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LIVES of FAMOUS
INDIAN CHIEFS

FROM COFACHIQUI, THE INDIAN PRINCESS, AND

POWHATAN; DOWN TO AND INCLUDING

CHIEF JOSEPH AND GERONIMO.

Also an answer, from the
latest research, of the query,

WHENCE CAME THE INDIAN ?

Together with a number
of thrillingly interesting

INDIAN STORIES AND ANECDOTES FROM HISTORY



COPIOUSLY AND SPLENDIDLY ILLUSTRATED, IN PART,
BY OUR SPECIAL ARTIST.



By
NORMAN B. WOOD

Historian, 1-ecturer, and Autlior of "The White Side of a Black Subject" (out of print after

twelve editions) and "A New Negro for a New Century," which has reached

a circulation of nearly a hundred thousand copies.




PUBLISHED BY

AMERICAN INDIAN HISTORICAL PUBLISHING COMPANY

Brady Block, Aurora, III.



Copyrighted in 1906 by American Indian Historical Publishing Co.,
Aurora, Illinois.



All rights of every kind reserved.




PRINTING AND BINDING BY THE HENRY O. 8HEPARD CO.

ENGRAVING BY THE INLAND-WALTON CO.

CHICAGO.



Dc:n ii no



TO

THEODORE ROOSEVELT,

PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES,

Who has observed closely and recorded justly the
character of the Red Man, and who, in the words
of Chief Quanah Parker, is the " Indian's Presi-
dent as well as the white man's," this volume
is respectfully dedicated by

THE AUTHOR.



CONTENTS



Introduction, .......... 11

CHAPTER I.
( oFACHiQui, The Ixdiax Princess, ...... 21

CHAPTER II.
Powhatan, or Wah-Un-So-Na-Cook, ...... 41

CHAPTER III.
Massasoit, The Friend of the Puritans, ..... 65

CHAPTER IV.

Kixc Philip, or Metacomet, The Last of the Wampanoacs, . 85

CHAPTER V.

PoxTiAc, The Red Napoleon, Head Chief of the Ottawas and

OiicANizER of the First Great Tndian Confederation, . . 121

CHAPTER VI.

Lo(;an, or Tal-Ga-Yee-Ta, The CAYUf;A (Mingo) Chief, Orator
and Friend of the White Man. Also a Brief Sketch of
Cornstalk, . . . . . . . . . . 173

CHAPTER VII.

< 'aptain Joseph Brant, or Thay-En-Da-Ne-Gea, Principal
Sachem of the Mohawks and Head Chief of the Iroquois
Confederation, ....'..... 191

CHAPTER VIII.

Hed Jacket, or Sa-Go-Ye-Wat-Ha, "The Keeper Awake." The

Indian DemOstiienes. Chief of the Senecas, . . . i!37

CHAPTER , IX.

Little Turtle, or Michikiniqua, War Chief of the Miamis, and

Conqueror of Harmar and St. Claiu, ..... -H'.i



viii CONTENTS.

PAGE

CHAPTER X.

Tecxjmseh, or ' ' The Shooting Star, ' ' Famous War-chief of the
Shawnees, Organizer of the Second Great Indian Confed-
eration AND General in the British Army in the War of
1812 317

CHAPTER XI.
Black Hawk, or Ma-Ka-Tai-Me-She-Kia-Kiak, and His War, . 363

CHAPTER XII.

Shabbona, or Built Like a Bear, The White Man 's Friend, a

Celebrated Pottawatomie Chief, ..... 401

CHAPTER XIII.

Sitting Bull, or Tatanka Yotanka, The Great Sioux Chief and

Medicine Man, .......... 443

CHAPTER XIV.

Chief Joseph, of the Nez Perces, or Hin-Mah-Too-Yah-Lat-
Kekt, Thunder Rolling in the Mountains. The Modern
Xenophon, .......... 497

CHAPTER XV.

Geronimo, or Go-Yat-Thlay, The Yawner, The Renowned

Apache Chief and Medicine Man, ..... 529

CHAPTER XVI.

Quanah Parker, Head Chief of the Comanches, With, an
Account of the Captivity of His Mother, Cynthia Anne
Parker, Known as ' ' The White Comanche, " . . . 563

CHAPTER XVTI.
A Sheaf of Good Indian Stories From History, .... 589

CHAPTER XVI 11.
Indian Anecdotes and Incidents, Humorous and Otherwise, . 673

CHAPTER XIX.

When(!E Came the Aborigines op America? .... 721



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



1 Frontispiece.

2 CoFACHiQUi, The Indian Princess,

3 American Horse, 'Sioux Chief,

4 Powhatan, ....

5 Captain Smith and Pocahontas,

6 Pocahontas, or Lady Eebecca,

7 Ope-Chan-Ca-Nough,

8 Massasoit and Pilgrims,

9 Nellie Jumping' Eagle,

10 King Philip, or Metacomet,

11 Philip Eejecting Elliot's Preaching,

12 Pontiac, The Eed Napoleon,

13 Montcalm at Massacre of Quebec,

14 Hollow-Horn Bear, Sioux Chief,

15 Major Campbell and Pontiac,

16 Hollow Horn, ....

17 Starved Rock, ....

18 Logan, The Mingo Orator, .

19 Logan and the Two Hunters,

20 Joseph Brant, Mohawk Chief, .

21 King Hendrick, Mohawk Chief, .

22 Sir William Johnson and the Mohawks,

23 Leading Hawk, .

24 Eed Jacket, Seneca Chief and Orator,

25 Massacre at Wyoming,

26 Corn Planter, Seneca Chief,

27 Adolph Knock and Family,

28 Eed Jacket Presenting Deer,

29 Little Turtle, Miami War-chief,

30 Little Turtle's Warriors Chasing St. Clair's

31 Ouray, Late Principal Chief of Utes,

32 Tecumseh,, The Noblest Indian of Them All,

33 Tecumseh Eebuking Proctor,

34 The Prophet, Brother of Tecumseh,

35 Eed Cloud, Noted Sioux Chief, .

36 Death of Tecumseh, .

37 Black Hawk, Sac and Fox Chief,

38 Buffalo Hunt, ....



Scout



19

29

39

49

59

69

79

89

99

109

119

129

139

149

159

169

179

189

199

209

219

229

239

249

259

269

279

289

299

309

319

329

339

349

359

369

379



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



39 Keokuk, Sac and Fox Chief, ......

40 Shabbona, "The White Man's FpvIend, " Pottawatomie

Chief, ..........

41 Fort Dearborn Massacre, ....

42 Annie Bed Shirt, Indian Beauty,

43 Waubonsie, Pottaavatomie Chief,

44 Plan of Sitting Bull's Tepee, .

45 Sitting Bull, Noted Sioux Chief and Medicine :Man,

46 Sitting Bull's Family, ....

47 Chief Gall, Sioux War-chief,

48 Chief One Bull and Family,

49 Eain-In-The-Face, Noted Sioux Warrior,

50 Sitting Bull's Autograph,

51 Indian Village, ......

52 Chief Joseph, of the Nez Perces, Greatest Indian Sinc

Tecumseh, ......

53 Buckskin Charlie, War-chief of Utes,

54 ' ' Comes Out Holy, ' ' Sioux,

55 Geronimo, Noted Apache Chief and Medicine Man,

56 Group of Apaches, .....

57 Naiche, Apache Chief, . . .

58 QuANAH Parker, Comanche Chief,

59 QuANAH Parker and Two op His Wives,

60 Comanche Indians Stealing Cows,

61 Needle Parker, Indian Beauty,

62 The Mohawk's Last Arrow,

63 Lone Wolf, Orator and Principal Chief op the Kiowas,

64 Kiowa Annie, Noted Indian Beauty, .

65 Se-Quo-Yah, The Cherokee Cadmus, .

66 Big Tree, Second Kiowa Chief, .

67 Satanta, Kiowa Chief and Noted Orator, .

68 Chief Simon Pokagon, Pottawatomie,

69 Dr. Charles A. Eastman, ....

70 Dr. Carlos Montezuma, ....

71 The Last . Shot, ......

72 Chief Charles Journey Cake,

73 Indian Maiden in Japanese Costume, .

74 Japanese Maiden in Indian Costume, .

75 Map Showing How America Was Peopled, .

76 Japanese Man in Garb of Indian,

77 Indian Man in Japanese Garb, .



PAGE

389




INTRODUCTION.

E do not propose to apologize for writing this
hook, for the reasons that those who approve
wowld not consider it necessary and those who
oppose would not accept the apology. Therefore,
we can only oft'er the same explanation as that
made twenty-four centuries ago by the " Father
of History " when he said : "To rescue from oblivion the noble
deeds of those who have gone before, I, Herodotus of Halicar-
nassus, write this chronicle."

We deem it well, however, to mention a few of the many
reasons which impelled us to attempt the somewhat laborious but
congenial task of preparing this work.

First of all, we were gratified and inspired by the kind
reception accorded our first literary venture, " The White Side
of a Black Subject," which is now out of print after reaching
twelve editions. Added to this was the still more generous treat-
ment of our second production, "A New Negro for a New Cen-
tury. ' ' Nearly a hundred thousand copies of this book have been
sold up to date, and the demand is still increasing.

Having done what we could to vindicate the Afro- American,
we next began to consider the First American, when by chance
a copy of Thatcher's " Indian Biography " fell into our hands.
AVe read this book with much interest, and were impressed with
two facts. First of all, we noticed that while the author gave
the lives of a few chiefs well known to this generation, he filled
the book up with village or sub chiefs, of whom even historians
of this age never heard. Then, too, the book in (piestion was
seventy-four years old.

Thatcher's biography tended to create an appetite for that
kind of literature, and we inquired for other lives of noted

11



12 LIVES OF FAMOUS INDIAN CHIEFS.

Indians, but, strange to say, could only hear of one other book
devoted to that subject. This ^¥as a small volume written by
S. G. Goodrich, sixty-two years ago, and he gave only short
sketches of perhaps half a dozen Indians of the United States,
but the greater portion of the contents was devoted to the Indians
of Peru and Mexico.

We now concluded that if there were only two books giving
the lives of famous Indians, and both of these published so
many years ago, there was certainly room for another book on
the subject, which should be confined to the Indian tribes of the
United States and cover their entire history from Powhatan to
the present time.

We trust we will not be misunderstood. We know that many
Indian books have been written since the date of those men-
tioned, but they were on " The Indian AA^ars, " " The Pioneer
and the Indian," " The Winning of the West," " The Manners
and Customs of the Indian," '' Folklore Tradition and Legend,"
and many other phases of the question. AVe know that Pontiac,
Brant, Red Jacket, Tecumseh, Shabbona, Black Hawk, Sitting
Bui], and perhaps others, have had their lives written, but in
each of these cases an entire book is devoted to one Indian and
his war. Our claim is that we have written the only book giving
in a condensed form the lives of practically all the most famous
Indian chiefs from the Colonial period to the present time.

Lest it be thought that we have an exaggerated idea of our
people's interest in the Indian, we will digress long enough to
prove the statement to our own satisfaction, and we trust also
to that of the reader.

Mrs. Sigourney has well said with reference to this point :

"Ye say they all have passed away,

That noble race and brave,
That their light canoes have vanished

From off the ci'ested wave ;
That 'mid the forests where they roamed

There rings no hunter 's shout,
But their name is on your waters ;

Ye may not wash it out.



INTEODUCTION. 1 3

"Ye say their conelike cabins

That clustered o 'er the vale
Have fled away like withered leaves

Before the autumn gale.
But their memory liveth ou your hills,

Their baptism on your shore;
Your everlasting rivers speak

Their dialect of yore."

We have ventured to add a third verse :

Ye say no lover wooes his maid,

No warrior leads his baud.
All in forgotten graves are laid,

E'en great chiefs of the clan;
That where their council fires were lit

The shepherd tends his flock.
But their names are on your mountains

And survive the earthquake shock.

The mark of our contact with the Indian is upon us indelibly
and forever. He has not only impressed himself upon our geog-
raphy, but on our character, language and literature.

Bancroft, our greatest historian, is not quite right when he
says, '' The memorials of their former existence are found only
in the names of the rivers and mountains." These memorials
have not only permeated our poetry and other literature, but
they are perpetuated in much of the food we eat, and every men-
tion of potatoes, chocolate, cocoa, mush, green corn, succotash,
hominy and the festive turkey is a tribute to the red man, while
the fragrance of the tobacco or Indian weed we smoke is incense
to their memory.

On one occasion, according to ^sop, a man and a lion got
into an argument as to which of the two was the stronger, and
thus contending they walked together until they came to a statue
representing a man choking and subduing a lion. " There,"
exclaimed the man, " that proves my point, and demonstrates
that a man is stronger than a lion." To which the king of beasts
replied, " "When the lions get to be sculptors, they will have the
lion choking and overcoming the man."



14 LIVES OF FAMOUS INDIAN CHIEFS.

The Indians are neither sculptors, painters nor historians.

The only record we have of many of their noblest chiefs,
greatest deeds, hardest fought battles, or sublimest flights of
eloquence, are the poor, fragmentary accounts recorded and
handed down by their implacable enemies, the all-conquering
whites.

It is hard indeed for one enemy to do another justice. The
man with whom you are engaged in a death struggle is not the
man to write your history ; but such has been the historian of the
Indian. His destroyer has covered him up in an unmarked
grave, and then written the story of his life.

Can any one believe that the Spaniards, cruel, hard-hearted
and remorseless as the grave, who swept whole nations from the
earth, sparing neither men, women nor children, could or would
write a true story of their silent victims?

Is it not reasonable to believe that had Philip, Pontiac, Corn-
stalk, Tecumseh, Black Hawk or Chief Joseph been able to fling
their burning thoughts upon the historic page, it would have
been very different from the published account?

We believe that God will yet raise up an Indian of intel-
lectual force and fire enough to write a defense of his race to
ring through the ages and secure a just verdict from generations
yet unborn.

In the preparation of this work we have honestly tried to do
the subject justice, and have endeavored to put ourself in the
Indian's place, as much as it is possible for a white man to do.

We have prosecuted the self-imposed task with enthusiasm
and interest from its inception to its completion. We fully agree
with Bishop Whipple when he said : ' ' Our Indian wars were
most of them needless and wicked. The North American Indian
is the noblest type of a heathen man on the earth. He recognizes
a Great Spirit ; he believes in immortality ; he has a quick intel-
lect; he is a clear thinker; he is brave and fearless, and until
betrayed, he is true to his plighted faith ; he has a passionate love
for his children, and counts it joy to die for his people. Our
most terrible wars have been with the noblest types of the



INTBODUCTION. 15

Indians, and with men who had been the white man's friend.
Nieolet said the Sioux were the finest type of wild men he had
ever seen. Old traders say it used to be the boast of the Sioux
that they had never taken the life of a white man. Lewis and
Clark, Governor Stevens and Colonel Steptoe bore testimony to
the devoted friendship of the Nez Perce for the white man."

One evidence that our Indian wars were unnecessary is seen
in the fact that while our country has been constantly involved
in them, Canada has not had any; although our Government has
spent for the Indians a hundred dollars to their one.

They recognize, as we do, that the Indian has a possessory
right to the soil. They purchase this right, as we do, by treaty ;
but their treaties are made with tlie Indian subjects of His
]\Iajesty, the King, while our Government has enacted the farce
of making treaties with Indian tribes or their representatives,
as if they were sovereign nations. Those tribes of blanket
Indians, roaming the wilderness and prairie, living by hunting,
trapping, fishing or plundering, without a code of laws to prac-
lice, or a government to maintain, are not nations, and nothing
in their history or condition could properly invest them with a
treaty-making power.

There are other lessons we can learn from Canada concern-
ing the Indian question. They set apart a permanent reserva-
tion for them; they seldom move them, while our Government
has continually moved whole tribes at the demand of greedy
white men who were determined to have the Indian's land by
fair means or foul, generally the latter. Moreover, the Canadian
government selects agents of high character, who receive their
appointments for life; they make fewer promises, but they
fulfil them; they give the Indians Christian missions, which
have the hearty support of Christian people and all their efforts
are toward self help and civilization.

In 1862 Bishop Whipple visited Washington, and had a long
talk with President Lincoln. Said he: "I found the President
a willing listener. As I repeated the story of specific acts of
dishonesty (on the part of Indian agents of that period) the



16 LIVES OF FAMOUS INDIAN CHIEFS.

President said: 'Did you ever hear of the Southern man who
bought monkeys to pick cotton? they were quick; their long,
slim fingers would pull out the cotton faster than Negroes ; but
he found it took two overseers to watch one monkey. This
Indian business needs ten honest men to watch one Indian
agent. ' " In speaking of this interview with the Bishop, Lincoln
afterwards said to a friend : " As I listened to Bishop Whipple 's
story of robbery and shame, I felt it to my boots ' ' ; and, rising
to his full height, he added: " If I live this accursed system
shall be reformed. ' ' But unfortunately he did not live to carry
out his plans. However, we are glad to note an improvement
in the condition of our Indians, of recent years, which shows
that the public conscience has at last been aroused, and one
object of this book is to further that good work.

Another object is to disprove the oft-quoted saying of General
Sherman that " the only good Indian is a dead one."* We have
written the biographies of twenty or more famous chiefs, any one
of whom was a good Indian, or would have been had he received
kind treatment from the whites, who were almost invariably the
aggressors. It makes one's soul sick to read of the white men
selling the Indian " fire water," to brutalize and destroy; of
violated treaties; of outrageous treatment which aroused the
worst passions of the Indian's nature.

In selecting the subjects for our biographical sketches, we
were confronted with an embarrassment of riches. And while
there are none in the book which could well have been omitted,
yet there are many outside richly deserving a place in it. There
are so many famous chiefs, we found it impossible to give them
all a place in one volume. So we tried to select those who, in
our judgment, were the greatest, those who for special reasons
could not be omitted, and those whom we thought would make
the most interesting sketches.

We may say in this connection, that we refrained from
writing the biographies of mixed breeds, such as Osceola Powell,



* General Sherman used this phrase at a banquet at Delmonico's, New York, in the
winter of 1879.



INTBODUCTION. 17

Weatherford or Red Eagle, simply because we knew, from our
experience with other books, that people would be prone to say
that their greatness was due to the infusion of the blood of the
superior white race. As far as we know, all of our subjects
treated at length were full-blooded Indians, except Sequoyah
and Quanah Parker, and most of them, as we shall see, were
nature 's noblemen.

We have enjoyed peculiar facilities for prosecuting our
studies on Indian biography and history, having free access to
the four great libraries of Chicago.

For the benefit of others interested in the same subject, we
will mention a few of the many books we found helpful, in the
preparation of this work, besides the two already named.

At the head of the list we place Roosevelt's " Winning of the
West," Parkman's " Conspiracy of Pontiac, " Mason's " Pioneer
History," Ellis's " Indian Wars of the United States." In our-
judgment these are about the strongest books we have read on
the subject, especially in relation to the Indian, the pioneer, and
the border wars.

In the next group we place Dunn's " Massacres of the Moun-
tains," Finerty's "War-path and Bivouac," Helen Hunt Jack-
son's " Century of Dishonor," and Eggleston's " Biographies of
Brant, Red Jacket, Tecumseh, ' ' etc.

In adition to our library work, we spent much time traveling
among the Indian tribes and making the acquaintance of many of
the most famous living chiefs, and cultivating their friendship,
so we record many of the incidents in the book as an eye-witness.

We referred to the Indian in this introduction as a so-called
" vanishing race." As a matter of fact the Indian is not vanish-
ing at all but slowly increasing in numbers. The census of 1890
gave the number of Indians in the ITnited States as 248,258,
while that of 1900 gave the total as 270,544, a net gain of 22,291
in ten years.

Another erroneous conception many people have of the Indian
we can only call attention to here. They somehow have come to
believe that the Red Man is very dignified and solemn, has no



18 LIVES OF FAMOUS IXDIAX CHIEFS.

appreciation of tlie ludicrous, or conception of a joke. Never
was a greater mistake. No one enjoj^s what he considers a good
joke more than an Indian. You will find some evidence that he
can be as funny as his white brother, in the chapter on ' ' Indian
Anecdotes. ' '

AYe determined to have the illustrations one of the very best
features of the book, fully in keeping with the subject matter;
and, wherever possible, absolutely authentic. For this reason
alone, the publication has been held back several months, the
publishers sparing neither pains nor expense in procuring pic-
tures from photographers and collectors, who made a specialty
of the Indian, such as D. F. Barry, Drake, the Field ]\Iuseum.
the Newberry Library and the Ethnological Bureau at Washing-
ton; some of the latter being copies of paintings made before
photography was known. Y"e also procured photographs of sev-
eral rare paintings never published in any book before.

Should the book prove instructive in demonstrating that there
is a brighter, better side to Indian life and character than is
usually seen, the author will feel that he has not written in vain,
and he will be gratified if, in addition to this, it also gives
pleasure.




COFACHIQUI, THE INDIAN PKINCESS,
PRESENTING THE STRING OF PEARLS TO UE SOTO,
rroiii an oUl Spanish painting.



See page 25.



CHAPTER I.
COFACHIQUI, THE INDIAN PRINCESS.

A TRUE STORY OF DE SOTO AND HIS CAVALIERS.

COFACHIQUI seems to have been the name of a populous
and wealthy Indian province visited by Hernando De
Soto and his army of adventurers and cavaliers in their
wanderings in search of gold. They also applied this name to the
beautiful and intelligent young queen or princess who ruled the
Indians of this and a confederation of neighboring tribes.

It is impossible to trace the route traversed by De Soto, as
it was at times an aimless wandering through what is now the
States of Florida, Georgia, and, perhaps, the border of South
Carolina. But Indian traditions locate Yupaha, the capital of
the province of Cofachiqui, at what is now Silver Bluff, on the
east bank of the Savannah river, in Barnwell county, South
Carolina. From time to time rumor reached De Soto and his men
of this great princess, a veritable " She-Who-Must-Be Obeyed,"
whose subjects were so devoted and faithful that her slightest
wish was law.

On day an Indian youth, Avho had been brought into camp
with other prisoners, told the Spaniards that all the neighboring
chiefs paid tribute to this great ruler, and sent her at stated
intervals provision, fine clothing and gold. The cavaliers cared
nothing for the provision and clothing, but they were all interest
when gold was mentioned, and asked the youth many questions,
through their interpreter, wdiich he answered in full. He told
how the gold was taken from the earth, how it was melted and
refined. His description was so exact that the Spaniards had no
longer any doubt. They were greatly elated at the news, and after
robbing and plunderiim- the Indians who had fed and sheltered

21



22 LIVES OF FAMOUS INDIAN CHIEFS.

them during the winter months — the usual return for such
kindness — they broke camp and marched northward. Many times
during the march the Spaniards were on the verge of starvation
and wandering aimlessly in the wilderness, where they must have
perished, had they not been rescued and fed by the simple-
minded, hospitable natives. Even those from whom they received
such timely aid were often robbed and murdered indiscrim-
inately. No doubt the Indians regarded them as demons rather
than Christians, for the unprovoked savage ferocity of the Span-
iards would be beyond belief if the sickening details were not
piously set forth by the historian of the expedition.

On the 28th day of April, 1540, De Soto and his Spaniards



Online LibraryBowker A&I PublishingLives of famous Indian chiefs from Cofachiqui, the Indian princess, and Powhatan; down to and including Chief Joseph and Geronimo → online text (page 1 of 53)