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TRANSACTIONS



OF THE



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\ x is 1 1 u ttfcr 6 la it r c s 1 1 r s Ij i r jc



|l r t Ij it a lag ia I J5 1 i c t ji



FOE 1885-3(5.



TRANSACTIONS



OF THE



Knotol & <&iouct&tev&f)ivt



Brr^arolotfifiil £ortrt»



FOR 1885-86.



Edited by SIR JOHN MACLEAN, F.S A., <Lc.



VOL. X.



BRISTOL :
PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY BY C. T. JEFFERIES AND SONS
CANYNGE BUILDINGS, REDCLIFFE STREET.

'»*" '- ""' ' ■ ' ' ■ " M il .!■■. . ■ . 1 1. n I . ii „ ■ ■ ,1 | ,.. ,. .,,. ■



The Council of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological
Society desires that it should be distinctly understood that the
Council is not responsible for any statements made, or opinions
expressed, in the Transactions of the Society. The Authors are
alone responsible for their several Papers and Communications, and
the Editor for the Notices on Books.



TABLE OF CONTENTS.



Transactions at Gloucester 1-15

Transactions of Tewkesbury 133-160

Transactions at Newent ........ 238-249

Catalogue of Exhibits in Temporary Museum, Tewkesbury . 161-167

Treasurer's Account . . . . . • . . . 168

The Mint of Gloucester. By J. Drummond Robertson*, M. A. 17-66
Harescombe — Fragments of Local History. By Rev. J. Melland

Hall, M.A 67-132

A By -Path of History. By Mrs. Lawson 169-174

On the Daubeney Family & its connection with Gloucestershire,

By B. W. Greenfield, Barrister-at-Law - - - - 175-1S5
Notes on the Manors & Advowsons of Birt's Morton & Pendock.

By Sir John Maclean, F.S. A, &c 186-225

Supplementary to the Article on Haynes. By the Rev. F. J.

Poynton, M.A 226-229

Pershore Abbey Church. By Sir John Maclean, F.S. A., &c. . 230-237
The Manor of Bosham, Sussex. By John Smyth, of Nibley,

with Introduction by Sir John Maclean, F.S.A., &c. . 250-277
An Aid Levied in Gloucestershire, 20th Edw III. Contributed

by Sir John Maclean, F.S.A., &c .... 278-292
A Gloucestershire Jury List of the 13th Century. By Sir

Henry Barkly, K.C.B , G.C.M.G., &c. . . . 293-303
The Will of William Whittington, of St. Briavels. By the Rev.

W. T. Allen, M.A. 304-312



NOTICES OF RECENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL PUBLICATIONS.



The Races of Britain. By John Beddoe, M.D., F.R.S., &c. . 313-315
The Unpopular King— Life and Times of Richard III. By

Alfred 0. Legge. F.C.H.S 315-316

Our Parish— A Medley. By T. G. H 316-317

The Yeoman of the Guard and Tower Warders. By Thomas

Preston 317-318

The English Catholic Non-Jurors of 1715. Edited by the late
Very Rev. Edgar E. Estcourt, M.A., F.S.A., and John

Orlebar Payne, M.A 318-320

Ireland under the Tudors. By Richard Bagwell, M.A. . 320-322

A Short History of Tapestry. By Eugene Miintz. Translated

by Miss Louisa J. Davis 322-324

The Lake Dwellings of Ireland. By M. G. Wood-Martin,

M.I.R.A., F.R.H.A.A.I., Lieut. -Colonel . . . 324-333

The History of the Parish and Manor of Wookey. By Thomas

Scott Holmes, M.A. , Vicar of the Parish . . . 333-334

The Life of Chas. I., 1600-1625 By E. Beresford Chancellor 334-336
The Pipe Roll Society's Publications, Vols. IV. and V. . . 336-337
The Gentleman's Magazine Library. Edited by George

Laurence Gomme, F.S.A 337-33S

Record Evidences among Archives of Ancient Abbey of Cluni,

from 1077-1534. By Sir G. F. Difckett, Bart. . . . 338-340
Pleas of the Crown for the County of Gloucester, 1221. Edited

by F. W. Maitland 340-341

Six Years in Seychelles. By H. W. Estijidge .... 341-342

The Register of Edmund Stafford, a.d. 1395-1419. By the Rsv.

F. C. Hingeston-Randolph, M.A 342-344

A History of Derbyshire. By John Pendleton . . . 344-345
Calendar of State Papers— Ireland. Edited by Hans Claude

Hamilton, Esq., F.S.A 346-347

Scotland in Pagan Times.— The Bronze and the Stone Ages. By

Joseph Anderson, LL.D. 347-352

How to Form a Library. By B. H. Wheatley, F.S.A. . . 352-354
Notes and Queries 354-355



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



Fig.

Piatt



Fig. 1. Representation of a Norman Coiner* . . p. 10

2-39. Illustrations of various Saxon and Early -English

Coinst ...... pp. 31-6-4

40. Bell-cot Harescombe ChurchJ ... p. 1U4
I. Details of ,, ,, anil Rebus of Abbot

Newnton ..... to face p. lOli

Fig. 41. Thurible found at Ripple .... p. 14!)

42. Do. found at Pershore§ . . . p. 150

Plate II. Monument in Bredon Church . . . to face p. 150

III. Effigy and Carving in Pershore Abbey Church . p. 237

IV. Crannog Hut discovered at Inver, eo. Donegal || . p. 321)
Fig. 43-52. Antiquities found in Irish Crannogs || . . pp. 331-333
Plate V. Urns found in Scotland, and Stone Hammer found

in Wales . . . . .to face p. 34S

* For the use of tlie block the Society is indebted to Mr. George Bell.
t The drawings for these illustrations were kindly made by the Author of this Paper,
t For the use of this block the Society has to thank Mr. J . Parker of Oxford.
§ The block for this illustration was obligingly lent by the Society of Antiquaries.
|| The blocks for these illustrations were very courteously lent by Lieut. -Colonel
Wood-Martin.



Transactions of the

Bristol anb Gloucestershire Jirdurokigual §oricttj.

At the Spring Meeting, held at Gloucester,

On Wednesday, 20th May, 1885.

^-=o<>o~^

The Annual Spring Meeting of the Society was held this day at Gloucester,
under arrangements made by the Local Committee. The chief feature was
an excursion by steamboat up the Severn to the interesting village of
Ashleworth, to visit the Church, Court House, Tithe Barn, &c. The
morning opened most unfavourably. Rain fell continuously in torrents ;
nevertheless a goodly company of Members and their friends arrived from
Bristol, Bath, Cheltenham, and elsewhere, though many were deterred from
attempting the journey. Between sixty and seventy ladies and gentlemen,
however, had the courage to embark on board the little steamer, the
Berkeley Castle — in which ample protection from the weather was afforded
— at the Gas Office Quay, at eleven o'clock, and the party arrived at
Wainlode Hill without any great amount of discomfort, and in good
spirits.

Among those present were :— The Revs. Sylvester Davis, Canon
Ellacombe, J. Emeris, J. M. Hall, W. H. P. Harvey, Reginald T. Hill,
T. Holbrow, A. E. How, H. J. Price, F. E. Broome Witts, W.
Bazeley, Hon. Sec.; Colonel Wright, Messrs. W. E. Booth, W. S. Booth,
H. W. Bruton, J. H. Cooke, G. J. Cruddas, J. Derham, K. H. Fryer,
W. C. Grist, E. Hartland, G. W. Keeling, W. Knowles, H. Medland,
G. Norman, E. H. Percival, V. R. Perkins, W. G. Prichard, J. Reynolds,
W. G. Richards, M. F. Rome, W. J. Stanton, S. H. Swayne, Robert
Taylor, T. Taynton, R. Townshend, F. W. Waller, and many ladies.

Wainlode Cliff.
Sir William Guise, well known as an accomplished geologist, had kindly
undertaken to deliver an address on the remarkable section of the junction
of the beds of the new red sandstone and the lower lias exposed in this
cliff, which may also be seen in the cliff at Westbury-upon-Severn. In his
absence the Rev. F. E. Broome Witts described the section, and pointed
out the various deposits of which it is composed. This section has been
fully treated of in the Transactions of the Cotteswold Naturalists' Field
Club. From Wainlode Cliff an adjournment was made to the Red Lion
Hotel at Wainlode Hill, where luncheon had been provided.

Ashleworth Church.
After luncheon, the party proceeded by steamer to Ashleworth, and
on landing, at once, under the guidance of the Honorary Secretary, pro-
ceeded to visit the quaint little church. Here the members were received

Vol. X., part 1. b



2 Transactions at Gloucester.

by the Rev. H. Williams, the vicar, and Mr. F. W. Waller gave an
address on the architectural history of the church. He said that in the
absence of any express records of the building of the church, or of the
various alterations in the structure, we could only form an opinion of the
date from the style of the architecture, and the character of the masonry.
The church, he said, like most parish churches, has a history commencing
with the Conquest, or perhaps earlier, from which date in different parts of
the building it is possible to trace all styles of English church architecture — •
Norman, Early English, Decorated and Perpendicular, and ending in the
Jacobean pulpit and other fittings. The church consists of a chancel, with
piscina in the south wall, nave, a chapel on the south of the chancel, in which
also the piscina still remains, a south aisle to the nave, a north porch, and
a tower at the west end of the nave. There is an arcade of four arches
between the nave and the south aisle, a chancel arch, and an arch between
the chancel and chapel. Part of the steps to the rood loft remain in situ, and
there is a fine Perpendicular font. The north wall of the nave, 2ft. 7in. in
thickness, is the oldest part of the building, and the interior presents one
of the most interesting specimens of herring-bone masonry in this county.
This may be Saxon or Norman, for it is difficult to determine what
alterations have been made in this portion of the original structure.
The quaint old church door with its wooden lock, appears to be of Norman
times. Next in antiquity is the chancel, of Early-English work, the north
and east walls of which are 3ft. thick. There are two windows in the
north wall, one a triplet and the other a single light. The east window
has been filled in with modern tracery. The tower and part of the chancel
aisle form fine examples of early Decorated architecture, especially the two-
light west window of the tower, and a small priest's doorway in the south
wall of the chancel aisle, which is very simple and effective. The roofs,
partly Early English and partly Decorated, are of rude construction. The
arcade between the nave and the south aisle consists of four arches carried
on piers, the whole structure being of a very rough kind of chopped work.
The builder of the court house has left his mark on the east window of
the south aisle ; observe the label moulding of the same section, and
terminated in the same manner as the Court windows, and especially the
large relieving arch. The south porch and the upper part of the tower
and spire are late Perpendicular. One of the bells, dated 1687, cast by
Abraham Rudhall, is believed to be one of his earliest. The church is
situated only a short distance from the Severn, and one remarkable fact
mentioned in connection with its history is that in 1770, on the occasion
of a great flood in those low-lying districts, the building was flooded to a
depth of four feet.

The Rev. W. Bazkley then offered a few remarks on the Church and
Manor of Ashleworth, and the derivation of the name, which, he said, is
written in Domesday Book as Escelseworde, and consisted of three hides of
land. At that time Ashleworth was a member of the lordship of Berkeley,
which was royal demesne, and during the reign of the Norman kings was
held in fee-farm by the earlier Berkeleys, for whose history Mr. Bazeley
referred his hearers to the very able memoir of that family, by Sir Henry
Barkly, in the eighth volume of the Transactions of the Society.



The High Cross. 3

During the civil war between Stephen and the Empress Maud and her
son Henry, afterwards King Henry II., Robert de Berkeley, the tenant of
Berkeley, was dispossessed, and Henry, as Duke of Normandy and Earl
of Aujou, at first granted 100 librates of land, in the Manor of Berkeley,
to Robert Fitz Harding, to whom it is said he was under great pecuniary
obligations, and afterwards he granted to him the whole of Berkeley
Herness in fee.

In 1440, Robert Fitz Harding had laid the foundation of the church
of S. Augustine, by Bristol, which, eight years afterwards (114S), was
opened in great state. And at this time he laid upon the altar a charter,
granting divers lands, manors and advowsons, inter alios, the manor and
advowson of Ashelworth, for the endowment of the monastery.

Mr. Bazeley observed that there is not much to be said concerning
this manor during the period of nearly four centuries. It was held by the
Abbey of St. Augustine, but, he said, that in the 7th Edward III., with
the sanction of the Bishop of Worcester, the Abbot was allowed to take the
profits of the rectory to the use of the abbey, on condition of making a
proper provision for a vicar ; and he remarked that long afterwards con-
tentions arose between the Abbots, as lords of Ashelworth, and the Paunce-
forts, as lords of Hasfield, and that those disputes were terminated in 1443
by an agreement inrolled in chancery. And he stated further, from Smyth's
" Hundred of Berkeley," that the whole of the capital messuage and other
buildings were re-edified during the time of Abbot Newbury, who died
in 1463. so that the court house must have been new-built at that date.

He also remarked that Smyth gave a clue to the date of the Great
Barn, as he spoke of Abbot Newland, 1481-1515, building two great barns
at Ashelworth.

He said he was inclined to assign the same date to the vicarage.

The High Cross.

The Rev. W. Bazeley made the following further remarks on the High
Cross, which formerly stood on the village green, at the junction of the
roads to Corse and Hasfield. It was a very fine example of a fourteenth
century cross, of which all, except the lower part of the shaft, remains.
The stones composing the steps continue in situ, though some of them are
loose, and unless secured will soon be beyond restoration. The upper
portion of the tapering hexagonal shaft and the socket, suppoi't a sun-
dial of curious construction in the churchyard.

The socket is octagonal, having the upper edge chamfered, and it has a
square mortice, showing that the lower part of the shaft, which is missing,
was brought into a square at the base by broaches, as at Charlton Kings.
The whole height of the shaft probably exceeded seven feet.

The head of the cross is in the possession of Mr. Taylor, an inhabitant
of the village, who has very kindly ottered to transfer it to the vicar for the
restoration of the entire structure, and to haul the stone which may be
required for the work.

Mr. Bazeley, referring to Mr. Pooley's work on the "Ancient Crosses
of Gloucestershire," in which the author describes the Ashleworth Cross,
said that the head measures 20 inches in length, 15A inches in width, and
B 2



4 Transactions at Gloucester.

10 inches in thickness. Four richly-decorated niches ornament its sides,
and enclose the following subjects carved in relief : — On the front face is
a rood, or figure of the crucified Saviour, with St. John on its left, and
the Virgin Mother on its right, which of course is an illustration of
St. John xix. 25-27. St. John carries a book in his right hand ; his left
arm is bent to support the head, which is inclined to the right.
St. Mary clasps her hands on her breast. The fingers of our Lord are
half closed over the nails, which pierce the palm. The opposite figure is
sadly mutilated ; but we at once recognise the figures of the Virgin and
Child, with what appears to be a female figure kneeling in adoration. This
female represents perhaps the donor of the Cross. In the niche in which
the Crucifixion is represented the cusps (of the trefoil headed arch) are
plain ; in that of the Virgin and Child, the lower cusps are larger, and
are ornamented with bosses."

Mr. Bazeley said that the side niches contain two figures, one of which
he believes to be St. Andrew with his symbol, the cross saltire (Crux de
cussata), between the arms of which, he said, is some object which he could
not explain. He described the spandrils of the trefoil-headed arch as
containing natural oak foliage, which he thought a favourite ornament with
fourteenth century sculptors. The semi-cylindrical shafts and capitals, with
hollow mouldings, as well as the four-leaved flower below the sloping roof, he
said, all belong to the same period. Kneeling by the Apostle is a figure which
Mr. Bazeley said he ventured to think Mr. Pooley had sadly misrepresented in
his description of the Cross. He thought Mr. Pooley had been looking at a
rough sketch, or a bad photograph, and not at the original stone, when he
wro te : — " Kneeling at his feet, with the hands palm to palm, in the attitude
of supplication, is a figure dressed in a short kilt, and with a belt round his
waist. It will be remarked, however, that the head is unnatural, being
none other than that of a sheep, from whose mouth extends an aim, bent at
the elbow, and terminating in an unwieldy hand, holding up something in
the shape of a round ball, or some sort of fruit, to the other figure, whose
head is slightly turned towards it." And he observed that what Mr.
Pooley called a kilt, are in reality the arms and hands of the figure in
the attitude of prayer. There are, he said, no traces whatever of any
sheep's head, and what Mr. Pooley calls an arm and unwieldy hand are, in
fact, part of St. Andrew's Cross. The head of the kneeling figure is almost
gone, only a portion of the hair remaining ; but there is no reason for
supposing it to have been of unnatural size or form. This kneeling figure,
he said, probably represents the founder of the church. In the niche on
the other side of the Cross the figure is so mutilated that it is impossible to
identify it.

The head of the Cross was discovered many years ago beneath the fire-
place of a cottage, now pulled down, but which stood at the south side of
the village green, some fifty yards from the site of the High Cross.

The party then examined the sun-dial, and shaft and base of old
village cross in the churchyard.

The Court House

Was the next object of interest visited, Mr. F. W. Waller acting as guide.
A hurried survey was all that could be made. Mr. Waller remarked that



The Court House. 5

he building shows the remains of a very fine and strongly constructed
manor house, probably of the 15th century. He said it has been altered
considerably since its erection, but the original building can be easily
traced. Partitions of various kinds have been erected across the rooms to
convert the building into the purposes of a farmhouse, for which it is now
used. The original dimensions of the large hall were 37ft. by 19ft. and
20ft. high, which has an exceedingly fine open oak roof, and is lighted by
means of massive transomed windows. On the other side of the hall, and
extending further towards the east, are large parlours and private rooms,
and above these are more rooms of the same size, also open to the roof,
and approached by means of a newel stone staircase. Remains of
stencilled decoration and inscriptions are to be seen on the walls. The
timber and stonework throughout the building are singularly massive, and
the construction of the arch over the front doorway is particularly remark-
able. In the ceiling of the stone staircase there are two bosses of
carved heads, one probably representing one of the Henrys. A lean-to
building formerly existed against the east wall of the house, as may be
seen by the string course and corbels still remaining, and foundations of
other buildings have been discovered when digging drains.

The Tithe Barn.
The tithe barn, which is situated within a stone's throw of the court
house, was next inspected, also under the guidance of Mr. Waller. It is a
large and very picturesque building ; its length being 125ft. and its
breadth 25ft. Thus its dimensions approach those of the well-known barns
at Bredon and Frocester. It was probably erected about the same period
as the court house, and is built of native clay stone, with freestone dress-
ings. The roof, which is chiefly of oak, has been much altered and
modernised. There are two porches, over the doorways of which are oak
lintels instead of stone arches. Parts of the old doors yet remain. A
very few minutes only could be spared beneath this ancient structure,
and then the excursionists proceeded to

The Olo Vicarage.
Mr. Bazeley and Mr. Waller conducted the party to the old vicarage,
an admirable specimen of ancient wooden construction which probably
cannot be excelled in this county. As at present seen it is a per-
fectly symmetrical house with two wings and a central porch facing
towards the west, but the wing on the north side has been erected within
the past fifty or sixty years, and is a fairly accurate copy of the old work.
The original building possesses a remarkably fine entrance porch. The
framing and decoration of the woodwork, which was specially admired,
is singularly fine and interesting, and nothing short of minute drawings
would convey any adequate conception of the rich character of the
work. The porch, with its grand old door and framed ceiling, and the
various bold enrichments in the whole building were examined with much
curious interest. It is satisfactory to remark that all these old buildings
have been well cared for, and they are generally— at any rate, it is signally
the case with the old vicarage— in very good repair. That they have
suffered from restoration there can be no doubt, and Mr. Waller pertinently
remarked that few buildings which have passed through the process of



6 Transactions at Gloucester.

" restoration " had escaped serious injury. Half-an-hour was occupied in the
examination of this interesting house and its many remarkable features,
and the party, through the kindness of Miss Fulljames, partook of refresh-
ments.

They next paid a visit to the residence of Mr. Sydney Taylor, at
Lord's-hill, where the head of the cross has been preserved.

On their return to the steamer they passed the site of the old village
cross, which has been described, and the remains of another cross, where
the roads meet nearer the church.

The party reached Gloucester shortly after six o'clock, when a sub-
stantial tea was enjoyed. An hour-and-a-half later a meeting for the
reading and discussion of papers was held in the lecture room of the Science
School in Brunswick Road.

THE EVENING MEETING.
The Evening Meeting was not numerously attended, the majority of
members from a distance having returned home by early trains. Sir Win,
V. Guise, Bart., who had arrived for the meeting, presided.

The first paper for the evening was read by the Rev. J. M. Hall, M.A.,
On the Early History of Harescombe, which will be printed in extenso in the
present volume.

The Chairman, referring to the several money payments mentioned
by Mr. Hall, reminded the meeting that a shilling in those days was worth
twenty times its value now. They would be pleased to see the paper in
print. If all clergymen would take the same trouble in working out the
history of their parishes as Mr. Hall had done, a really good county history,
which they very much needed, would eventually be obtained. Mr. Hall
was right in supposing that the prefix to Harescombe meant "an army.'
Hare-lane was an instance of the kind in Gloucester. The word "hare'
was very frequently used in the expression of something connected with an
army.

Mr. J. H. Robertson next read a very interesting memoir On the History
of the Mediaeval Mint of Gloucester, and exhibited some beautiful drawings
of ancient Coins in illustration of his subject.

The Chairman offered the thanks of the meeting to Mr. Robertson for
his interesting and instructive paper upon a subject which to most of
those present was probably new. It only showed how much instructive
matter might be got out of old coins. They were the milestones of history,
and in that respect they were most valuable. Sir William also commented
on the excellent drawings with which the paper was illustrated.

Mr. Robertson remarked that he was indebted to Mr. W. S. Booth for
them. They were beautifully done.

Mr. Robertson paper will also be printed in the present volume.

Mr. H. Medland read a paper on Some Finds in Brunswick Road, near
the Eastgate. He said, " the objects which 1 am about to bring under your
notice have, I think, some archaeological as well as artistic value, whilst the
place in which they were found, the city moat, will, I think, give them suffi-
cient interest to justify me in asking your attention for a few minutes. In



The Evening Meeting. 7

the spring of 1882 excavations were made for the Co-operative Stores in
Brunswick Road, on the site of the old City Moat, in a line with and
almost due north of the Science School. Whilst these excavations were
proceeding the following objects were discovered : — ■

Copper Coin — Anglesey Mines Halfpenny, 1788.

A quantity of refuse, probably from glass melting-pots, of greenish
blue colour, much oxydised, with nodules of silica.



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