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_Paradise Lost_, 406, 412 (1665).

CHENEY, a mighty hunter in the northern woods, whose story is told in
_The Adirondack_, by Joel Tyler Headley (1849).

CHERONE'AN _(The)_ or THE CHERONE'AN SAGE _(ch = k)_, Plutarch, who
was born at Chaerone'a, in Boeo'tia (A.D. 46-120).

This praise, O Cheronean sage, is thine.
Beattie, _Minstrel_ (1773).

CHER'RY, the lively daughter of Boniface, landlord of the inn at
Lichfield. - Geo.

Farquhar, _The Beaux' Stratagem_ (1705). (See CHERY.)

_Cherry (Andrew)_, comic actor and dramatist (1762-1812), author of
_The Soldier's Daughter. All for Fame, Two Strings to Your Bow.
The Village, Spanish Dollars_, etc. He was specially noted for his
excellent wigs.

Shall sapient managers new scenes produce
From Cherry, Skeffington, and _Mother Goose?_
Byron, _English Bards and Scotch Reviewers_

[Illustration] _Mother Goose_ is a pantomime by C. Dibdin.

CHER'UBIM (_Don_), the "bachelor of Salamanca," who is placed in a
vast number of different situations of life, and made to associate
with all classes of society, that the author may sprinkle his satire
and wit in every direction. - Lesage, _The Bachelor of Salamanca_

CHER'Y, the son of Brunetta (who was the wife of a king's brother),
married his cousin Fairstar, daughter of the king. He obtained for his
cousin the three wonderful things: _The dancing water_, which had the
power of imparting beauty; _the singing apple_, which had the power
of imparting wit; and _the little green bird_, which had the power
of telling secrets. - Comtesse D'Aunoy, _Fairy Tales_ ("The Princess
Fairstar," 1682).

CHES'TER (_Sir John_), a plausible, foppish villain, the sworn enemy
of Geoffrey Haredale, by whom he is killed in a duel. Sir John is the
father of Hugh, the gigantic servant at the Maypole inn.

_Edward Chester_, son of sir John, and the lover of Emma Haredale. - C.
Dickens, _Barnaby Rudge_ (1841).

CHESTERFIELD (_Charles_), a young man of genius, the hero and title
of a novel by Mrs. Trollope (1841). The object of this novel is to
satirize the state of literature in England, and to hold up to censure
authors, editors, and publishers as profligate, selfish, and corrupt.

CHESTERTON (_Paul_), nephew to Mr. Percy Chaffington, stock-broker and
M.P. - T.M. Morton, _If I had a Thousand a Year_ (1764-1838).

CHEVALIER D'INDUSTRIE, a man who lives by his wits and calls himself a

Denicheur de fauvettes, chevalier de l'ordre de
l'industrie, qui va chercher quelque bon nid,
quelque femme qui lui fasse sa fortune. - _Gongam_
ou _L'Homme Prodigieux_ (1713).

CHEVALIER MALFET (_Le_), so sir Launcelot calls himself after he was
cured of his madness. The meaning of the phrase is "The knight who
has done ill," or "The knight who has trespassed." - Sir T. Malory,
_History of Prince Arthur_, iii. 20 (1470).

CHEVERIL (_Hans_), the ward of Mordent, just come of age. Impulsive,
generous, hot-blooded. He resolves to be a rake, but scorns to be a
villain. However, he accidentally meets with Joanna "the deserted
daughter," and falls in love with her. He rescues her from the
clutches of Mrs. Enfield the crimp, and marries her. - Holcroft, _The
Deserted Daughter_ (altered into _The Steward_).

The part that placed me [_Walter Lacy_] in the
position of a light comedian was "Cheveril," in
_The Steward_, altered from Holcroft's _Deserted
Daughter._ - W. Lacy, _Letter to W.C. Russell_.

CHIBIA'BOS, the Harmony of Nature personified; a musician, the friend
of Hiawatha, and ruler in the land of spirits. When he played on
his pipe, the "brooks ceased to murmur, the wood-birds to sing, the
squirrel to chatter, and the rabbit sat upright to look and listen."
He was drowned in Lake Superior by the breaking of the ice.

Most beloved by Hiawatha
Was the gentle Chibiabos;
He the best of all musicians,
He the sweetest of all singers.

Longfellow, _Hiawatha_, vi. and xv.

_Chibiabos_, venerable chief in _The Myth of Hiaiwatha and Other Oral
Legends of North American Indians_, by Henry Rowe Schoolcraft (1856).

CHICANEAU _(She'.ka.no')_, a litigious tradesman in _Les Plaideurs_,
by Racine, (1668).

CHICH'I-VACHE (3 _syl_.), a monster that fed only on good women. The
word means the "sorry cow." It was all skin and bone, because its food
was so extremely scarce. (See BYCORN.)

O noble wyvês, full of heigh prudence,
Let noon humilitie your tongês nayle.,
Lest Chichi-Vache you swalwe in her entraile.

Chaucer, _Canterbury Tales_ ("Clerk's Tale," 1388).

CHICK _(Mr.)_, brother-in-law of Mr. Dombey; a stout gentleman, with a
tendency to whistle and hum airs at inopportune moments. Mr. Chick is
somewhat henpecked; but in the matrimonial squalls, though apparently
beaten, he not unfrequently rises up the superior and gets his own

_Louisa Chick_, Mr. Dombey's married sister. She is of a snappish
temper, but dresses in the most juvenile style, and is persuaded
that anything can be accomplished if persons will only "make an
effort." - C. Dickens, _Dombey and Son_ (1846).

CHICKEN _(The)_, Michael Angelo Taylor, barrister, so called because
in his maiden speech, 1785, he said, "I deliver this opinion with
great deference, being but a chicken in the profession of the law."

_Chicken_ (_The Game_), a low fellow, to be heard of at the bar of the
Black Badger. Mr. Toots selects this man as his instructor in fencing,
betting, and self-defence. The Chicken has short hair, a low forehead,
a broken nose, and "a considerable tract of bare and sterile country
behind each ear." - C. Dickens, _Dombey and Son_ (1846).

CHICKENS AND THE AUGURS. When the augurs told Publius Claudius
Pulcher, the Roman consul, who was about to engage the Carthaginian
fleet, that the sacred chickens would not eat, he replied, "Then toss
them into the sea, that they may drink."

CHICK'ENSTALKER (_Mrs_.), a stout, bonny, kind-hearted woman, who
keeps a general shop. Toby Veck, in his dream, imagines her married
to Tugby, the porter of sir Joseph Bowley. - C. Dickens, _The Chimes_

CHICK'WEED (_Conkey, i.e. Nosey_), the man who robbed himself. He was
a licensed victualler on the point of failing, and gave out that he
had been robbed of 327 guineas "by a tall man with a black patch over
his eye." He was much pitied, and numerous subscriptions were made on
his behalf. A detective was sent to examine into the "robbery,"
and Chickweed would cry out, "There he is!" and run after the
"hypothetical thief" for a considerable distance, and then lose sight
of him. This occurred over and over again, and at last the detective
said to him, "I've found out who done this here robbery." "Have you?"
said Chickweed. "Yes," said Spyers, "you done it yourself." And so he
had. - C. Dickens, _Oliver Twist_, xxxi. (1837).

CHIF'FINCH (_Master Thomas_), _alias_ Will Smith, a friend of Richard
Ganlesse (2 _syl_.). The private emissary of Charles II. He was
employed by the duke of Buckingham to carry off Alice Bridgenorth to
Whitehall, but the captive escaped and married Julian Peveril.

_Kate Chiffinch_, mistress of Thomas Chiffinch. - Sir W. Scott,
_Peveril of the Peak_ (time, Charles II.).

CHIGNON _[Shin.yong]_, the French valet of Miss Alscrip "the heiress."
A silly, affected, typical French valet-de-chambre. - General Burgoyne,
_The Heiress_ (1718).

CHI'LAX, a merry old soldier, lieutenant to general Memnon, in
Paphos. - Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Mad Lover_ (1617).

CHILD (_The_), Bettina, daughter of Maximiliane Brentano. So called
from the title of her book, _Goethe's Correspondence with a Child_.

CHILD OF NATURE (_The_), a play by Mrs. Inchbald. Amantis was the
"child of Nature." She was the daughter of Alberto, banished "by an
unjust sentence," and during his exile he left his daughter under
the charge of the marquis Almanza. Amantis was brought up in total
ignorance of the world and the passion-principles which sway it, but
felt grateful to her guardian, and soon discovered that what she
called "gratitude" the world calls "love." Her father returned home
rich, his sentence cancelled and his innocence allowed, just in time
to give his daughter in marriage to his friend Almanza.

CHILDE HAROLD, a man sated with the world, who roams from place to
place, to kill time and escape from himself. The "childe" is, in fact,
lord Byron himself, who was only twenty-two when he began the poem,
which was completed in seven years. In canto i. the "childe" visits
Portugal and Spain (1809); in canto ii. Turkey in Europe (1810); in
canto iii. Belgium and Switzerland (1816); and in canto iv. Venice,
Rome, and Florence (1817).

("Childe" is a title of honor, about tantamount to "lord," as childe
Waters, childe Rolande, childe Tristram, childe Arthur, childe
Childers, etc.)

CHIL'DERS (_E.W.B._), one of the riders in Sleary's circus, noted
for his vaulting and reckless riding in the character of the "Wild
Huntsman of the Prairies." This compound of groom and actor marries
Josephine, Sleary's daughter.

_Kidderminster Childers_, son of the above, known in the profession as
"Cupid." He is a diminutive boy, with an old face and facetious manner
wholly beyond his years. - C. Dickens, _Hard Times_ (1854).

CHILDREN (_The Henneberg_). It is said that the countess of Henneberg
railed at a beggar for having twins, and the beggar, turning on the
countess, who was forty-two years old, said, "May you have as many
children as there are days in a year," and sure enough, on Good
Friday, 1276, the countess brought forth 365 at one birth; all the
males were christened _John_, and all the females _Elizabeth_. They
were buried at a village near La Hague, and the jug is still shown in
which they were baptized.

CHILDREN IN THE WOOD, the little son (three years old) and younger
daughter (Jane) left by a Norfolk gentleman on his death-bed to the
care of his deceased wife's brother. The boy was to have £300 a year
on coming of age, and the girl £500 as a wedding portion; but if the
children died in their minority the money was to go to the uncle. The
uncle, in order to secure the property, hired two ruffians to murder
the children, but one of them relented and killed his companion; then,
instead of murdering the babes, he left them in Wayland Wood, where
they gathered blackberries, but died at night with cold and terror.
All things went ill with the uncle, who perished in gaol, and
the ruffian, after a lapse of seven years, confessed the whole
villainy. - Percy, _Reliques_, III. ii. 18.

CHILDREN OF THE MIST, one of the branches of the MacGregors, a wild
race of Scotch Highlanders, who had a skirmish with the soldiers in
pursuit of Dalgetty and M'Eagh among the rocks (ch. 14). - Sir W.
Scott, _Legend of Montrose_ (time, Charles I.).

CHILLIP (_Dr_.), a physician who attended Mrs. Copperfield at the
birth of David.

He was the meekest of his set, the mildest of little men. - C. Dickens,
_David Copperfield_, i. (1849).

CHILLON' (_Prisoner of_) François de Bonnivard, of Lunes, the Genevese
patriot (1496-1571) who opposed the enterprises of Charles III. (the
duke-bishop of Savoy) against the independence of Geneva, and was
cast by him into the prison of Chillon, where he was confined for six
years. Lord Byron makes him one of six brothers, two of whom died
on the battle-field; one was burnt at the stake, and three were
imprisoned at Chillon. Two of the prisoners died, but François was
set at liberty by the people of Berne. - Byron, _Prisoner of Chillon_

CHIMÈNE (_La Belle_) or Xime'na, daughter of count Lozano de Gormaz,
wife of the Cid. After the Cid's death she defended Valentia from the
Moors with great bravery, but without success. Corneille and Guihem
de Cantro have introduced her in their tragedies, but the _rôle_ they
represent her to have taken is wholly imaginary.

CHINAMAN (_John_), a man of China.

CHINDASUIN'THO (4 _syl_.), king of Spain, father of Theod'ofred, and
grandfather of Roderick last of the Gothic kings. - Southey, _Roderick,
etc_. (1814).

CHINESE PHILOSOPHER (_A_). Oliver Goldsmith, in the _Citizen of the
World_, calls his book "Letters from a Chinese Philosopher residing in
London to his Friends in the East" (1759).

CHINGACHGOOK, the Indian chief, called in French _Le Gros Serpent_.
Fenimore Cooper has introduced this chief into four of his novels,
_The Last of the Mohicans. The Pathfinder. The Deerslayer_, and _The

CHINTZ (_Mary_), Miss Bloomfield's maid, the bespoken of Jem
Miller. - C. Selby, _The Unfinished Gentleman_.

CHI'OS (_The Man of_), Homer, who lived at Chios [_Ki'.os_]. At least
Chios was one of the seven cities which laid claim to the bard,
according to the Latin hexameter verse:

Smyrna, Rhodes, Colophon, Salamis, Chios,
Argos, Athenae. - Varro.

CHIRN'SIDE (_Luckie_), poulterer at Wolf's Hope village. - Sir W.
Scott, _Bride of Lammermoor_ (time, William III.).

CHI'RON, a centaur, renowned for his skill in hunting, medicine,
music, gymnastics, and prophecy. He numbered among his pupils
Achilles, Peleus, Diomede, and indeed all the most noted heroes
of Grecian story. Jupiter took him to heaven, and made him the
constellation _Sagittarius_.

... as Chiron erst had done
To that proud bane of Troy, her god-resembling
son [_Achilles_].
Drayton, _Polyolbion_, v. (1612).

CHIRRUP (_Betsey_), the housekeeper of Mr. Sowerberry, the
misanthrope. - W. Brough, _A Phenomenon in a Smock Frock_.

CHITA, the child orphaned by the fearful tragedy detailed in Lufcadio
Hearn's _Chita: A Memory of Last Island_. The little one is dragged
from her dead mother's neck while she has still the strength to cry
out "_Maman! maman_!" and borne through the surf by the fisherman
Felix, to the arms of his wife. Brought up as the child of the humble
pair, she never suspects that the stranger who, years after, dies of
yellow fever brought from New Orleans to Felix's hut is her father

CHITLING (_Tom_), one of the associates of Fagin the Jew. Tom Chitling
was always most deferential to the "Artful Dodger." - C. Dickens,
_Oliver Twist_ (1837).

CHIVALRY (_The Flower of_), William Douglas, lord of Liddesdale
(fourteenth century).

CHLO'E [_Klo'.e_], the shepherdess beloved by Daphnis, in the pastoral
romance called _Daphnis and Chloé_, by Longus. St. Pierre's tale of
_Paul and Virginia_ is based on this pastoral.

_Chloe_ or rather _Cloe_. So Prior calls Mrs. Centlivre (1661-1723).

_Chloe (Aunt)_, the faithful wife of Uncle Tom in Harriet Beecher
Stowe's famous book _Uncle Tom's Cabin_. She hires herself out to a
pastry-cook to help redeem her husband after he is "sold South." Her
exhortation, "Think o' your marcies, chillen! think o' your marcies!"
is sincere, yet when Tom quotes, "Pray for them that despitefully use
you," she sobs out, "Lor'! it's too tough! I _can't_ pray for 'em!"

_Chloe_ (_Aunt_), "a homeless widow, of excellent Vermont intentions
and high ideals in cup-cake, summoned to that most difficult of human
tasks, the training of another woman's child.... She held it to be the
first business of any woman who undertook the management of a
literary family like her brother's to attend properly to its
digestion." - Elizabeth Stuart Phelps, _The Story of Avis_ (1877).

CHLO'RIS, the ancient Greek name of Flora.

Around your haunts
The laughing Chloris with profusest hand
Throws wide her blooms and odors.
Akenside, _Hymn to the Naiads_.

CHOE'REAS (_ch = k_), the lover of Callirrhoê, in the Greek romance
called _The Loves of Choereas and Callirrhoê_, by Char'iton (eighth

CHOKE (_General_), a lank North American gentleman, "one of the most
remarkable men in the country." He was editor of _The Watertoast
Gazette_, and a member of "The Eden Land Corporation." It was general
Choke who induced Martin Chuzzlewit to stake his all in the egregious
Eden swindle. - C. Dickens, _Martin Chuzzlewit_ (1844).

CHOLMONDELEY [_Chum'.ly_], of Vale Royal, a friend of sir Geoffrey
Peveril. - Sir W. Scott, _Peveril of the Peak_ (time, Charles II.).

CHOPPARD (_Pierre_), one of the gang of thieves, called "The Ugly
Mug." When asked a disagreeable question, he always answered, "I'll
ask my wife, my memory's so slippery." - Edward Stirling, _The Courier
of Lyons_ (1852).

CHRIEMHIL'DA. (See under K.)

CHRISOM CHILD (_A_), a child that dies within a month of its birth. So
called because it is buried in the white cloth anointed with _chrism_
(oil and balm) worn at its baptism.

"He's in Arthur's [_Abraham's_] bosom, if ever man went to Arthur's
bosom. 'A made a finer end, and went away, an it had been any christom
[_chrisom_] child. 'A parted just ... at turning o' the tide."
(Quickly's description of the death of Falstaff.) - Shakespeare, _Henry
V_. act ii. sc. 3 (1599).

Why, Mike's a child to him ... a chrism child.
Jean Ingelow, _Brothers and a Sermon_.

CHRIS'TABEL (_ch = k_), the heroine of a fragmentary poem of the same
title by Coleridge.

_Christabel_, the heroine of an ancient romance entitled _Sir Eglamour
of Artois_.

CHRISTABELLE [_Kris.'ta.bel_], daughter of "a bonnie king of Ireland,"
beloved by sir Cauline (2 _syl_.). When the king knew of their loves
he banished sir Cauline from the kingdom. Then as Christabelle drooped
the king held a tournament for her amusement, every prize of which
was carried off by an unknown knight in black. On the last day came a
giant with two "goggling eyes, and mouthe from ear to ear," called the
Soldain, and defied all comers. No one would accept his challenge save
the knight in black, who succeeded in killing his adversary, but died
himself of the wounds he had received. When it was discovered that the
knight was sir Cauline, the lady "fette a sighe, that burst her gentle
hearte in twayne." - Percy, _Reliques_ ("Sir Cauline," I. i. 4).

CHRISTIAN, the hero of Bunyan's allegory called _The Pilgrim's
Progress_. He flees from the City of Destruction and journeys to the
Celestial City. At starting he has a heavy pack upon his shoulders,
which falls off immediately he reaches the foot of the cross. (The
pack, of course, is the bundle of sin, which is removed by the blood
of the cross. 1678.)

_Christian_, a follower of Christ. So called first at Antioch. - _Acts_
xi. 26.

_Christian_, captain of the patrol in a small German town in which
Mathis is burgomaster. He marries Annette, the burgomaster's
daughter. - J. R. Ware, _The Polish Jew_.

_Christian_, synonym of "_Peasant_" in Russia. This has arisen from
the abundant legislation under czar Alexis and czar Peter the Great,
to prevent Christian serfs from entering the service of Mohammedan
masters. No Christian is allowed to belong to a Mohammedan master, and
no Mohammedan master is allowed to employ a Christian on his estate.

_Christian II_. (or _Christiern_), king of Norway, Sweden, and
Denmark. When the Dalecarlians rose in rebellion against him and chose
Gustavus Vasa for their leader, a great battle was fought, in which
the Swedes were victorious; but Gustavus allowed the Danes to return
to their country. Christian then abdicated, and Sweden became an
independent kingdom. - H. Brooke, _Gustavus Vasa_ (1730).

_Chris'tian (Edward)_, a conspirator. He has two _aliases_, "Richard
Gan'lesse" (2 _syl_.) and "Simon Can'ter."

_Colonel William Christian_, Edward's brother. Shot for insurrection.

_Fenella_ alias _Zarah Christian_, daughter of Edward Christian. - Sir
W. Scott, _Peveril of the Peak_ (time, George II.).

_Christian_ (_Fletcher_), mate of the _Bounty_, under the command of
captain Bligh, and leader of the mutineers. After setting the captain
and some others adrift, Christian took command of the ship, and,
according to lord Byron, the mutineers took refuge in the island
of Toobouai (one of the Society Islands). Here Torquil, one of the
mutineers, married Neuha, a native. After a time a ship was sent to
capture the mutineers. Torquil and Neuha escaped, and lay concealed in
a cave; but Christian, Ben Bunting, and Skyscrape were shot. This is
not according to fact, for Christian merely touched at Toobouai, and
then, with eighteen of the natives and nine of the mutineers, sailed
for Tahiti, where all soon died except Alexander Smith, who changed
his name to John Adams, and became a model patriarch. - Byron, _The

CHRISTIAN DOCTOR (_Most_), John Charlier de Gerson (1363-1429).

CHRISTIAN ELOQUENCE (_The Founder of_), Louis Bourdaloue (1632-1704).

CHRISTIAN KING (_Most_). So the kings of France were styled. Pepin _le
Bref_ was so styled by pope Stephen III. (714-768). Charles II. _le
Chauve_ was so styled by the Council of Savonnières (823, 840-877).
Louis XI. was so styled by Paul II. (1423, 1461-1483).

CHRISTIAN'A (_ch = k_), the wife of Christian, who started with
her children and Mercy from the City of Destruction long after her
husband's flight. She was under the guidance of Mr. Greatheart, and
went, therefore, with silver slippers along the thorny road. This
forms the second part of Bunyan's _Pilgrim's Progress_ (1684).

CHRIS'TIE (2 _syl_.) of the Clint Hill, one of the retainers of Julian
Avenel (2 _syl_.). - Sir W. Scott, _The Monastery_ (time, Elizabeth).

_Chris'tie_ (_John_), ship-chandler at Paul's wharf.

_Dame Nelly Christie_, his pretty wife, carried off by lord
Dalgarno. - Sir W. Scott, _Fortunes of Nigel_ (time, James I.).

CHRISTI'NA, daughter of Christian II. king of Denmark, Sweden, and
Norway. She is sought in marriage by prince Arvi'da and by Gustavus
Vasa; but the prince abandons his claim in favor of his friend.
After the great battle, in which Christian is defeated by Gustavus,
Christina clings to her father, and pleads with Gustavus on his
behalf. He is sent back to Denmark, with all his men, without ransom,
but abdicates, and Sweden is erected into a separate kingdom. - H.
Brooke, _Gustavus Vasa_ (1730).

CHRISTINA PURCELL, a happy, pure girl, whose sheltered life and frank
innocence contrast strongly with the heavy shadows glooming over
outcast "Nixy" in _Hedged In._

She [Nixy], looking in from the street at mother and child, wondered
if the lady here and the white daughter were religious; if it were
because people were white and religious that they all turned her from
their doors, - then, abruptly, how _she_ would look sitting in the
light of a porcelain lamp, with a white sack on. - Elizabeth Stuart
Phelps, _Hedged In_ (1870).

CHRIS'TINE (2 _syl_.), a pretty, saucy young woman in the service
of the countess Marie, to whom she is devotedly attached. After the
recapture of Ernest ("the prisoner of state"), she goes boldly to king
Frederick II., from whom she obtains his pardon. Being set at liberty,
Ernest marries the countess. - E. Stirling, _The Prisoner of State_

CHRISTINE DRYFOOS, the undisciplined, showy daughter of a self-made
man in W. D. Howells's _A Hazard of New Fortunes_ (1889).

She was self-possessed because she felt that a knowledge of her
father's fortune had got around, and she had the peace which money
gives to ignorance. She is madly in love with Beaton, whose attentions
have raised expectations he concluded not to fulfill. At their last
meeting she felt him more than life to her, and knew him lost, and the
frenzy that makes a woman kill the man she loves or fling vitriol to
destroy the beauty she cannot have for all hers possessed her lawless
soul.... She flashed at him, and with both hands made a feline pass at
the face he bent towards her.

CHRISTMAS TREASURES. Eugene Field, in _A Little Book of Western
Verse_, gives a father's soliloquy over such treasures as

The little toy my darling knew,
A little sock of faded hue,
A little lock of golden hair,

all that remains to him who,

As he lisped his evening prayer
Asked the boon with childish grace,
Then, toddling to the chimney-place,
He hung his little stocking there.


CHRIS'TOPHER _(St.)_, a saint of the Roman and Greek Churches, said to
have lived in the third century. His pagan name was Offerus, his body
was twelve ells in height, and he lived in the land of Canaan. Offerus
made a vow to serve only the mightiest; so, thinking the emperor was
"the mightiest," he entered his service. But one day the emperor
crossed himself for fear of the devil, and the giant perceived that
there was one mightier than his present master, so he quitted his
service for that of the devil. After awhile. Offerus discovered that
the devil was afraid of the cross, whereupon he enlisted under Christ,
employing himself in carrying pilgrims across a deep stream. One day,

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