Ebenezer Cobham Brewer.

A guide to English composition, or One hundred and twenty subjects analysed ... online

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ever." Christ is his elder brother; angels and spurits his
kinsmen in the Lord. Where is the monarch can show
a parentage like that f Where is the noble can boast
such a lineage? Where is the worldling who can daim



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328 THEME cn.

a father so transcendent, a brother so exalted, a familj
80 noble ?

2nd Reason. — lie is more excellent in hU works.
The works of the flesh are, ** adultery, fornication, nn-
cleanness, lasciviousness, idolatry, witchcraft, hatred, va-
riance, emulation, wrath, strife, seditions, heresies, envy-
ings, drunkenness, revellings, and such like:" but the
righteous are redeemed from these, and being " grafted
into the true vine," bring forth '* the fruit of the Spirit,''
which is " love, joy, p)eace, long-suffering, gentleness, good-
ness, faith, meekness, temperance; and they that are
Christ's have crucified the flesh with the affections and
lusts."— e^tf/. V. 19-24.

3rd Reason. — The righteous man is more excellent
in his education. The masters of the worldly man are
"the world, the flesh, and the devil:" but the righteous
man " is taught of God," and is the disciple of him who
** spake as never man spake."

4th Reason, — He is more excellent in his state. He
is " blessed in his basket and his store," while the other
is accursed ; He is rich in his poverty, while the other is
poor in his wealth; He can rejoice in tribulation, while
the man of the world " knoweth no peace ;" He " has
washed his robes and made them white in the blood of
the Lamb," while his ungodly neighbour is " wretched
and miserable, and poor, and blind, and naked;" He is
redeemed from sin, to which the other "is in bondage;**
" All things are working together for good" to the one,
but the other *^ is dead while he liveth."

5Tn Reason. — The righteous is more excellent than
his neighbour in his death. The wicked man " is driven
away in his wickedness," but the righteous is gathered as
a full shock of com into the gamer of his God. The
righteous man never dies; he only ''sleeps in the bosom
of good old Abraham till the resurrection morn." " Blessed
are the dead that die in the Lord: Yea, saith the Spirit,
for they rest from their labours." — Rev. xiv. 13.

6th Reason. — He is more excellent in his resrirreo
Hon. " When the Sou of man shall come in his glory.



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THE RIOUTSOUS ONLY EXOKLLKKT. 329

huA all the holy angels with Him, then shall He sit upon
the throne of his glory, and before Him shall be gathered
all nations; and He shall separate them oneft'om another
as a shepherd divideth his sheep from the goats: And
He shall set the sheep on the right hand, bat the goats
on the left. Then shall the King say nnto them on his
right hand, " Oome, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the
kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the
world:" but to those on his left hand, "Depart from
me, ye cursed, into eyerlasting fire, prepared for the
devil and his angels." . . . And these shall go away into
everlasting punishment, but the righteous into life
eternal.— i/aW. xxr. 81-46.

Similes. ....

Historical Illustrations. ....

Quotations. — See Psalm i.

Let me die the death of the righteous, and let my last
end be like his. — Nwnb, xxiu. 10.

The foolish (t. e, the wicked) shall not stand in thy
sight: Thou hatest all workers of iniquity; . . . but
let all those that put their trust in Thee rejoice; let
them ever shout for joy, ... for Thou, Lord, wilt bless
the righteous: with favour wilt Thou compass him as
with a shield. — Pa. t. 5. 12.

Many are the afflictions of the righteotis, but the Lord
delivereth him out of them all. He keepeth all his bones,
not one of them is broken. {But) eyil shall slay the
wicked, and they that hate the Lord shall be desolate. —
Ps, xxxiv. 19-21.

See Psalms xxrvii. 9-25.

The righteous shall flourish like the palm tree; thej
shall grow like a cedar in Lebanon. . . . They shall
bring forth fruit in old age; they shall be fat and flourish-
ing. — Ps. xcii. 12. 14.

In the house of the righteous is much treasure, but in
the revenues of the wicked is trouble. — Prov, X7. 6.
28*



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330 THEMB cm.

As the whirlwind passeth, so is the wicked no more;
but the righteous is an everlasting foundation.— Prov.
X. 25,

The wicked shall be a ransom for the righteous, and
the transgi^essor for the upright. — Prov, xxi. 18.

Say ye to the righteous, that it shall be well with him.
(But) . . , Woe unto the wicked I it shall be ill with
him.— Z^t/. ill. 10, 11.

Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the earth. —

Matt. V. 5.

Seek ye first the kingdom of God and his righteousness,
and all these things shall be added unto you. — Matt, vi. 33.

Godliness is profitable unto all things, having the
promise of the life that now is, and of that which is to
come. — 1 Tim. iv. 8.

All things are yours, whether Paul, or Apollos, or
Cephas, or the world, or life, or death, or things present,
or things to come; all are yours: and ye are Christ's;
and Christ is God's.— ICbr. iii. 22, 23.

Conclusion. ....



Theme CIII. No Friend like the Friend of PuUicam
and Sinners.

iNTRODtJCnON. ....

1st Reason. — Because no other friend has done so
murk for vs. **He made himself of no reputation, and
took on Him the form of a servant, and was made in the
likeness of men: And being found in fashion as a man, He
humbled Himself, and became obedient unto death, even
the death of the cross:" and thus were we redeemed, "not
with corruptible things, as silver and gold, .... but with
the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish
and without spot."— PA«7. li. t, 8. and I Pel. i. 18.



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OUR BB8T FBIEKD. 331

Snd Reason. — No other friend knows 90 well our neces*
titles, "We have not an high priest which cannot
be touched with the feelings of our infirmities, but was in
all points tempted like as we are:" He can see into the
heart and read its bitterness: He can see into the chamber
of sickness and death when the door is shut to, and no
other eye is fixed upon it; " He knoweth whereof we are
made, He renaembereth we are but dust." — Heh. iv. 15.
aud Ps. ciii. 14.

3rd Reason. — He not only knows from experience
our necessities, He is also ever ready to assist us. ** Be-
hold I stand at the door and knock;" and as He knocks
He saith, " Come unto me, all ye that labour and are
heavy laden, and I will give ye rest I" — Mev. iii. 20. and
Malt, xi. 28.

4th Reason. — He is not only more willing and ready,
but more powerful than any other fAend, His power
is infinite both morally and physically. He has satisfied
the justice of the Almighty; "All power is given unto
Him in heaven and earth;" and in that " He himself hath
suffered being tempted. He is able to succour them that
are tempted." — Matt, xxviii. 18. and Heh. ii. 18.

5th Reason. — He never changes; b|^ is the " same
yesterday, to-day, and for ever." Wharever our dangers,
whatever the number of our enemies, whatever our weak-
ness, whatever our provocation, whatever our unworthi-
ness, " He will never leave us nor forsake us;" " For I am
persuaded that^ neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor
principalities, nor powers, nor things present, nor things
^ to come, nor height, nor depth, nor any other creature,
shall be able to separate us from the love of God which is
in Christ Jesus our Lord." — Heb, xiii. 8. and Rom. viii.
38, 39.

Bth Reason. — His interest is more closely united to
ours than that of any earthly friend can be. This union
\8 represented under the figure of a "vine audits branches,"
** a foundation and its superstructure," " a body and its
members," "a spouse and her bridegroom;" yea, we are



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332 THBMB cut.

said to be, "one with Christ, even as Chriflt hlmBelf is
one with God." — John, xv. 13.

Similes

Historical Illustrations



Quotations. — There is a friend that sticketh closer than
a brother. — Prov. xviii. 24.

Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay
down his life for his friends. — John^ xv. 13.

Scarcely for a righteous man will one die, yet ^ perad-
venture for a good man some would even dare to die: Bat
God commendeth his love towards us, in that while we
were yet sinners, Christ died for us. — Bom. v. 1, 8.
The noblest friendship ever shown.
The Saviour's history makes known,

Though some have turned and turned it:
And whether being crazed or blind,
Or seeking with a biassed mind,

Have not, it seems, discerned it. — Cowptr.
To look at Him, who formed us and redeemed,
So gloriouMiow, though once so disesteemed;
To see a Gffid stretch forth his human hand.
To uphold the boundless scenes of his command;
To recollect that in a form like ours.
He bruised beneath his feet the infernal powers,
Captivity led captive, rose to claim-
The wreath He won so dearly in our name; -
That, throned above all height. He condescends
To call the few who trust in Him his friends;
That, in the heaven of heavens, that space he deems
Too scanty for the exertion of his beams,
And shines, as if impatient to bestow
Life and a kingdom upon worms bel<Jw;
That sight imparts a never-dying flame.
Though feeble in degree, in kind the same;
To mount the cross He left the realms of bliss;
Was ever woe, was ever love like this? — Cotoper.



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PROSPBRmr GAINS FRIENDS.



Hereby perceive we the love of God, because He laid
down his life for us. — 1 John, iii. 16.

Oh unexampled love I
Love nowhere to be found less than divine. — Milton.



Conclusion.



<^^^i^^^^^^^^^^^



Theme CIV. Prosperity gains Friends.

Introduction

1st Reason. — Worldly friendships are for the most
part formed from motives of self-interest and policy,

2nd Reason. — Friends are sought to add to our hap-
pinessj^ and not to increase our sorrow.

3rd Reason. — Many are urged into friendly intimacy
with others, mereiy because they would flow in the stream
oi fashion and popular favour.

4th Reason. — Rising talent and prosperity are courted
by many merely to gratify vanity, and to aggrandise
themselves by the boast of intimacy with the great and
noted.

5th Reason. — The prosperous seek out friends, and
are glad to be attended with a host of intimates ; but the
wretched seek, solitude, and shun the expense of numerous
guests. .

6th Reason. — Prosperity is generally an indication of
worldly merit, and adversity of worldly imprudence.

7th Reason. — Probably a species of instinct has much
to do with the matter, and friends desert those in adver-
sity, as rats instinctively quit a sinking ship, and dogs flee
from a house ready to fall.

8th Reason. — Common prudence urges many to leave
the unfortunate, lest they should themselves be drawn
into ruin by their endeavour to prop the falling. The
Bame prudential motive would urge them to gather round



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334 THEME OIV.

the prosperous, under an undefined hope of ''gathering
crumbs from the rich man's table."

SmiLEs. — Trees are full of leaves in summer, but are
left bare in winter.

Flies crowd to the brimming mUk-pail, but pa8B hj
when it is empty.

Insects of every kind swarm in the hot sunbeam ; but
when the wintry cold sets in, where are the thousand
forms of life which enlivened every bank, and fluttered
from flower to flower ? All gone I and the dreary wind
is left to whistle through the naked branches of the leaf-
less and tenantless grove.

Where the carcase is, there the eagles will be gathered
together. — Mait. xxiv. 28.

While it is summer there will be many swallows, but
at the approach of winter they all fly away.

Horrea formicse tendunt ad inania nunquam :
NuUus ad amissas ibit amicus opes. — Ovid,

IJbi mel, ibi i^)es.

HisTOMCAL Illustrations



Quotations. — My lovers and my friends stand aloof
from my sore, and my kinsmen stand afar off. — Psaim
xxxviii. 11.

The poor is hated even of his own neighbour, but tiio
rich hath many friends. — Prov, xiv. 20.

Many will entreat the favour of the prince, and every
man is a friend to him that giveth gifts ; (But) all the
brethren of the poor do hate him ; how much more do his
friends go far from him ? — Prov, xix. 6, 1.

Some friend is a companion at the table, and will not
continue in the day of thy aflBiction. In thy prosperity
he will be as thyself, and will be bold over thy servants :
(But) if thou be brought low, he will be against thee, and
will hide himself from thy face. — £ccles. vi. 10-12.



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PB08PBBIT7 0AIN8 F&IKKD8. 835

Wealth maketh many Mends, but the poor is separated
fVom his neighbour. — Prov, xix. 4.

Some man is a friend for his own occasion, and will not
abide in the day of thy trouble. — Eccles, vi. 8.

A friend cannot be known in prosperity, and an enemy
cannot be hidden in adversity. In the prosperity of a
man enemies will be grieved, but in his adversity even a
fiiend will depart. — Eccles, xii. 8, 9.

There is a companion which rejoice th in the prosperity
of a Mend, but in the time of trouble will be against him.
There is a companion which helpeth his Mend for the
belly, and taketh up the buckler against the enemy. —
Eccles, xxxvii. 4, 5.
Lord. A poor sequestered stag.

That from the hunter's aim had ta'en a hurt.
Did come to languish ; and indeed, my lord.
The wretched animal heaved forth such groans.
That their discharge did stretch his leathern coat
Almost to bursting ; and the big round tears
Coursed one another down his innocent nose

In piteous chase

Duke. But what said Jacques ?

Did he not moralise this spectaple ?
7. ifrd. Oh, yes ! into a thousand similes :

First for his weeping in the needless stream. . . .

Then being alone,

Left and abandoned of his velvet friends ;

" ^Tis right I (quoth he,) thus misery doth part

The flux of company 1" Anon, a careless herd,

Full of the pasture, jumps along by him.

And never stays to greet him ; " Aye (quoth

Jacques),
Sweep on, you fat and greasy citizen,
'Tis just the fashion ; wherefore do you look
Upon that poor and broken bankrupt there ?"

Shakspeare.
Men used to worship the rising sun.
Wealth makes worship. — Ray^s proverbs.



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336 THEMK CIV.

Friends are the shadow on a dial, which appears in
clear weather, bat vanishes as soon as the sun is cloaded
over. — Serj, Palmer^ s aphorisms and maxims.

If a merchant miscarry, courtiers will say of him, he is
a pitiful cat, a sneaking trader, and a coxqomb ; -If he
thrive, they will court him for his daughter. • — Serj,
Palmer s aphorisms and maxiins.

In times of prosperity friends will be plenty,
In times of adversity not one in twenty.

Bay^s proverh9.

I wot well how the world wags,

They are most loved who have most bags.

Ray^s proverbs.

Prosperity gains friends, adversity tries them. — Pacu"

vius.

" Is the sable warrior fled ? ''
Thy son is gone. He rests among the dead.
The swarm, that in thy iloontide beam were bom,
Gone to salute the rising morn.
Fair laughs the morn, and soft the zephyr blows,
While proudly riding o'er their azure realm,
In gallant trim the gilded vessel goes,
Youth on the prow, and Pleasure at the helm ;
Regardless of the sweeping whirlwind^s sway,
That, hushed in grim repose, expects the evening prey.

Gray,
On connait I'ami an besoin..
Amicus certus in re incerta cemitur. — Cicero.
Plures adorant solem orientem quam occidentem.
Felicium multi cognati.
Ubi opes ibi amici. — JSrasmus,

Cum Fortuna manet vultum servatis amici,
Cum cedit, turpi vertitis ora fugd. — Ovid,

Donee eris felix multos nuraerabis amieos,
Tempera si fnerint nubila, solus eris. — Ovid, .



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• UNRSMITTKD APPLICATION INJURIOUS. 337

Fortana secnnda amicos habet plaiimos. In angnstifi
amicA.tantum bom apparent.

• iTt aurnm igne, sic benevdentia fidelis pericnlo aliqno
petspicf Bolet. — Cicero,

Conclusion. . . .



>AA/S/WA/>AA/>AA»



Theme CV. AU Work and no Play makes Jack a
dull Boy,

Introduction

1st. Reason. — Because the mind becomes jaded and
weary. As land must sometimes lie fallow, so the mind
must have rest, or both will "be exhausted.

2nd Reason. — The hody becomes hurthened with secre-
tions^ which oppress the braift.

3rd Reason. — A surfeit of study, like a surfeit of
food, spoih digestion : and, without digestion, neither
mental nor bodily viands can serve any hea4thy purpose.

4th Reason. — The mind resembles a tree ; if it grows
slowly the grain is close and the timber sturdy ; but if
forced, the grain is coarse, and the wood soft, flimsy,'and
nnsolid. If the mind has no time to meditate, the memory
may be crammed with other menh ideas, but the mind
will not have time to make those ideas its own, and to
incorporate them with reflection and judgment.

5th Reason. — When the mind is ccwmpelled to work
incessantly it works mechanically. The appointed task is
done, and dismissed from thought as soon as possible:
How then can the mind be otherwise than dull ?

6th Reason. — He who is never allowed to relax haies
his employment ; and it is needless to add, that he who
loathes learning can never make any great proficiency
therein.

29 p



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8S8 SBJBMX QT.

SllOLES

Historical Illustrations. . .



Quotations. — As God has not devoted our bodies to
toil, but thftt he allows us some relaxation ; so, doubtless,
he indulges the same relaxation to the mind. — Govern"
ment of the Tongue,

Too much labour and study weaken and impair both
the body and the mind. — J. Bay, F. R. S.

A bow long bent waxeth weak. — Ray^s proverbs.

Knowledge is as food, and needs no less
Her tempnance over appetite to know
In measure what the mind may well contain ;
Oppresses else with surfeit, and soon turns
Wisdom to folly, as nourishment to wind. — Coioper.
Even God has appointed one day of rest in every sereiiy
Laden, but not encumbered with her spoil ;
Laborious, yet unconscious of her toil ;
When copiously supplied, then most enlarged ;
Still to be fed, and not to be surcharged. — Cowper,
Necessity and the example of St. John, who recreated
himself with sporting with a tame partridge, teach us, that
it is lawful to relax our bow, but not to suffer it to be
unstrung. — Jer. Taylor,

The mind on work for aye intent^
Is like a bow that's always bent.

Too too will in two. — Cheshire proverb.

Assez y a si trop n'y a.

L'abondanza delle cose ingenera fastidio.

L'arco si rompe se sta troppo teso.

Arcum intensio frangit — Publim Mwinennits,

Lnsus animo debent aliquando dari

Ad cogitandum melior, ut redeat sibi. — Phccdrus.

Quiesconti agendum est, et agenti quiescendum est.— •

Senecii.



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TRS FACE AN IKDBX-QF THB MUTD.

Areos nimis intensns mmpitiir.
Ne te qnffisiveris extra. — Horace,
Lndo et joco nti licet cam graYibns seriisqae rebus
Batisfecerimos. — Cicero,

Otia corpus alnnt, animus quoque pascituPiUis,

Immodicos contra ca^pit utrumque labOT. — Ovid.
Detur aliquando otinm quiesque fessis.
Dnlcis est desipere in loco. — Horace,
Est modos in rebns; sant certi deniqae fines,
Qnos ultra citraque neqoit consistere rectum. — Horace.

Conclusion. . . ,



*yv\/w«^^^^^vw



Theme CVI. The Face is an Index of the Mind.

Introduction

1st Reason. — The connection between the mind and
body is somewhat similar to that between the diaUhands
and works of a common watch,

2nd Reason. — ^The mind moves the will^ and ike will
moves the muscles ; by which means it telegraphs on the
face its mandates, wishes, and aversions.

3rd Reason. — Over many natural impulses, emotions,
and affections, of mind, the will has no control, and
especially over conscience, which is called " the moral
sense:" All these domonstrate their operations involun-
tarily, and affect the motiofn of the blood, the vibration of
the pulses, the colour of the cheeks, the contour of the
face, and the general frame of the body, but especially
the more delicate parts of the physiognomy.

4th Reason. — Constant habit has so powerful an in-
fluence on the mind and body, that it has been termed
*' a second nature?^ And the constant habit of cheerful-
ness, piety, benevolence, satire, licentiousness, ill-temper,



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940 THfiKB CVI.

care, and so on, are all stereotyped by habit so strongly
in the face, that no effort of niind can remoTS the
characters.

5th Reason. — The body was designed by God to be
the mind's interpreter and visible representative. The
hands execute its comtpissions, the feet post on its
errands, the month heralds its ideas, the eye is its electric
telegraph: so that the body may be called the sensible
antitype, or histrionic impersonator of the mind.

6th Reason. — The science of physiognomy and phren-
ology corroborate the remark, that " the face is an index
of the mind."

Similes

Historical Illustrations



Quotations. — Wickedness changeth the face, and
darkeneth the countenance like sackcloth. — Eccles, xxt. IT.

A merry heart maketh a cheerful countenance. — Prov,
XV. 13. ^

Many men by every muscle in the face dis(*over what
thoughts their mind is fixed upon. — Serj, Palmer^s apho-
risms and maxims.

In the for^ead and the eye,

The lecture of the mind doth lie. — Ray*H proverbs,

I have marked
A thousand blushmg apparitions start.
Into her face; a thousand innocent shames
In angel whiteness bear away those blushes;
And in her eye there hath appeared a fire,
To burn the errors that these princes hold
Against her truth. — Shakspeare.
This is the man should do the bloody deed;
The image of a wicked heinous fault
Lives in his eye: That close aspect of his
Doth show the mood of a much-troubled breast.

Shakspeare.



i^\



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THE FACE AS INDEX OF THE MIND. 341

From the features of a man's face we may draw pretty
accurate conjectures of his temper and inclinations: but
his looks and countenance distinctly declare the advan-
tages of fortune; and we may read in them, in unmi&-
takeable characters, how many thousands per annum a
man is worth. — Serj. Palmer^s aphorisms and muxirns,

Hastings, His Grace looks cheerfully and smooth this
morning;
There's some conceit or other likes him well,
When he doth bid good morrow with such

spirit

Ely. What of his heart perceive you in his face?

Hastings. Why that with no man here he is offended ;

For were he, he had shown it in his looks.*

Skakspeare,

The colour of the King doth come and go.
Between his purpose and his conscience,
Like heralds 'twixt two dreadful battles set.

Shakspeare.

As the clapper strikes the bell vibrates. ' •

A good countenance is a silent commend^ion: for the
rays of the soul passing through it discover what degree
of brightness is within, so that the aspect seems designed
not only for ornament but information. For what can
be more significant than the sudden flushing and con-
fusion of a blush, the sparklings of rage, or the lightnings
of a smile. — Serj. Palmer^s aphorisms and mcucims.

Vultus index animi.

Frons est animi janua. — Cicero.

Heu I quam difficile est, crimen non prodere vultu I

Ovid.
Vitiant artus segrje contagia mentis.

• Although Hasting was deceived In his conlectnr© respecting Oloster, who
%]ways *' »e*»mcrl a saint when most he playwl the devil," yet the correctness of
the rule is not InvalMated by this exception, but rather corro5orate<l : F(»r had
not "tlio face hven j:<*nerally an Incicx of the mind," Hastings would not have
tra5t«d the cunning Iwtks o( the urtful Eiclianl.



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TH£1CS OVII.



Theme CVII. Science the Handmaid o/BeUgim.

Introduction ....

1st Reason. — By the abt op printing ignorance is
put to flight, knowledge diffosed, and error compelled to
submit to truth.

Without the aid of printing the Reformation could nerer
have been achieved, because the influence of bribery and
power would have been sufficient to arrest the propagation
of Bibles; but now that they are issued by thousands and
ten* of thousands, no artifice of priestcraft, no rescript of
princes, no arm of man, can prevent their diffusion.

By printing four things are secured: 1. speediness of
execution; 2. quantity; 3. cheapness; and, 4. accuracy;
and without it an extensive propagation of the doctrines
of the Bible seems morally impossible.

Printing was invented about 1480, by one Laarentlos Kostar, a natlTe of



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