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3 1272 00528 8996



WILLIAM T. BAWDEN, Managing Editor




(No Summer Number)

^li^e iHauual Arts ^rpsa



(Names of contributors of articles arc set in small capitals. (E) indicates an editorial.

"Current Interest".)

(C. I.) indicates

Adaptation of Manual Training to Commun-
ity Needs, The — Edwin L. Taylor, 263.

Arlitt, C. W. — A Cupola for High School
Use (111.), 114.

Armstrong, Thomas S. — Practical Commer-
cial Method in Manual Training Shops
(111.). 105.

Associations — American Society of Engineer
Draftsmen, 144; Arizona Industrial and
Art Association, 234; Association of In-
diana Industrial Teachers, 147; Boston
Manual Training Club, 142, 230, 313;
California Association of Applied Arts and
Sciences, 60; College Art Assoc" tion, 147,
322 ; Connecticut Manual Arts Teachers'
Association, 59 ; Department of Superin-
tendence, 231; Eastern Art and Manual
Training Teachers' Association, 408 ; Illi-
nois Manual Arts Association, 408; In-
diana School Superintendents, 232; Kansas
State Teachers Association, 234; Maine
Teachers Association, 145 ; Michigan In-
dustrii-l Arts and Science Association, 407;
Minnesota Educational Association, 146;
Montana Industrial Education Association,
233; National Education Association, 58,
235, 410; National Society for the Promo-
tion of Industrial Education, 143 ; National
Vocational Guidance Association, 143 ;
New Hampshire Manual Training Club,
145, 234; Range Manual Arts Association,
146- School Crafts Club, 57, 144, 231, 406;
Texas State Teachers' Association, 60;
Western Drawing and Manual Training
Association, 57, 408.

Bawdev, William T.— Dr. Alwin Pabst (E),

Bennett, Charles A. — College Course for
Teachers of Manual Training (E), 223;
Death of Miss Seegmiller (E), 52; Impos-
sible Conditions (E), 311; Manual and
Vocational Guidance (E), 401; Message
from William Hawley Smith (E), 54;
Origin of Term Manual Training (E),
308; Pre- Vocational Work (E), 140; Time
Given to Manual Training (E), 50.

Cement and Concrete, An Investigation of
(111.) — Leon Loyal Winslow, 1.

Chesnut, Robert A. — Student Labor, 292.

Clay, Mary S. — Design Applied to Needle-
work (III.), 110.

College Course for Teachers of Manual
Training (E)— Charles A. Bennett, 223.

Concord's Industrial Class (C. I.), 164.

Construction of a Guitar (III.) — D. K. Hiett,


Craig, Robert C. — Furniture Design and
Hi-h School Furniture, 295.

Creative Ability of Pupils, How can We In-
fluence and Develop the (111.)— F. P. Hilde-
brand, 194.

Credit for Home Work CC. L), 161.

Cupola for High School Use, A (111,)— C.
W. Arlitt, 114.

Curtis, John W. — Manual and Vocational
Education (111.), 89.

Death of Miss Seegmiller (E) — Charles A.
Bennett, 52.

Demand for Teachers, The (E) — Frank M.
Leavitt, 225.

Desien Ar>nlied to Needlework (111.) — Mary
S. Clay, 110.

Discipline in the Shop — James McKinney,


Dr. Alwin Pabst (E)— William T. Bawden,


Farm Mechanics (111.)— L. M. Roehl, 17.

Forei-n Notes — H. Williams Smith, 81, 169,
257, 345, 433.

Furniture Design and Hif^h School Furniture
—Robert C. Craig, 295.

German Travel Study Tour (C. I.), 428.

Greenwood, J. M. — Vocational Guidance in
Hieh School, 389.

Griffith, Ira S. — The Place of the Abstract
Exercise in Woodwork, 200.

Harlacher, E. H. — Vitalizing the Courses
in Manual Traininor. 177.

Hiett, D. K. — Construction of a Guitar (111.)

HiLDEBRAND, F. P. — How Can We Influence
and Develop the Creative Abilit>' of Pu-
pils (111.), 194.

Hull, W. R. — New Features in a Manual
Arts School (111.), 182.

Imnossible Conditions (E) — Charles A. Ben-
nett, 311.

Indianapolis Semi-Industrial Schools (C. I.),

Jersey City Municipal Exhibit (C. I.), 74.

Tohnston, Thomas W. — Problems in Electric
Bell and Light Wiring (111.), 363.


Knox, C. W. — Manual Training for Agri-
'cultural Schools, 288.

Lathe, Nama A. — Rooms in Paper: Prob-
lems in Construction and Design (111.)
Vir, 31; VIII, 215; IX, 299.

Leavitt, Frank M. — The Demand for Teach-
ers (E), 225.

LOOMIS, R. A. — Possibilities of the Printing
Department in the School, 191.

Lull, Herbert G. — The Manual Labor
Movement in the United States, 375.

McKiNNEY, James — Discipline in the Shop,
188; Shopwork and Mathematics for Grade
I (111.), 43, 131.

Manual Labor Movement in the United
States, The— Herbert G. Lull, 375.

Manual Training for Agricultural Schools —
C. W. Knox, 288.

Manual Training and Vocational Guidance
(E)— Charles A. Bennett, 401.

Manual and Vocational Education (111.) —
John W. Curtis, 89.

Message from William Hawlev Smith (E) —
Charles A. Bennett, 54.

Metahvork with Inexpensive Equipment for
the Grammar Grades and High Schools
(111.), XIII— Arthur F. Payne, 123.

Method of Presenting Mechanical Drawing,
A (111.)— Robert I. Miner, 275.

Miner, Robert I. — Method of Presenting Me-
chanical Drawing (111-), 275.

Mott, Sarah M. — Shopwork and Mathe-
matics for Grade I (111.), 43, 131.

New Building at La Crosse, Wisconsin, A
(C. I.\ 158.

New Department in the Trenton School of
Industrial Arts (C. I.\ 253.

New Features in a Manual Arts School
(111.)— W. R. Hull, 182.

New Four-Year Course for Teachers (C. I.),

New Plan in Pittsburg, A — (C. I.), 341.

New Tvpe of Manual Arts Building (C. I.),

North Dakota State Normal and Industrial
School, The (C. LV 163.

Origin of Term "Manual Training" (E) —
Charles A. Bennett, 309.

Payne, Arthur F. — Metalwork with Inex-
pensive Equipment for the Grammar
Grades and Hic'h Schools (111.), XIII,

Place of the Abstract Exercise in Woodwork,
The— Ira S. Griffith, 200.

Practical Commercial Method in Manual
Training Shops (111.) — Thomas S. Arm-
strong, 105.

Prevocational Classes in Tacoma (C. I.), 159.

Prevocational School in Louisville, Kentuckv,
A (C. I.), 162.

Pre-Vocational Work I'E) — Charles A. Ben-
nett, 140.

Problems in Electric Bell and Li^ht Wiring
(111.)— Thomas W. Johnston, 363.

Printing Department in the School, Possi-
bilities of the — R. A. Loomis, 191.

Progress in El Paso (C. I.), 165.

Purpose of Manual Training, The — Forrest
E. Cardullo, 351.

Relationship Between Content and Manipu-
lation Illustrated by Work in Concrete —
Leon Loyal Winslow, 211.

Reoreanization of San Francisco High
Schools (C. L), 427.

Reviews — Alderton and Baily's Light Wood-
work, 173; Allyn's Elementary Applied
Chem.istry, 87; Arts and Crafts Club's
Art and Industrv in Education, 86; Betz
and Webb's Plane Geometrv, 88; Bone's
The Service of the Hand in the School, 87;
The Boy Mechanic, 86 ; Chamberlain's
Ideals and Democracy, 261; Ellis' Modern
Technical Drawing, 437; Forman's Stories
of Useful Inventions, 85; Erich's Basic
Principles of Domestic Science, 87; Goog-
erty's Hand-Forging and Wrought Iron
Ornamental Work, 173; The Hiawatha
Painting Book, 260; Hill's The Essentials
of Physics, 87; Holman's The Book of
School Handwork, 348, 436; Howe's Agri-
cultural Drafting, 259; Kimerly's How to
Know Period Styles in Furniture, 349 ;
Koch's Pencil Sketching, 349; Lawrence
and Sheldon's The Use of the Plant in
Decorative Design, 86; Lehrgang fiir die
Hobelbankarbeit, 259; Munsell's Color Bal-
ance Illustrated: An Introduction to The
Munsell System, 85 ; Putnam's School Jani-
tors, Mothers and Health, 174; Radford's
Architects' Plans, Architectural Drafting,
Details of Building Construction. Mechani-
cal Drawing and Practical Barn Plans,
260; Synge's Simple Garments for Chil-
dren, 349 ; Tvpes of Schools for Young
Children, 173.'


RoKHi., L. M. — Farm Mechanics (III.), 1".

Rooms in Paper: Problems in Construction
and Design (111.) — N'ama A. Latlie and
Esther Szoid, 31, 215, 299.

Rural School Manual Training (C. I.), 343.

Shop Problems — Air Compressor, 324; Bird
Table, 152; Book Rack, 152; Combination
Ink Stand, 69; Compression Coupling,
421; Dinner Ciong, 64; Evener and Roller
Block. 64; CJarden Wall and Gate, 419;
Hat and Shoe Pedestals, 69; Hen House,
243; Lantern, 238; Library Table, 245;
Pedestal, 157; Piano Bench, 238; Plumbing
for Residence, 425; Porch Lantern, 417;
Serving Table, 152; Shippintr Label, 415;
Sled, 149; Square-Legged Stool, 152;
Wagon Making for Lower Grade Boys,
413; Wall Shelves, 69; Writing Desk, 61.

Shopwork and Mathematics for Grade I
(111.) — James McKinney and Sarah M.
Mott, 43. 131.

Short Courses in Manual Training (C. L),

SiEPERT, Albert F. — Some Factors in Effi-
cient Teaching, 283.

Smith, H. Wii-i.iams — Foreign Notes, 81, 169,
257, 345, 433.

Some Essentials in a Manual Training
Creed — School Crafts Club, New York
City, 399.

Some Factors in Efficient Teaching — Albert
F. Siepert, 283.

Student Labor — Robert A. Chesnut, 292.

Szoi.D, Esther — Rooms in Paper: Problems
in Construction and Design (III.) VH, 31;
VHI, 215; LX, 299.

Taylor, Edwin L. — The Adaptation of Man-
ual Training to Community Needs, 263.

Time Given to Manual Training (E) —
Charles A. Bennett, 50.

Union High School, Grand Rapids, (C. L),

Vitalizing the Courses in Manual Training —
E. H. Harlacher, 177.

Vocational Guidance in Hio-h School — J. M.
Greenwood, 389.

WiNSLow, Leon Loyal — An Invest'^-ation of
Cement and Concrete (III.) 1" Relation-
ship Between Content and Manipulation
Illustrated by Work in Concrete, 211.

Wo-dwork in Rural Schools (C. L), 339.

CoPYKiGHT, 1914. Thb Manual Arts Pkbss


Manual Training Magazine



Leon Loyal Winslow.

WE do not know when cementitious materials were first used
by the race for constructive purposes. It is a fact, however,
that history does not go back far enough to reveal to us the
name of a discoverer ; its use is as ancient as civilization. This is
testified to by remains which have been found in Europe, in Asia, and
in Mexico, Central America, and Peru. These remains teach us that,
in prehistoric times, men had discovered the art of compounding
cementitious materials in a masterly and workmanlike way; that the
processes employed by them were much the same as those practiced
today; and that the materials in both cases were about the same. The
lime and g}psum plasters of the Egyptians, which date back four
thousand years, compare favorably with those of modern times, while
the lime stuccos of Greek origin are regarded as of a superior quality
when judged by present-day standards. The Greeks often covered the
walls of their temples, both inside and out, with stuccos which are still
in an excellent state of preservation. The great wall of China was
built largely of concrete, and some authorities tell us that the pyramid
of Cheops contains a great amount of concrete.

The Twentieth Century has been called "The Concrete Age", but
it has been estimated that, in proportion to the amount of building
going on, the ancient Romans at one time used as great an amount of
concrete for constructive purposes as we are using today. It has been
thought by some that the concrete used by the Romans was made
differently by them than by other nations, and that the art has been
lost. But recent investigation has shown that the cementitious material
then used was merelv lime, and that the excellence of the resulting


product was due, in part, to the volcanic ash or scoria used, in which
silica was present in a soluble condition ready to combine with the
lime. But the main reason for the superiority of the old Roman concrete
is due to the fact that it was carefully prepared.

Henry S. Spackman, head of the Spackman En(,nneering Company
of Philadelphia, writes as follows concerning the subject in question:

I have carefully examined samples of mortar taken by myself from the
Bath of Tiberius at Capri, built about 100 A. D., from the ruins of an old castle
built about 900, from the ruins of another casde built about 1,400, from the
fortifications built about 100 years ago, and from the construction dating back
only a few vears, and found them identical in their character. In all of these
the volcanic ash or puzzolan, of which there are large deposits on the island
(Sicily), was used instead of sand and in many instances pieces of the early
Roman concrete made from the same materials were used, mixed with the
stone in the masonry of later construction, and that these blocks of concrete in
turn had been made from the fragments of still older construction was indicated
by the fact that vou could find in them pieces of brick and marble, as well as
of broken limestone, the characteristic stone of the island.

^Vith the fall of Rome, concrete construction gave way to stone, a
fact which we may attribute to the lack of knowledge of the material,
upon the part of the invader.

But we may still regard the early Romans as the greatest users of
concrete, with the possible exception of ourselves. They carried the
art into the barbarous countries as they conquered them, and established
its use thruout the then known world. From that time on it has never
been entirely abandoned. We are told by Mr. Spackman that the
castle of Badajos in Spain still bears marks of the boarded frames in
which the concrete was deposited.

It is true that ancient cements differed, oftentimes, from those of
today. It has been shown by analysis that mortar taken from the
amphitheater at Cubbio, Italy, contained an unusually low percentage
of lime. In this respect we find that the mortar used was somewhat
different from Portland cement. It is diffcult for us to determine the
methods used by the ancients in preparing and mixing their cements as
no written records state regarding it. It has been recorded in medieval
• Writings, however, that blood, waxes, beer, milk, sugar, rye flour, and
the whites of eggs were used in the mixtures of that time either to
hasten or to retard the set, or to produce a chemical change. The use of
sugar was a common practice in India.



From what has been said it will be seen that the use of concrete for
constructive purposes is by no means new. Today its use is universal,
a fact which we may attribute to five factors, i.e., cheapness, con-
venience, durability, strength in compression, and fire-resisting qualities.
It is used in the construction of dock-walls, breakwaters, building
foundations and caissons, piles, bridges, culverts, sewers, subwa\"s, and
garden furniture. Its uses have become as universal as the material
itself. Entire houses are sometimes built of it and its adaptability to
problems in furniture making is being seriously investigated. As a
building material stone is extremely expensive; yet concrete is superior
to stone both in compression strength and in durability, as a building
material. Timber is becoming scarce and more and more expensive,
while its functions in industry are gradually being usurped by concrete.
Even fence posts of this material are now upon the market.

Altho its uses are becoming complex, the making of concrete is, in
itself, a simple process. Concrete may be defined as a material con-
sisting generally of a mixture of broken stone, sand, and some kind of
cement, mixed with water. The water combining chemically with the
cement conglomerates the whole mixture into a solid stonelike mass.
The component materials may be found in practically all parts of the

For convenience in classifying the constituents of concrete, we speak
of the lime or cement as matrix; the broken stone, or hard material,
including the sand, as aggregate. It is the chemical action of the water
upon the matrix which causes concrete to solidify. The most common
matrix used is Portland cement, the strongest and best cement made.
Before discussing Portland cement, however, we will treat briefly of
pozzuolanic cement which is of a more crude form. Both of the
cements named are hydraulic, which signifies that they resist, when set,
the action of water, and under favorable conditions, will set under
water. Such materials as plaster of Paris, cement plaster, and Keene's
g}"psum cement are called non-hydraulic as they are decomposed by
water, and, of course, will not set under water.


The ancients knew that certain limes, when set, would resist the
action of water. These limes had been found to do so in their natural


states. They had discovered what is known to us as ordinary lime,
too; and they had found out that a mixture of this lime with silicious
materials such as pozzuolana or tufa would also set and become
hydraulic. The first artificial cement had thus been made.

Toda> pure lime is formed by heating chalk or limestone in a kiln
until its carbonic acid has been driven off. The process is called
burning. If pure lime, thus obtained, is mixed with sand and water
the lime at once slakes and we have common mortar, the setting of
which is simply a drying out of the water. But in order to produce a
pozzuolanic cement which is hydraulic there must be a chemical change
which may be produced by mixing of the lime and water with silica in
an active form, or with a silicate containing silica in an active condition.
Silicate of lime or pozzuolanic cement is one which is not widely used,
it being employed mainly in districts where volcanic deposits furnish
tufa, trass, or pozzuolana itself. Pozzuolanic cement has excellent
qualities but it is not used extensively owing to its expensiveness.

Portland cement is not a mixture of active silica and lime ready to
unite under suitable conditions; it is a definite chemical compound of
lime and silica, and lime and alumina, which combines with \\ater
forming a crystalline substance of great mechanical strength. This
crystalline substance is capable of adhering firmly to clean sand and
crushed stone. Portland cements are formed b\ heating chalk, clay,
limestone, marl, shale, slag, and similar materials to a high temperature.
The correct proportions of lime, silica, and alumina nnist be main-
tained. The earliest form of Portland cement was hydraulic lime.
This is still used to some extent and is prepared b\ burning limestone
containing clay. The man to whom we may attribute the early per-
fection of the Portland method is Joseph Aspdin of Leeds, Eingland,
who added cla\ to finely ground limestone, thus calcining the mixture,
and grinding the product together. Portland cement derived its name
from the fact that it resembles Portland (England) stone, when set.

We have thus found that the chemical elements necessary in the
manufacture of cement are lime, silica, and alumina. The silica and
alumina are supplied by some form of clay or shale.


The old method of making Portland cement is typified by the plants
alon<' the Thames in England. The materials used are chalk and


medway mud, a kind of clay. These substances are mixed in the
proportion of three of chalk to one of clay (by weight), the dry
mixture containing about 75 per cent of calcium carbonate and 25 per
cent of clay. The raw materials are mixed with water in a wash mill
and the resulting slurry is wet enough to flow. This slurry is now





ground between millstones and the process of comminution is completed.
The grinding must be thoro, if the cement turned out is to be of good

The slurry is now dried, usually by the waste heat from the kilns.
In drying, it cracks into rough blocks suitable for loading into the kiln.
Upon the grate of the kiln is placed a layer of coke and wood ; a layer
of the dry slurry is loaded upon this, then another layer of coke, then
another layer of slurry and so on, until the kiln is tilled with coke and
slurry, evenly distributed. An ordinary kiln of this kind contains about
fifty tons of slurry and twelve tons of coke. It usually takes about
two days to get the kiln burning and two or three more for it to burn
out. the entire run requiring about a week, allowing time for loading
and unloading. The output resulting will be about thirty tons of
clinker to be ground into cement.

But this method of manufacturing Portland cement is today almost
obsolete. It is too slow and too expensive. As far back as 1890 one
of our large cement companies began to develop the modern rotary kiln
system. One of these kilns will produce from 500 to 3,000 barrels of
cement per day while the old stationary or dome kiln could seldom
exceed 100 barrels. That the United States produces today more
cement than both England and Germany combined and that American

6 .l/.7Ar.7L TR.nxIXG M.IG.IZIXE

cements are acknow lecl^etl to be the best in the market, is due largely
to the perfection of the rotary kiln in this country.

In order to understand fully the new method of manufacture we
may well examine a typical Pennsylvania plant. In this state there are
to be found large deposits of cement rock to which is added a small


percentage of lime. The resulting mixture of raw material is then
reduced to powder, after which it is burned in a rotary kiln to cement
clinker. The kiln consists of a steel cylinder, from 6 to 12 feet in
diameter and from 60 to 250 feet in length, which is mounted at a
slight inclination and is operated by a large driving gear which causes
it to rotate longitudinally. See Figs. 1, 2, 3. The pulverized raw
material enters this tube at the elevated end and by means of gravity,
aided by the turning of the cylinder, it gradually works its way to the
lower end. All the while the temperature within the tube is high
enough to cause ignition as pulverized coal is injected by means of an
air blast. Perfect calcination results and the clinker discharged at the
lower end of the cylinder becomes the Portland cement of commerce.

The process of grinding cement clinker, the rough yet chemically
perfect product of the kiln, has ever been a serious obstacle to the
manufacturer as upon the fineness of the resulting powder depends the
excellence of the cement, other things being equal. To reduce the
clinker to the finest possible grade is the one great aim of the manu-
facturer. In times past millstones were used. But today the grinding
is accomplished for the most part by ball mills. We again find the
gravity principle employed in the action of the ball mill. Briefly, it
consists of a rotating drum containing a large number of balls or


spheres of hardened steel. As the drum is rotated upon a horizontal
axis the clinker is introduced and is thus ground to a floury powder by
the constant roll and fall of the balls.

The above description is typical of the prevailing method of cement
manufacture. But in man\ localities cement rock is not found as in


Pennsylvania. Oftentimes the rough material at hand is far less pure
in character. Frequently marl or river mud is still resorted to as we
have learned was the case along the Thames in England even centuries
ago. This mud has to be dried and washed before it can enter the
rotary kiln. See Fig. 4.

Mr. Spackman. before referred to as an authority upon cement
materials, has classified the sources of cement materials in this country
somewhat as follows :•'■ (The materials are arranged in the order of
their importance.)

1. Argillaceous limestone, resembling slate. Eastern Pennsylvania and
New Jersey.

iSee article entitled "Manufacture of Cement from Marl and Clay," Scientific
American, June 20, 1903.


2. Limestone and Clay. New York, Ohio. Illinois, Indiana, Missouri.

3. Marl, river mud found in low lands, marshes and at the bottom of
lakes. Of putty consistenc> . Decomposed shells, etc. Michigan and Ohio.

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