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HARVARD UNIVERSITY




LIBRARY

OF THE

HUSBUM OF COMPARATIVB ZOdLOOY



^•^^Ht




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HARVARD UNIVERSITY




LIBRARY

OF THE

HUSBUM OF COMPARATIVB ZOdLOOY



^•^^Ht




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,^ Zoology

^^'N SERIES, Vol. IX. 1898, -9, 1900.

PROCEEDINGS

OF THE

BRISTOL

NATURALISTS' SOCIETY.

EDITED BY THE HONORARY SECRETARY.



" Rerum cogjioscere cmisasy — Virgil.



BRISTOL.



Printed for the Society.
MCML



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INDEX TO VOL. IX.



PAGE

Aust ferry ......... 14

Avon Gorge, Views in ....... 17

Baker, B.A. : Celestine deposits of the Bristol District 161-165

Banks, Sir Joseph, Bctrt. : Journal of an Excursion to East-
bury and Bristol, etc., in May and June, 1767 [with Pre-
face and Notes by S. G. Perceval] .... 6-37

Barton, Mr. Stephen, Death of . . . .78

Birds of the Bristol District 84-98

„ „ „ „ Former list published 26 years ago 84

„ „ „ „ 197 Species within a radius of 15

miles. .... 86

Botanical Notes (in 1767) . 8-26

, 76, 119, 123^147, 167

" Bristol Field Botany in 1901 ** .... 123-147

Bristol WeU 16

Carboniferous Rocks, Effects of Lateral Pressure on . 148-161
Celestine Deposits of the Bristol District . . . 161-165

„ Occur in Triassic Marls . . . . 162

Percentage of Sr SO4 . . . .162

„ Localities where worked commercially . 162
„ Mineral present in Bath Waters . .164

„ Manufacturing processes . . . 164

„ Strontium Hydrate used in Beetroot Sugar
» making ...... 166

Cheddar Cliffs 18

Chepstow Castle ........ 14

„ Good heurbour at ....... 16

Earthworks 11,23,24

Eastbury (co. Dorset) ....... 8

Echo, A remeirkable ....... 22

Emborough, Triassic Deposits at .... 109-117



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INDEX TO VOL. IX.



PAGE

Energy iii Animals from Oxidation of Cfiurbon ... 74
„ „ Nitrifying Bacteria from Oxidation of Nitrogen 74

Entomological Notes 77, 119, 168

Fish, Impressions on Blue Clay . . . . . .12

Flood at Glastonbury in 1606, A Great . . . .19

Fossils, Mr. Catcott's Collection ...... 24

Geological Notes ........ 79

(in 1767) 12, 24, 25

Giant's Hole (Clifton) 24

Glastonbury, Great Flood in 1606 . . . . .19

„ Abbey . 19

„ Moor 20

Thorn 19

" Grey Weathers " 25

Henbury .......... 16

Horton, Artificial Lake at . . . . . . .11

Kensham ( =Keynsham) ....... 25

Lateral Pressure in the Bristol District . . . 148-151

Leipner, Prof. F. Adolph, Obituary Notice and Portrait 81-83
Macpherson, Rev. A. C, M.A. : Nature in the Nature Poets 38-56
Microbes, Indispensable or beneficent , . . 57-74

Morgan, Prof. C. Lloyd, F.G.S., F.R.S., Memou- and Portrait . 1-5
„ The Effects of Lateral Pressure in the Bristol Dis-
trict : an Estimate and a Suggestion . . 148-151
„ and S. H. Reynolds, MA., F.G.S. : Triassic Deposits

at Emborough (with Surface and Sectional Plans) 109- 117



** Nature in the Nature Poets ** .

Nitrifying Bacteria, Two groups of

Nitrogen in Nature, The Circulation of
„ in Plants Stored mainly in Seeds
„ " Concentrated " by Animals
„ " Ammoniacal " and " Organic '*
„ as Nitrates, Assimilated by Plants
„ „ Reduced by Denitrifying

"OkeyHole''

Old Passage .....

Ornithological Notes (in 1767)

Pcursons, James, B.Sc!, F.G.S. : Additional
the Rhaetic Beds at Redland .

Pearcefield .....

Perceval, S. G., see Banks, Sir Joseph, Bart,



38-56
67

57-74
64
65
66
68
70

16

11, 16
Observations on

104-108

14, 15



Bacteria



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INDEX TO VOL. IX.



Kedland, Mr. Innis's Garden at
„ Rhaetic Beds at .

KeportB of Meetings, General
,, ,, Botanical



PAGE

25

99, 104

76, 118, 166

76, 119, 167
80, 122, 169

77, 119, 167

78, 121, 169

79, 122, 170



,, „ Chemical and Physical

„ „ Entomological

„ „ Geological . .

„ „ Ornithological

Reynolds, S. H.,Tm.A., F.G.S., see Morgan, Prof. C. Lloyd and
S. H. Reynolds.
„ see Wilson, Edward, and S. H. Reynolds.
RhfiBtic Section at Redland, A . . . ... 99-103

near Coldharbour Farm . .100

Similar to that at Pylle Hill . 100

" Gotham Marble " Bed . . 101

Baryto-Celestine Deposit . . 101

Note by Prof. Sollas . . .102

RhseticBeds at Redland, Additional Observations on the 104-108

„ „ „ One section north of Coldharbour . 104

„ „ „ Another close to Bishop's Palace . 106

Rhizobes .......... 61

„ and Fixation of Atmospheric Nitrogen ... 64

Rownham Ferry ........ 22

St. Vincent's Rock 17,24

Sewage, Disposal of . . . . . . . .70

„ though Oxidised may contain Pathogenic Organisms . 72

SUburyHiU 26

SoUas, Prof., Note by, on *' Naiadites Acuminatus '* . .102

Stoddart, F. W., F.I.C., F.C.S. : The Cu-culation of Nitrogen

in Nature : An Account of some Indispensable Microbes 67-74
Symbiosis ......... 64

Taunton 20,21

Tintem Abbey 15, 16

Triassic Deposits at Emborough . .... 109-117

„ „ Upper and Lower Rhaetic and Keuper Beds 1 15-1 16

„ • „ Two well-marked Bone Beds . . .116

„ „ Absence of ** Gotham Marble " band . .116

Uphill Bone-Caves 152-160

„ „ Two Mentioned by Rutter (1829), and

Phelps (1836) 163

„ A Third discovered (1863) . . .154

ill



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INDEX TO VOL. IX.

PAOB

Uphill Bone-Caves. Other Ossiferous Fissures Found ( 1898) . 156
„ „ Not Caves of Occupation . .158

„ „ List of Organic Remains 159-160

Walkden [Walton] Lodge 23

•Walmeley 22

Wells Cathedral 17,18

Westbury [on-Trym] 17

White, James W., F.L.S.: Bristol Field-Botany in 1901 . 123-147
Wiokee, W. H. : A RhsBtio Section at Redland (with a Table) 99-103
Wilson, Edward, F.G.S. (the late), and S. H. Reynolds,

M.A.,F.G.S. : The Uphill Bone-Caves . . . 152-160

Windcliff 14

WookeyHole 18

Zigz€tgWalk 24

Zoological Notes (in 1767) 13, 24



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\



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NEW SERIES, Vol. IX., Part I. (1898). Priee 2s. 6d.

PROCEEDINGS

OF THE

BRISTOL

NATURALISTS' SOCIETY.



EDITED BY THE HONORARY SECRETARY.



"Rerum cognoscere causae,^* — Vibgil.



BRISTOL.
Printed for the Society.



MDCCGXCIX.



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3 r^s' vc




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TABLE OF CONTENTS.



NEW SEBIES. VOL. IX. PAET I.



PAOS

Prof. Lloyd Morgan, F.G.S., F.R.S 1

"Journal of an Excursion to Eostbury and Bristol, etc., in
May and June, 1767," by Sir Joseph Banks, Bart. With
Preface and Notes by S. G. Perceval ..... 6

Nature in the Nature Poets. By the Bev. A. C. Mocpherson,
M.A. 38

The Circulation of Nitrogen in Nature. An Account of some
Indispensable Microbes. By F. W. Stoddart . . .57

Beports of Meetings 75



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LIST OF OFFIOEBS.



President :

Prof. Lloyd Morgan, P.G.S,, F.II.S.

Past Presidents :
John Beddob, M.D., F.B.S.
Prof. Sydney Young, D.Sc., F.R.S.

Vice-Presidents :

S. H. SwAYNB, M.B.C.S.
F. W. Stoddabt, F.LC.
H. W. Pearson, F.G.S.

Members of the Council :



E. H. Cook, D.Sc.
G. C. Griffiths, F.E.S.
Bey. A. C. Macpherson, M.A.
T. Morgans.



A. E. Hudd, F.S.A.
H. C. Playne, M.A.
S. H. Beynolds, M.A.
C. H. Walker, M.B.



Bev. C, Whidborne, M.A.

Honorary Treasurer :
Arthur B. Prowse, M.D.

Honorary Secretary :
Theodore Fisher, M.D.

Reporting Secretary :
Mary K. Moore.

Honorary Librarian :
C. K. Budge.

Honorary Sub-Librarian :
H. J. Gharbonnier.



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OFFICERS OF SECTIONS.



Botanical :

PreiiderU—OisDmc Bucknall, Mas. Bao., 18, Whatley Boad, Clifton.
Secretary— Jaxsb W. White, FX.S., Wamham, Woodland Boad, Clifton.

Chemical and Physical:

President— F. W. Stoddabt, P.I.C., F.C.S., Grafton Lodge, Sneyd Park.
Secretary — ^L, N, Tyack, Uniyersity College, Bristol.

Entomological :

Pre9ident—(Jt. C. Gbhtiths, F.Z.S., F.B.S., 43, Caledonia Place, Clifton.
Secretary — Chables Babtlett, 58, Woodstock Boad, Bedland.

Geological :

President — A. C. Pass, The Holmes, Stoke Bishop.
Secretary ^B., Pbntbcost, B.A., 32, College Boad, Olifton.



Ornithological :

MoBOAN, F.G.S., F.

Clifton.

Secretary — ^D. T. Pbice, 2, Upper Byron Place, Clifton.



President— Prot C. Lloyd Moboan, F.G.S., F.B.S., 16, Canynge Boad,

Clifton.



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Dv ^oogle







ALTHOUGH the Bristol Naturalists' Society as a body
may have little claim to be considered noteworthy
for original research, it has had the good fortune to be
able to honour itself by the election of several presidents
highly distinguished in scientific investigation. During
the past fifteen years no less than three of our presidents
have been Fellows of the Royal Society, and a fourth
obtained that distinction shortly after the expiration of
his three years' term of office. To these must now be
added our present president, Prof. Lloyd Morgan, who has
kindly consented to act in that capacity for a short period
a second time. In his recent election to the Fellowship of
the Royal Society, and the recognition of his high standing
in the scientific world which it indicates, we feel that we, as
a, Society, are in some measure recipients of honour.

Prof. Lloyd Morgan was born in the West End of London
in 1852. He was the son of J. A. Morgan, Esq., F.G.S.,
a solicitor, and great-grandson of John Nicholls, Esq.,
F.S.A., the historian of Leicestershire. Prof. Lloyd Morgan
was educated at the Royal Grammar School, Guildford,
under the Rev. H. G. Merriman, a Wykehamist. Although
at school he gave indications of ability and industry and



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2 PROF. LLOYD MORGAN, F.G.S., F.R.S.

obtained a good place in the sixth form, yet like so many
Englishmen who have been successful in the various walks
of life, as a boy Prof. Lloyd Morgan was better known
for success in games and athletics than for love of work.
In his last year he won all the senior events in the
athletic sports, a remarkable . achievement, as any one who
has been a schoolboy knows. At this time an interest in
Natural History had already- been aroused, partly through
the influence of his uncle Woodyer Buckton, Esq., a
brother of Greorge Buckton, F.R.S. , but his school educa-
tion had included no science, being almost entirely classical.
When therefore the Royal School of Mines was entered,
in October, 1869, the various branches of study that then
required his attention must have been singularly new, but
to a mind like that of Prof. Lloyd Morgan were probably
none the less stimulating. However that may be, the
Murchison prize for geology was obtained, as well as the
De la Beche medal for mining, the Duke of Cornwall
scholarship, and the Associateship in mining and metallurgy.
On leaving the Royal School of Mines it was the inten-
tion of Prof. Lloyd Morgan to practise as a mining engineer,
and in order to acquire experience of the methods of dealing
with ores underground and at the surface some months
were spent in Cornwall. A life, however, more purely
scientiiic than that of the mining engineer was to be his
lot. About this time an opportunity arose of visiting the
United States and South America in the capacity of a
tutor. This had the effect of strengthening his desire
to learn more of geology, and an interest in biology became
at the same time deepened. In pursuit of the former
study three or four visits were paid to the Alps, and in
1875 an ascent of the Matterhom was made. But the
interest of Prof. Lloyd Morgan was not limited to geology



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PROF. LLOYI) MORGAN, F.G.S., F.R.S. 3

and biology. Even as a boy he had been drawn to the
study of philosophical subjects. Apparently he was ac-
customed to especially enjoy the perusal of speculative
works in the neighbourhood of a quiet river stream, and
would often abandon his fishing-rod in order to read
Herschers " Discourse," or the works of Berkeley, Descartes,
Hume and Whewell. He also read with eagerness the
works of Darwin and Huxley.

On his return from South America Prof. Lloyd Morgan
took Prof. Huxley^s course at South Kensington, and
definitely decided to devote himself to teaching and scien-
tific investigation. A conversation with Huxley sowed
the seeds of his work on comparative psychology, and to
that end he read extensively in human psychology and
allied subjects. With a view to a degree he matriculated
at London University, after a few weeks' prepai-ation,
while he was engaged in teaching at a school in Rams-
gate. But his further studies for the science degree were
prevented by his appointment to a post at the Diocesan
College, Rondebosch, South Africa, where, in addition to
teaching science, he lectured on English literature and
language. After five years at the Cape he returned to
England in 1883, and was appointed to the post at Uni-
versity College, Bristol, rendered vacant by the appointment
of Prof. SoUas to the chair of geology in Trinity College,
Dublin. In 1884 he was made Professor, and in 1887
was chosen for the position of Principal of the College, the
position which he now so well occupies.

As already mentioned, Prof. Lloyd Morgan has this year
been elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. The following
expressed opinion of those men of science who recommended
him for this honour is of interest in this connection :
"As a geologist Prof. Lloyd Morgan has done a consider-



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4 PROF. LLOYD MORGAN, F.G.S., F.R.8.

able amount of original work in Pembrokeshire and the
Bristol district. His chief claim to scientific distinction,
however, rests upon his careful experiments and observa-
tions on the habits, instincts, and intelligence of animals,
and his critical study of the true biological significanc6
of the facts and their bearing upon some of the most
fundamental problems of organic evolution. The three
volumes which he has published on these subjects are of
veiy high merit, and in the opinion of the signers of
this certificate place their author in the first rank as a
philosophical biologist." ^

In 1882 Prof. Lloyd Morgan published a little work
entitled "Water and its Teachings," now out of print.
In 1885 appeared his "Springs of Conduct," and in 1887
a text-book on Animal Biology, of which a third edition
is now in preparation. His chief works, however, are
" Animal Life and Intelligence," of which the third edition
is in preparation, " An Introduction to Comparative Psy-
chology," and " Habit and Instinct," a work based upon his
Lowell Lectures in America. He is writing a series of
philosophical papers for the Monist, which, when complete,
will probably be republished in a collected form. Prof.
Lloyd Morgan has also written several papers on geological
subjects in the Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society
and in the Proceedings of the Bristol Naturalists' Society.

From 1890 to 1892 Prof. Lloyd Morgan filled the post
of President of the Bristol Naturalists' Society, and has
kindly allowed himself to be elected again for this year.
In such a capacity Prof. Lloyd Morgan displays other
qualities than those generally associated with the student
of science. His business ability and the I'eadiness with which

1 Nature, May 11, 1899.



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PROP. LLOYD MORGAN, F.G.S., F.R.S. 5

he is willing to devote his attention to matters that might
be considered trivial, his lucidity of expression and power
of giving interest to subjects that popular opinion may term
dry, combined with patience and modesty, reveal his value
as the head of a society which, like all societies of the
kind, is composed mainly of members desiring to learn,
with a small admixture of those who wish to discuss.



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''|0Hmal d ait €unxmn to (BKBt-
tell mxij Bristol, tit., in gtag
aittr |mu, 1767/'



By SIR JOSEPH BANKS, BART.

[With Preface and Notes by S. G. Perceval.]



AS a fitting tribute (!) to his memory, on April 14th,
1886, by order of his great-nephew, Lord Brabourne,
the Correspondence and Letters of Sir Joseph Banks were
put up to auction at Sotheby's, with the result that they
were scattered amongst the dealers. Apart from some lots
put into the sale, the collection was divided into 198, which
realised the sum of £180 5^., less than a pound per lot, 26
lots fetching but two shillings each, 14 only one shilling
each. Greatly as it was indebted to Banks, not a single lot
was rescued by the British Museum, though the Letters and
Journals were of surpassing interest and importance.

In 1896 appeared the " Journal of the Right Hon. Sir
Joseph Banks, Bart., K.B., P.R.S., during Capt. Cook's First
Voyage in H.M.S. Endeavour, 1768-71," edited by Sir
Joseph Hooker. From the review of this Journal in the
Athenceum of December 26th, 1896, it appears that " the late
Mr. KnatchbuU-Hugessen, created a peer by Mr. Gladstone
in 1880, under the title of Lord Brabourne, claimed all the



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JOUBNAL OF AN EXCURSION TO BASTBDRY, ETC. 7

Banksian documents in the Botanical Department of the
British Museum and carried them oflf and offered them for
sale." The original MS. of this Journal formed lot 176, and
was bought by an autograph dealer for the paltry sum of
£7 2s, 6d,, who apparently sold it to J. Henniker Heaton,
Esq., M.P., who disposed of it to a gentleman in Sydney,
N.S.W. In consequence of its disappearance, Sir Joseph
Hooker had to avail himself of a transcript which fortunately
existed in the British Museum, or the contents might have
been lost to science.

The following additional facts in connection with the sale
may interest the readers of these Proceedings, showing
how this invaluable Correspondence was literally thrown
away, apart from the circumstance of the letters I am about
to mention being of men connected with Gloucestershire.

Lot 65, which contained "28 Letters of (the Rev.) John
Lightfoot to Banks on interesting subjects, 1773 to 1784,"
was bought by " Cash " for the absurd sum of two shillings !
John Lightfoot, the author of the Flora Scoticaj was born
at Newent in Gloucestershire in 1735, went to Pembroke
College, Oxford, and took orders. His taste for conchology
and botany, and agreeable manners, recommended him to
the Duchess of Portland, whose Librarian and Chaplain he
became. After her death in 1785 he drew up the Sale
Catalogue of her celebrated Museum in one volume, 4to,
which was dispersed by auction in 1786. He died at Ux-
bridge, of which place he was Curate, in 1788.

Lot 98, consisting of 31 interesting letters to Banks, —
including two of Walter Honywood Yate of Bromesberrow
Place, near Gloucester, which I fortunately afterwards se-
cured,-^ was bought by a dealer for the absurd sum again of
two shillings. One of these letters had accompanied the
copy of the Catalogue of his Museum at Bromesberrow



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8 JOURNAL OP AN BXCUBSION TO BASTBUBY AND

Place, which he presented to Sir Joseph Banks, and which
may be seen in the Banks Library in the British Museum.

This carious Catalogue, which is excessively scarce, was
printed in 1801 by R. Baikes of Gloucester, and consists of a
thin 8vo volume, dedicated to Banks.

The following Journal, which consists of 22 pages, came
out of lot 5, which sold for fifteen shillings, and which also
included a "Copy of Sdme Account of Lisbon, and the
adjacent country, &c." For this Journal I offered a high
price to the collector into whose hands it passed, and
fortunately secured it. It is in the handwriting of Banks,
in size small quarto, and is stitched in a cover of coarse
whitish paper, which is pasted with a square label, neatly in-
scribed with its title by Sir Joseph, as given above. I have
preserved the spelling throughout, and as stops are entirely
omitted, and capitals not used to distinguish the commence-
ment of sentences in the course of paragraphs, I have there-
fore supplied both. The date of Sir Joseph's birth has been
incorrectly given by some, — even in the Dictionary of
National Biography a date has been repeated the inaccuracy
of which had been pointed out in the Penny Cydopeedia, —
but in the latter publication it will be found that the exact
date is January 4th, 1748. He was therefore in his 25th

year when he made this excursion.

S. G. P.
May 2dth, 1899.

JOURNAL OF SIR JOSEPH BANKS.

May 15. — Set out this day for Eastbury in Dorsetshire,
on a visit to my Aunt M" Grenvile. It is situate about
100 miles from London. As I traveld post and arrivd there
the same night I made but few observations upon the Road.
I saw however through the Windows of my Chaise, Myrica



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BRISTOL, ETC., IN MAY AND JUNE, 1767. 9

Gale growing in Plenty upon a Bog near the 21 mile Stone
on Bagshot heath.

16. — This morn hard rain. Amusd myself by looking
over the house. Found it exceeding large and possibly one
of the heaviest piles of stone S' J"** Vanbrugh ever erected.
The inside is fitted up magnificently with a great deal of
gilding and Ceilings painted after the antique. Upon the
whole the inside is much more convenient as well as more
elegant than the outside gives any hopes of. The Countrey
about it is Pleasant, consisting cheifly of open Downs and
sheep walks, except towards the west and N.W., where the
town and enclosures of Tarent Gunvil and the Woods of
Cranboum Chace give an agreable variety, contrasting
with the open countrey on the other sides. At twelve
Cleard up, went in Search of a Barrow which the Bishop
of Carslisle had informd me was somewhere in this


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