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Courses of study for the Los Angeles city high and intermediate schools, 1912-1913 online

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our own poultry yards, and excursions to other yards, shows
and markets.

Scope:
Bll, All:

This term is devoted to the study of incubation, breeding,
feeding, housing and the preparation for market; anatomy,
caponizing, disease identification, planning and constructing
houses, coops, yards.



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134 Los Angeles City High Schools

Physiology:
Purpose:

To give the pupil a knowledge of himself which will enable
him to secure and maintain the highest degree of health and
efficiency and to promote the same among his fellows; to
study man in his relation to his biological environment, and
at the same time, by means of laboratory work, to furnish
a special educational training now gained from other natural
science subjects; to introduce the pupil to the problems with
which the human machine has to deal; and by laboratory
experiments, recitations, lectures and . special investigation
to assist the student to a thorough understanding of the
problems and their solution.

Method:

Five periods a week are devoted to the subject, one-third
of the time being spent in laboratory work and special in-
vestigation; the remaining two-thirds, to recitation, lecture,
and discussion.

During the year excursions are made to study the various
problems of health and sanitation in the city. Every effort
is put forth to make the work apply directly to the individual
and his surroundings.

Scope:

The first half year is devoted to a study of the anatomy
and physiology as a whole, including the following subjects:

(a) Histology study-brief, (b) General anatomy of the
body, (c) Chemistry of living matter, (d) Digestion and
absorption, (e) Nutrition, (f) Circulation, (g) Respiration,
(h) Excretion.

The second half year. Some time is spent on the nervous
system before proceeding to Hygiene.

(a) Sense organs and sensation, (b) Nervous system,
(c) Personal hygiene with special reference to exercises,
food, rest, bathing, colthing. (d) Domestic hygiene and sani-
tation with special reference to the immediate environment
of the individual, (e) Public health and sanitation-protec-
tion, infectious diseases, bacteria, and public supplies.

Physiology (Eighth Grade).

This course is offered in the belief that it is as worth
while to know the structures and function of our bodies as
it is to know any other facts in the world, and that the



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Course of Study 135

knowledge of these facts makes easier the teaching of phys-
ical training, hygiene, and sanitation, the last two of which
are discussed in connection with each topic studied. The
method of presentation is by texts, recitations, and demon-
strations.

The following are the main topics tak^n up; The human
body and its importance; buying, cooking, and caring for
foods, the digestive organs and their work; air, the lungs
and the air passages, the blood, heart and circulation; the
kidneys, the skin, the nervous system, the eyes, ears and
nose; the cells of the body; accidents, bacteria, etc.

Text: "State Primer of Hygiene."

Nature Study and Geography:.
B7, A7:

The aim of this course is to give the student, in addition
to the work outlined elsewhere as geography, an elementary
knowledge of the facts in the world in which he lives. The
method followed is by text, demonstration, and observation.
Short trips are taken about the grounds and elsewhere, for
the study of plants and animals; of soils, land forms, the
effects of erosion; of weather, winds, heat and cold.

The order of the topics in Nature Study depends some-
what on the seasons and the weather; but it alternates with
geography throughout the year.

Text: "Advanced Geography, State Series."

Introductory Science:
B8, A8:

The purpose of this course is to continue the work of the
seventh grade by a more intensive study of natural phenom-
ena, to familiarize the student, in an elementary way, with
plant and animal life, their relations to each other and to
man, and to teach the fundamentals of gardening. The
course is presented by texts, recitations, demonstrations, and
the cultivation of individual gardens and class plots. Par-
ticular attention is given to seed planting, time to plant,
transplanting, how to cultivate, how and when to harvest,
weeds, comparison of varieties, etc.

Text: Hilgard and Osterhout's "Agriculture for Schools
of the Pacific Slope."



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136 Lo8 Angeles City High Schools

SCIENCE

Physiography:
Purpose:

The aim is to present, in an elementary but scientific way,
the fundamental facts, phenomena and laws" connected with
the study of the Earth and its relation to man.

Some of the ends sought are:

1. To implant a love for Nature.

2. To aid the pupil in discovering his natural bent.

3. To present usable information regarding common

things.

4. To develop habits of scientific observation, inquiry,

and reasoning.

5. To prepare for more advanced study in science.

Method:

As in other science courses, experimental work is funda-
mental. Laboratory work, field trips, visits toXJ. S. Weather
Bureau, Chamber of Commerce and other points of interest,
lectures and recitations are means employed in obtaining
results. Also class discussions, and reference book work
are of interest. A carefully kept note book is required of
each pupil, entries into which are made in permanent form
at the time of observation. Each school is well supplied with
illustrative material and apparatus, including models, maps,
weather instruments, stereopticons, etc. A fine and large
collection of slides is being assembled to be used in com-
mon by the dififerent schools.

Recognizing the difficulty of unification of the work
through the school system, and also the demands of local
condition and special objectives of the individual schools, the
following plan will be pursued:

The course is to be given as outlined below. The time
indicated for each topic is the minimum time allowed. An
outline covering the remaining time is to be prepared by
each school, enabling it to meet its local needs.

B9:

1. Universe: Solar system, Earth a planet, Earth's re-

lation to the sun and moon. Time, 2 weeks.

2. Air: Properties and constitution. Time, 2 weeks.

3. Matter and Energy: Heat, electricity, magnetism, and

light. Time, 4 weeks.



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Course of Study 137

4. Water: . Occurrence, composition, contamination,

purification, rain, snow, and etc. Rivers. Time,
2 weeks.

5. Oceans: Extent, soils, movement of water, life, in-

fluence on climate of land, shore lines, harbors,
islands. Time, 3 weeks.

A9:

6. Land Fqrms: Mountains, plateaus, plains, deserts.

Time, 2 weeks.

7. Weather and climate. Time, 2 weeks.

8.. Soils: Soil builders, nature, kinds, soil water, tillage.

Time, 3 weeks.
9. Biology: Plant life, animal life. Time, 4 weeks.
Note: Teachers should obtain the detailed outline of the
course which has been formulated by the committee.

Descriptive Chemistry:

The aim of this course is both scientific and humanitarian.
Its object is to give the pupil a knowledge of the elements
and compounds with which he will have to deal, the laws that
control their inter-action, the causes of growth and decay
in the vegetable and animal world, and the chemical processes
that have contributed so greatly to industrial efficiency and
have so profoundly influenced modern industrial and social
development.

Methods:

The pupil is taught to draw his own conclusions both in
the class-room and laboratory, to appreciate the truth that
knowledge from books must supplement, not antecede, that
obtained from experience. Four periods per week are spent
in the laboratory and three periods in the class-room. The
experiments are performed according to directions given
■cither in the laboratory manual or by the teacher, and each
pupil writes out his observations and deductions in a note-
book. These note-books are carefully corrected by the
teacher, and the faults and merits brought to the attention
of the pupil. The lecture table is used freely to illustrate
topics under discussion, and the work of the laboratory and
text-books are co-ordinated and aniplified by the teacher's
demonstrations. A study of local indus.tries is insisted upon,
and emphasis is placed upon the practical application of
<:hemical work to the life of the pupil and the community.



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138 Los Angeles City High Schools

Scope:

In all college preparatory and industrial courses descrip-
tive chemistry is offered either in the eleventh or the twelfth
year. The outline of the work is as follows:

First Semester:

Introductory study of matter, oxygen, hydrogen, proper-
ties of gases, water, chemical re-action, the atomic theory,
nitrogen and argon group, the atmosphere, solutions, acids,
bases and salts, valence, compounds of nitrogen, chemical
equilibrium, sulphur and its compounds, the periodic law, the
halogens, molecular and atomic weights.

Second Semester:

A study of carbon, carbon compounds, the phosphorus
family, silicon, titanium, boron, the properties of metals, the
alkali metals, the alkaline earths, the magnesium family, the
aluminum family, the iron family, copper, mercury, silver,
tin, lead, manganese, chromium, gold and the platinum family.

Qualitative Analysis:
Purpose:

To enable the student to determine the constituents of
solids and solutions, and to accustom him to the laws that
govern solution and precipitation, to teach him habits of
neatness, perseverance, and accuracy in chemical manipula-
tion.

Methods:

Laboratory work six periods a week, and lectures, quizzes
and recitations two periods per week. Given in the twelfth
year of vocational courses and in the thirteenth year of other
courses.

First Semester:
Scope:

The course consists of: Testing of solutions of known
compounds as a study of characteristic reactions; separation
of groups and members of giroups with distinctive and de-
cisive tests for each member; analyzing of liquid and dry
unknowns and testing for metal elements; precipitation of
acid groups and sub-divisions of each group; testing liquid
and dry unknowns for acid elements or radicals; discussion
of separation of basic and acid groups; tests employed; and
reactions that take place.



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Course of Study 139

Second Semester:

Lectures and recitations on the properties of the metals
and acids two hours per week; laboratory work five hours
per week. The work includes qualitative analysis of un-
knowns, followed by the synthetical preparation of inorganic
salts, bases and acids.

Quantitative Analysis:
Purpose:

The purpose of the work in Quantitative Analysis is to
enable the stiident to become familiar with accurate quanti-
tative methods in gravimetric and volumetric analysis.

Methods:

The work is, of necessity, experimental. It is desired to
make the work as individual as possible, and consequently
great emphasis is placed upon the quiz work in the labora-
tory.

Scope:

First Semester:

Class-room recitations require but one period per week
for twenty weeks, four double periods being given to labora-
tory work.

The class-room discussions include the following topics:
General directions for quantitative work in gravimetric an-
alysis; precision of analytical determinations; laboratory
notes; general directions for volumetric analysis; analytical
determinations made in laboratory and the dissociation
theory as applied to quantitative analysis. Chemical prob-
lems on quantitative analysis are solved.

The laboratory work includes: Determination of Chlo-
rine in Sodium Chloride; determination of Iron and Sulphur
in Ferrous Ammonium Sulphate; determination of Lead,
Copper, and Zinc in Brass; Calibration of pipettes, flasks,
and burettes; preparation of half-normal solutions of Hydro-
-chloric acid and Sodium 'Hydroxide; determination of Alka-
line strength of Soda Ash; determination of acid strength of
Oxalic Acid; determination? of Copper by Titration with
Potassium Cyanide; and determination of Silver by the Thio-
cyanate process.

Second Semester:

Analysis of Coal; the determination of Phosphoric An-
hydride in Apatite; analysis of Limestone; determination of



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140 Lo8 Angeles City High Schools

Silica in Silicates; determination of Iron in Limonite by bi-
chromate process; determination of Iron in Limonite by
permanganate process; determination of Antimony in Tib-
nite; determination of available Chlorine in Bleaching Powder.

Electro Chemistry:
Purpose:

The object of the work is to become acquainted with ele-
mentary electro-chemical theories, with special reference to
electro-chemical measurements and experimental investiga-
tion; to study the industrial electro-chemical processes and
the methods used in investigating electric decomposition.

Methods:

The work is largely experimental, supplemented by class
discussions and recitations.

Scope:

First Semester:

The class-room work includes two single periods per week
for twenty weeks and laboratory work three double periods
per week for twenty weeks.

In the class-room the following topics are considered:
The electron theory; the electron theory as applied to con-
ductors of the first class; its application to electrolytic con-
duction; the dissociation theory and evidences in support of
the same; absolute and relative velocity of ions; conductivity
of electrolytes and methods of measurement of the same;
Faradays law and its applications; theory of the primary
cell; solution tension; the normal electrode and its uses;
methods of measuring potential difference between metals
and their salts and the e.m.f. of various cells; decomposition
and polarization; voltages and measurement of the same;
theory of the secondary cell; study of conditions in secondary
cell; construction of same; study of charge and discharge
curves, care of storage cells; storage cell calculations.

The laboratory experiments include the following: The
principle of Soret; the lowering of the freezing point of
solvents; the elevation of the boiling point of solvents; the
neutralization of acids and bases; experiments in electrolytic
induction; measurement of absolute velocity of hydrogen and
hydroxyl ions; Hittorfs transference numbers; measurement
of conductivity of electrolytes; temperature coefficient of elec-
trolytes; dissociation constant of electrolytes; copper and



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Course of Study 141

silver voltameter and determination of atomic weight of
copper; measurement of e.m.f. of standard cadmium cell using
absolute electrometer; measurement of* e.m.f. of Daniel cells
by use of normal electrode; decomposition and polarization
voltages of normal sulphuric acid, normal caustic soda, acid
and neutral half-normal copper sulphate and fused sodium
nitrate, using smooth and platinized electrodes; experiments
on operation of lead and Edison storage cells.

Electro Chemistry:

Scope:

Second Semester:

In the class-room the following topics are considered:
Energy required in electrolysis and calculation of same; sepa-
ration of metals through adjustment of electrode tension;
important conditions to be noted in electro-chemical opera-
tions; tabulation of data; influence of current density of oxi-
dation and reduction; review work on electrical units; elec-
trical computations; study of electrical measuring apparatus;
sources of current and methods of current regulation; elec-
trolytic production of caustic soda and chlorine from com-
mon salt; electrolytic processes for producing various pig-
ments; preparation of potassium chlorate from potassium
chloride; preparation of sulphur trioxide; production of ozone;
production of nitric acid from the atmosphere; isolation of
the metals sodium and potassium; isolation of the metal alu-
minum; the electrical furnace and furnace products; prepara-
tion of organic compounds; electrolytic' mining of metals;,
electrolytic refining of metals; electroplating; electrotyping.

The laboratory experiments include the following: Quan-
titative analysis of a solution containing copper and silver
by electrolytic separation; preparation of caustic soda and
chlorine from common salt; electrolytic production of white
lead; electrolytic production of Cadmium yellow, electrolytic
production of mercury vermilion; electrolytic preparation
of potassium chlorate from potassium chloride; electrolytic
preparation of sulphur trioxide; electrical production of
ozone; production of Nitric Acid from the atmosphere; Cast-
ner Process of separating sodium from Caustic Soda; Hall's
experimental process for isolating aluminum; manufacture of
Calcium carbide and carborundum; electrolysis of Sodium
Acetate; electrolytic production of sodoform; synthesis of
acetylene; experimental run on refining of Anode copper,
nickel plating; silver plating; experiment showing principle
of electrotyping.



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142 Los Angeles City High Schools

Assaying:
Purpose:

To give the student sufficient training to enable him to do
private assaying or act as an assayer at a mine or smelter.

Methods:

The course is largely laboratory work, practice being
given in sorting, crushing, pulverizing ores, sampling, prepara-
tion of the assay charge, fire assaying, volumetric analysis,
and gravimetric analysis.

Scope:

First Semester:

Fire assays of different kinds of gold and silver ores; fire
assay of lead ores; volumetric assays of copper by the cy-
anide process, and by the iodide process; volumetric assays
of iron by permanganate and bichromate processes; volu-
metric assay of zinc.

Second Semester:

Further practice with gold, silver and copper ores; assay
of tin, nickel, cobalt, chromium, tungsten, antimony, man-
ganese, etc.

Third Semester:

Cyaniding. A study of the ores for cyanide processes;
the chemistry of cyaniding; the testing of ores; the precipi-
tation of gold from' cyanide solution; the treatment of con-
contrates and slimes; the application of electricity to cyanid-
ing.

Organic Chemistry:
Purpose:

To introduce the student to the chemistry of the carbon
compounds and thus lay a foundation for an analysis of
foods, oils and other articles of economic interest.

Method:

Four hours* laboratory practice per week and two hours'
recitations and lectures; given in the thirteenth or fourteenth
year.

Scope:

First Half Year:

A study of the aliphatic series: The monatomic com-
pounds, fractional distillation and the preparation of abso-



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Course of Study 143

lute alcohol, hydro-carbons, halogen compounds, monatomrc
alcohols and ether, aldehydes and ketones, monabasic fatty
acids, derivatives of fatty acids, sulphur compounds, com-
pounds containing nitrogen; the polyatomic compounds; hal-
ogen compounds, polyatomic alcohols and diketones, dibasic
acids, cyanogen and related compounds, urea, and ureids;
polyatomic compounds with mixed functions, carbohydrates,
amino acids and colloids.

Second Half Year:

The aromatic series: Carbocyclic compounds, benzene
hydro-carbons, nitrobenzene and some of its reduction prod-r
ucts, diazonium salts and diazo compounds, agodyes, phenols,
aldehydes and ketones, aromatic acids, naphthalene and an-
thracene, derivatives of this division; heterocyclic com-
pounds, emthyl-phenylpyrazolen, indigo, pyridine quinoline,
and metallo-organic compounds.

Elementary Domestic Chemistry:

This course in Chemistry is designed especially for girls
and its purpose is to train them to be intelligent home-makers.
A general outline of the work by semesters follows:

B9:

Inorganic chemistry.

Physical and chemical changes.

The atmosphere.

Water.

Fuels and illuminants.

The nature of common substances.
A9:

-Simple organic chemistry.

Foods and food values.

Food adulterations.

Soaps.

Clothing— care of textiles.
The time given for laboratory and class work is seven
forty-five minute periods per week. This includes at least
one double laboratory period each week.

Elementary Science (Physics and Chemistry):
Purpose:

It is the purpose of the course to give the pupil a general
bird's-eye view of the sciences under consideration, especially
in the world outside the school-room.



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144 Los Angeles City High Schools

Pupils stopping with this course will leave school knowing
something of the fundamental principles of these two most
important sciences.

The course is above all a study of things as they exist and
not of facts, as stated in books.

One of the first aims of the course is to create within the
pupil a strong desire to know more of the world of science.

Method:

The time devoted to the course is divided between Physics
and Chemistry, the Physics preceding the Chemistry and cov-
ering rather more than half the year.

A limited number of rather simple physical and chemical
experiments, mainly of a qualitative nature, are performed
by each pupil in the laboratory and encouragement is given
to perform other experiments at home. Lecture-table dem-
onstration experiments, liberally supplemented by lantern
slides and other projection apparatus, constitute an important
part of this course. Notes are taken by the pupils on such
experiments and carefully written up for the next recitation.

Mathematics, so far as possible, is eliminated from the
course, and any quantitative experiments attempted, either
on the lecture-table or in the laboratory, are of the simplest
nature. The common sense of the pupil is appealed to in
every possible way. Special attention is paid to the practical
aspects of both subjects, as shown by every day applications
in the household, shop, factory, and world at large, so the
pupil will have no difficulty in recognizing the important part
these sciences have played in the development of modern
civilization.

Scope:

First Semester:

Light: Shadows; nature of light; reflection; refraction; op-
tical instruments; the eye; its defects and how remedied;
color phenomena.

Sound: Character of sound; pitch; quality; loudness; mu-
sical instruments.

Heat: Temperature and scales for its measurement;
kinetic theory; methods of transferring heat; hygrometry;
evaporation; artificial ice, and refrigeration; steam engine;
gasoline engine.

Magnetism and Electricity: Magnetism and permanent
magnets; primary cells; storage cell; electro-magnet, and its



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Course of Study 145

application to bell, telegraph and telephones; measuring in-
struments; motor; dynamo; electric lighting; relative effi-
ciency of different lights; wireless telegraph; "X" Rays; radio-
activity.

Second Semester:

Mechanics: Motion; force; machines and work; pressure
in liquids; pressure in gases; molecular motions and forces.

Elementary Chemistry: Matter and energy; oxygen and
its relation to combustion; air; hydrogen; water; acids, bases
and salts; chemical theories and laws; brief study of important
metals and their compounds; carbon and its compounds briefly
considered; cleansing; bleaching; dyeing; fermentation; sim-
ple tests of water and foods for impurities.

Elementary Physics:
Purpose:

The aim of this course is:

1. To instill a knowledge of the fundamental facts and

principles of the physical world.

2. To apply the knowledge thus obtained to the solu-

tion of the problems of the practical world.

3. To develop the power of the individual in the appli-

cation of reason to the results of experiment, to
the end that truth may be determined.

4. To develop the moral nature of the individual by

inculcating a high regard for truth, and cultivate
accuracy of statement and simplicity in language.

5. To develop the intellectual powers of the mind, and

add to the cultural life of the individual.

Method:

Induction methods are used. The classified results of la-
boratory experiments form the basis from which the general
physical laws are developed. These laws are studied and
applied to practical cases.

Scope:

The course deals with the fundamental phenomena that
lie at the basis of all physical relations, emphasizing only such
details as most readily lend themselves to the elucidation of
underlying principles, and which are of the greatest prac-
tical importance. Twenty experiments are performed each
half year and fully written. Two double laboratory periods
and three recitation periods are allowed for the work.



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146 Los Angeles City High Schools

First Semester:

Fundamental units of measurement; force and motion;


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Online LibraryBoard of Education of the City of Los AngelesCourses of study for the Los Angeles city high and intermediate schools, 1912-1913 → online text (page 10 of 12)