the koorkum-ketail, half a tea-spoonful of

s 2



260 TREATMENT OF DISEASES.

finely-powdered blue-stone, and half a one of
alum, all mixed, will frequently dry them up.
As a preventative for the ensuing monsoon, I
should recommend the same treatment to be
commenced with on the 1st of May, and carried
on to the 1st of July, but not increasing to the
eight grains of cantharides, unless some symp-
toms of breaking out again show themselves,
in which case you may gradually go up to ten
grains. The cure, of course, consists in eradi-
cating all tendency to the disease from the con-
stitution, as the sores would generally heal of
themselves by October or November. Many
persons are advocates for the application of the
hot iron, or the caustic madar, to the sores,
and giving large doses, internally, of blue vi-
triol in solution. It is not for me to say any-
thing against this treatment in severe cases
to those who understand how to use these re-
medies^ but there is no more analogy between
bursantee and farcy than there is between a
common cold and glanders.



261



WARRANTING.

Caveat Emptor, at p. 253, says, " It is known
that horses have secret maladies, which cannot
be discovered by the usual trials and inspections ;
therefore the buyer requires a Warranty of
Soundness, to guard against such latent defects."
I have taken the liberty of extracting a great
deal of the language, that follows, down to the
line at p. 178, finishing with the words "know-
ledge of the seller," from the above author, and
converting the same to my own purpose ; for
which plagiarism I offer every apology. The ar-
guments and recommendations, however, in va-
rious parts of " Caveat Emptor," in support of
Warranty, are not exactly applicable to India,
nor can I agree with them even for England,
being opposed to warranty in every shape; so,
with all due deference to the ability and the
pleasantry displayed in the writings of that
author, I am about to advise you to swamp
all warranty, for these reasons : —



262 WARRANTING.

1st. If you sell a horse to-day that either has
a slight cold on him, or catches one during the
time of sale, and that cold, from improper ma-
nagement or neglect, degenerates into a chronic
cough, the purchaser may, perhaps, declare
he had a chronic cough on him at the time of
sale, and bring evidence to prove the horse
coughed the minute he came out of your hands,
and has coughed every day since : if warranted,
in law you might be liable, and have to take
him back.

2nd. If you sell a horse, that should die
two months afterwards of chronic diseased
lungs, and a veterinary surgeon was to declare,
from appearances on dissection, that the horse
must have been diseased for a period of three
months, and, consequently, must have been so
at the time of selling: if warranted, in law
you might be liable, and have to refund the
money.

3rd. If you sell a horse that, four or ^ye
months previously, had put out his hip, strained
his shoulder or back sinews, or had been lame
from navicular disease ; and a fortnight or so
after purchase, he again puts out his hip, strains
his shoulder, or back sinews, or becomes lame
again from navicular disease : if warranted, in



WARRANTING. 263

law you might be liable, and have to receive
him back.

Caveat Emptor, p. 804, quoting from Lord
Ellenborough says : " I have always held, and now
hold, that a warranty of soundness is broken,
if the animal at the time of sale had any in-
firmity upon him which rendered him less fit
for present service."

1st. Again, if you sell a horse perfectly fresh
and unblemished, and that horse, a week after-
wards, throws out a spavin : if warranted, in
law you might be liable, and have to receive
him back.

2nd. If you sell a horse perfectly fresh and
unblemished, and that horse, a month after-
wards, becomes blind from ophthalmia ; and the
purchaser proves that the sire and dam of that
horse were blind from that cause, it is an he-
reditary disease : if warranted, in law you might
be liable, and have to receive him back.

Caveat Emptor, p. 313. " Where, however,
the proof of pedigree and hereditary disease are
both accessible, it seems clear that a constitu-
tional taint is unsoundness."

From the foregoing two sets of examples,
with the quotations from law at the bottom of
each, and which have been brought to bear on



264 WARRANTING.

exactly similar questions, you may judge of the
difficulties you might occasionally be placed in,
as a seller, by warranting. I have used the
w^ord might throughout them all, nothing regard-
ing horseflesh in law being positively certain, for
so much depends on particular circumstances.
Unsoundness itself is sometimes sufficient to
break a warranty ; at other times there must
have been knowledge of the unsoundness. Most
cases are questions for the jury, rather than
of law. No legal contract can be founded on
fraud, and wilful deception amounts in law to
fraud. This is plain enough; yet, if you take
your case to law, the chances are always nearly
equal, whether it will be decided for or against
you ; " not from any defect in the law, but
because both buyer and seller have ahvays proofs
of the shameful transaction."

Suppose you gain your cause : if you have
been a seller, your horse may be returned to
you half-ruined ; and if you have been a pur-
chaser, you are always bound to return a horse
in as good a state as he was when taken from
the seller's hands. Here is a second affair that
may upset your first, and cost you another large
sum. Avoid law, if possible, and never enter
into any discussion : " your character, if you



WARRANTING. 265

have any, will not be enhanced by embroiling
yourself in a quarrel with a cheat ;" but in order
to prevent disputes, as well as litigation, never
warrant, nor ask for a warranty. Do not com-
mit yourself either, by saying, " He is sound
as far as I know:" this is a qualified warranty,
and the purchaser may maintain assumpsit upon
it, " if he can show the horse was unsound to
the knowledge of the seller." Such might be
fair in some cases, but very unfair in others,
and it might lead to great disputes ; for every
man who really knows a horse, must be fully
aware there are not ten in every hundred that
can strictly, professionally, and legally, be called
sound. This, therefore, should be your only

warranty : — " There 's my horse, his price is

rupees, ready coin ; you take him with all faults
and diseases ; I allow you a quarter of an hour's
inspection, and I will send him over when you
send the money." There are even objections
to allowing a man to try your horse. A friend
of mine had a chestnut Arab for sale. A pur-
chaser called to inspect him ; he appeared to
suit ; was sound, wind and limb ; fresh, unscar-
red, and four years old ; price 1200 rupees. " I
like him much," said the purchaser ; " might I
throw my leg over him?" "Yes," said my



266 WARRANTING.

friend, "ride up and down here as long as you
wish, in my presence." He mounted; walked,
trotted, and cantered ; the action was good in
every respect. You imagine, perhaps, the horse
was sold. No, he now discovers two objections ;
he did not want a chestnut, he wanted a grey ;
and he did not like to go to so high a price as
1200 rupees. The chap ought to have been
forced to take him. I wonder how an imposition
of this kind would be decided at law? If fifty
heavy men were to play this trick on a slight
blood Arab, his action, of course, would be none
the better for it.

Having recommended you, as a seller, never
to warrant, and consequently, in equal fairness,
as a buyer, never to ask for a warranty, there is
the greater reason in the latter case for you to
proceed with caution, and if distrustful of your
own judgment, to have a friend with you.
When, therefore, ahorse is brought out for in-
spection, if the appearance, figure, limbs, &c. do
not satisfy, make your conge, but do not abuse
another man's property when at sale. If you are
pleased, and fully certain that it is a horse you
want ; that the colour and price will suit, and
that you have got the money ready to pay, take
ten minutes' examination, or allow your friend



WARRANTING. 267

to do it for you, then solicit five minutes for a
walk, trot, and canter; in a quarter of an hour
let your decision be final : if undisturbed by the
owner, this is ample. In England the case is
different ; there it is always advisable for an
inexperienced person to have a new purchase
submitted to a veterinary surgeon besides, for a
couple of hours, a day, or two days, as he may
think necessary. Half a guinea is all you have
to pay, and this, with your own, or your friend's
eyes, to boot, is abundance of warranty. Some
persons, however, expect too much from a veteri-
nary surgeon. A professional man can only tell
you of any disease or remains of disease, or fault
in the build, which is likely to produce disease
or strain. He cannot tell you, merely by look-
ing, if a horse is subject to gripes, rheumatism,
or inflammation, unless some outward sign or
symptom remain. He cannot tell you if a horse
has ever been sprained, unless there is enlarge-
ment, mark as of blister, or something externally
to denote it. He cannot say either if one horse
is more liable to become blind, throw out a
curb, spavin, or splent, than another, unless
there is some visible sign or malformation, or
he knows the sire and dam, or grand sire and
dam, had these defects ; and then he may say,



268 WARRANTING.

" These diseases being often hereditary, or this
build being faulty, they are more liable to occur
in your horse." Beyond this, no uninspired ve-
terinary surgeon can caution you. When a re-
cruit presents himself before the surgeon of the
regiment, on enlisting, do you suppose the sur-
geon could tell if he had fever last year, or
sprained his leg last year, unless some evident
weakness or enlargement remained? How can
he tell if he is subject to gripes ?

Buying a horse blind in both eyes, it is said
you cannot return him as unsound. Caveat Emp-
tor, p. 274. " But it has been held that a war-
ranty against visible defects is bad in law, the
purchaser being expected not only to possess
ordinary skill, but to exhibit ordinary precau-
tion." But a large splent extending on to the
back sinews, a large spavin, large curb, or con-
tracted, foundered foot, anchylosed pastern-joints,
are all as visible defects as blind eyes : they are
palpable defects, yet they constitute unsoundness :
but " law is law."

Much has been said against dealers in Eng-
land, and dealers in India too. I have seen
some black tricks in both countries ; notwith-
standing, I think, in the long run, dealers are as
much sinned against as sinning. In either coun-



WARRANTING. 269

try, every man is bound to be wide awake, or,
as the judge says, expected, not only to possess
ordinary skill, but to exhibit ordinary precau-
tion ; and experience tells me to trust a dealer
quite as soon as a gentleman.*

Every novice in horseflesh is satisfied with his
new hobby for a week. A horse, however badly
bred, or faultily built, if only in good external
condition, will always catch his eye before a
thin one ; and bog-spavins, thorough-pins, capped
hocks, and windgalls, as well as the round shank-
bones and dents, are all less likely to be taken
notice of when the nag is in plump order ; many
having a bone-spavin, a contracted long foot, or
founder, have I seen pass through three or four
hands, each new possessor alike unconscious
of anything wrong : these treasures, whether

* Addison's definition of the word gentleman is " a term of
complaisance, sometimes ironical." And gentlemen, and passers
for gentlemen, are as often mystically mixed up together in one
house, as thorough-breds and passers for thorough-breds are in
the same stable.

At a dinner-party of eight, some few years ago, the con-
versation turning upon horse-flesh, I happened to let fall my
ideas of the little general honesty existing in any part of the
civilized world, i,n selling a horse. My vis-d-vis exclaimed,
"^ Impossible ! no gentleman would ever attempt to pass off an
unsound horse." Five more of the party chimed in to this most



270 WARRANTING.

latent or patent, not being always discovered
till the horse is hunted, or suddenly becomes
lame. Kind Griffins, then, for whom this volume
is chiefly written, I most fully exonerate, and
acquit you of the charge of intentionally deceiv-
ing; yet, for reflecting on your judgment, and

creditable speech, so well calculated to delude the unwary,
leaving only one of the same opinion, or, rather, who acknow-
ledged the same opinion, as myself. Clearly seeing that I had
got into company with either knaves or fools, most probably
a little of both, I thought more nourishment was to be gained
at this house for the body by drinking, than for the mind by
talking, so I allowed the subject to drop. Three months had not
elapsed, when my vis-a-vis, the " impossible " gentleman, asked
me to look at a horse of his that had been sprained, and blis-
tered, but was still lame. The horse had a ringbone on one
pastern, besides something else internally wrong in the foot of
the other, arising, most probably, from concussion; so I pro-
nounced him incurable under eight months, — very probably, not
then, "What shall I do?" said he. ''Write on half a sheet
of paper," I replied, '^ that the horse has been lame for two
months — is thought to be incurable — and that he is in the
market for sale." The man burst out laughing. He after-
wards tried to get rid of him, but failed ; for I took especial care
that none of my acquaintance should be deceived by such an
apostate as this. He then sent him to a dealer, who refused
to sell him as sound. At last, he handed him over to a friend
to dispose of, from whom he received nearly the full amount of
his original cost. I did not discover the unlucky wight that was
imposed upon ; but, fancy this hypocrite crying out, " Impossi-
ble I" Here lies the honest distinction between a man wanting
to buy, and one wanting to sell.



WARRANTING.



271



for daring to assert, tliat if you want knowledge
you must begin with " Blunt Spurs," I know you
would like to see me " regularly bitten." Friends,
impose upon me with every fault and infirmity
the horse is subject to ; from the day this book
issues from the press, I know I must be consi-
dered fair game ; but if you have the slightest
compassion for a man who has endeavoured to
save your limbs, as well as your money, I implore
you, never ask me to buy



A CHEAP HORSE.








SHARP SPURS HAVE FINISHED HIM.



272



Always on hand, for sale, at

MR. GREEN'S REPOSITORY,

Bombay Bomb Proof.

RUPEES.

A good horse ..... 400

A very good horse . . . . . 500

A superior horse ..... 600

A very superior horse . . . . . 700

A first-rate hunter ..... 800

A very handsome horse . . . . . 900

A superb horse, carrying a magnificent head and tail . 1000
A perfectly fresh officer's charger . . .1100

A high caste, five-year old horse, without any blemish . 1200

A racer . . . . . . . 1300

A handsome racer ..... 1400

A three mile welterer . . . . . 1500



273



It was my original intention to have sent
this Treatise forth with a brief exposition of
every complaint and accident the horse is
subject to, which I had divided into thirty-
five classes, under a hundred and fifty heads,
but at present I am prevented doing so : at
some future period these may possibly be added.
On the request of an old acquaintance, not to
fail to subjoin a few lines on red urine, and
bursantee, I have dwelt a little on these two
diseases, though out of their place.

I have now to acknowledge my thanks to
Professors Spooner and Morton, of the Royal
Veterinary College, for their very great kind-
ness in perusing the foregoing before publica-
tion ; Mr. Morton has, also, most obligingly
undertaken the trouble of seeing the whole
through the press for me ; and if there are
any little points not in strict accordance with
the views of these scientific gentlemen, they
are, perhaps, of no great importance. I can,
however, assure you my manuscript received
due praise, especially for the forcible expound-
ing and illustration of the Foot and Heel ; and
I therefore am entitled to expect the work will
soon realize me half a fortune ; in order to



274

succeed in which, I am about to change half
my name. In conclusion then, critical gentle-
men, I respectfully caution you to " Ware
Name," * and if you do not liberally patronize
these pages, drawn out by the head of Blunt
Spurs, you may yet get punished with a heel,
and be brought to the ground by

SHARP SPURS.

* " Ware horse/' I suppose, you know, is the caution
given in England to the bystanders, when a horse is brought
out for sale.



THE END.



LONDON :

PRINTED BV S. & J. BKNTLEV, WILSON, AND FLEV,

Bangor House, Sboe Lane.



The Reader is requested to correct with a pen the following
ERRATA.

PAGE

xii, 257, 259, 260, and 273,/br bursantee, 7-ead bursautee.


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