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THE



^rdjaeologtcal journal.



PUBLISHED UNDER THE DIRECTION OF



THE COUNCIL



2Trjc IS-agal Stcjjaealogfcal institute of ©teat Britain anfo

£rclnnrj,

YOlX THE ENCOURAGEMENT AN T D PROSECUl'ION OF

RESEARCHES INTO THE ARTS AND MONUMENTS



Clje ©arty anti ittfotilt 3ges.

VOLUME XXXVI.




LONDON :

PUBLISH EI) AT THE OFFICE OF THE INSTITUTE, 16, NEW
BURLINGTON STREET, W.

[DISTRIBUTED GlUTl'MMrsi.Y TO SUB3CBIBISQ MEMBERS.)
TO BE OBTAINED THROUGH AI.I. BO IKSBLLEB8.

MDCCCLXXIX.



The Council of the Royal Archaeological Institute desire that it should
be distinctly understood that they are not responsible for any statements or
opinions expressed in the Archaeological Journal, the authors of the several
memoirs and communications being alone answerable for the same.



■ " LI fi

. ■ . ■ .




CONTENTS.



Antiquities in the South- West of France. By Bunnell Lewi?, Esq., M.A.
F.S.A.

On a Signaculum of St. James of Compostella. By C. D. E. FORTNUM, Esq.,
F.S.A. -

Cannibalism in England. By C. E. Greaves, Esq., Q.C.

The Rothwell Crypt ami Bones. By S. Sharp. Esq., F.S.A... E.G. S.

Kornan Billericay. By J. A. Sparvel Batlt, Esq., F.S.A.

The Tomb and Helm of Thomae La Wane, in the Church of Broadwater,
Sussex. By W. Bdrges, Esq. - ....

Easton Maudit. By the Rev. A. J. Foster, M.A. -

Roman Inscriptions in Northamptonshire. By W. Thompson Watkin, Esq.

The Land of Morgan. Part IV. The Earls of Gloucester and Hertford. By
G. T. Clark, Esq., F.S.A. ......

The Parish Church of Harefield, Middlesex, and the Manor of Moor Hall. By
W. F. Vernon. Esq. .......

Roman Inscriptions discovered in Britain in 1878. By W. Thompson Watkin,
Esq. .........

Recent Discoveries at Ilium. By Dr. H. Sciiliejiann, Hon. F.S.A.

Note- on a Bra— of Robert de Haitfeld and Ada his wife, Owaton Church,
Yorkshire. By the Rev. C. R. Manning. ....

On a Monumental Brass in Christ's Church Cathedral. Dublin. By Sir Philip
Grey Egerton, Bart., M.P. ......

The Babingtons, Knights of St. John. By G. T. Clark, Esq., F.S.A.

St. Denis. Pari-. By J. H. Parkeb, Esq., C.B., F.S.A.



33

38
56

70



117

145

154
169

172

213
219
231



iv CONTENTS.

PAGE
On the Sepulchral Effigy of a Priest of the thirteenth century in Ledbury
Church, Herefordshire, and on other Sculptured Memorials in that Church.
By M. H. Bloxam, Esq., F.S.A. 237

History of the Priory of Dartford, in Kent. By the Rev. C. F. R. Palmer - 241

Dunster Castle. By Gr. T. Clark, Esq., F.S.A. - - - - 309

On the Roman Occupation of the West of England, particularly the County of

Somerset. By the Rev. Prebendary Scabth, M.A. - - - 321

The Table of Abood. By the Rev. W. J. Loftie, B.A., F.S.A. - - 337

II Caporale at Orvieto-. By W. Burges, Esq. - - - - - 343

Inaugural Address of the Right Rev. the Bishop of Bath and Wells to the

Annual Meeting of the Institute, at Taunton. .... 343

Remarks on the Mediaeval Architecture of the City of Wells. By J. II. Parker,

Esq., C.B., F.S.A. - - - - - - 35S

The Salting Mounds of Essex. By H. STOPES, Esq., F.G.S. - - - 369

A Few Words on Towers and Spires. By Sir C. H. J. Anderson, Bart. - 373

The Fate of Tonbridge Castle. - 378

Original Don ments : -

Relative to ('anon- Ashby, Northamptonshire. By J. Bain, Esq..

F.S.A. Scot, - ... .95

Petition by the Lady Isabella, Countess of Bedford, temp. Richard II.

By the same. ....... 174

Relating to Yorkshire. By the same. - "272

Relating to ('erne Abbey, Dorset, By the same. - - - 380

Proceedings at Meetings of the Royal Archaeological Institute — November,

1878, to July, 1879 - - - 89,177,277,382

Balance Sheet for 1878 - - 286

Report of Annual Meeting at Taunton, 1879 ..... 389

Notices of Arch.zeolooical Publications: —

Henry VI f, Prince Arthur, and Cardinal Morton. By the Rev. T.

Mozley • ...... 105



CONTENTS. v

PAGE

A Key to Domesday, exemplified by the Dorset Survey. By the Rev.

K W. Etton, M.A. ...... 108

Old English Plate. By W. J. Ceipps, M.A. - - - - 113

Palgrave Family Memorials. Edited by C. J. Palmer and S. Tucker,

(Rouge Croix ... - - 115

The British Barrows. By the Rev. W. Greenwell, M.A., and G.

Rolleston, M.D. - - - 185; 292

Prehistoric-Times. By Sir J. Lubbock, Bart., M.P. - - - 199

Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Journal, Vol. II. - - '204

An attempt to identify the Arms formerly existing in the windows of
the parish Church and Austin Friary at Warrington. By W.
Beaumont, Esq., and J. P. Rtlands, Estf, F.S.A. - - 209

Historical Memorials of Beauchief Abbey. By S. 0. Addt, M.A. - ib.

Lectures on thl Rise and Development of Mediaeval Architecture. By

Sir G. G. Scott, R.A., F.S.A., LL.D. .... 237

Church AVoik and Life in English Minsters. By the Rev. Mackenzie

E. C. Walcott, B.D., F.S.A. ..... 304

The Genealogist's Guide to Printed Pedigrees. By G. W. Marshall.

LL.D. 308

Roman Antiquities at Lydney Park, Gloucestershire. A posthumous
work of the Rev. W. Hiley BathurBT, M.A. With notes by
C. W. Kim;. M.A. - - .... 419

Archaeological Intelligence - - - . 116, 211, 422

I.ndkx to Volume xxxvi. ....... 497




LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



Map of Aquitania Tertia
Plan of Mosaics at Jurancon
Lucq de Bearn Sarcophagus
Signaculum of St. James at Compostella
The Broadwater Helm -



To fac



Seal found at Abergele -
Mazer at Oriel College, Oxford
Monument to Regina



To fa



Brass of Robert de Haitneld and Ada his wife, Owston Church, Yorkshire „

(The Institute is indebted to the kindness of the Rev. C. R. Manning
for this wood-cut.)

Roman Monumental Slab found near Carlisle - - - - „

(The Editor of the Graphic has been kind enough to lend this block
to the Institute.)

Effigy of a Priest in Ledbury Church - - -„

Canopied Tomb and Effigy of a Lady in ditto - - - „

(The Institute is indebted to Mr. M. IT. Bloxam for the loan of these
illustrations.

Pair of Postilion's Boots found at Bagshot House ....

Mazer of a Fuller's Company .......

(The Council of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society

have been kind enough to lend this block to f he Institute.)



1

17

22

34

83 -

5 i
104
115 ■■
157
173 .

177

207
239

279

284



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



Fountains Abbey, view across nave .... To follow

St. Mary's Abbey, York Vestibule of Chapter House

Chair of Ripon Minster .....

Canterbury Cathedral. Trinity Chapel - - - -

Cathedral of Sen-. Nave .....

Temple Church. London. View in circular aisle

St. Denis. Interior of one of the Apsidal Chapels

Ely Cathedral. Galilee Porch - - - - -

(For the whole of the illustrations the Institute is indebted t<
liberality of Mr. Murray.)



PAGE.

288



a>.
ib.

u>.
ib.

ib.
ib.

ib.



the



Plan of Dunster Castle ... - - To face 309 V

The TabL of Abo,, d ...... ,,337

Stela of Pernefort ...... .. 342 -

Iron Mace from Carlisle ....... 383

Silver Racing Bells from ditto - - - - ib.

Silver Seal of Mahomedan Priest ...... 385

Plan of Earthworks at Norton Fitz Warren - - - To face 415
From the Proceedings of the Somersetshire Archaeological Society.)



ERRATA.

P. 40, foot-note 5, for " utrooK eyo/j.(v " read u ovtu Keyop^v." P. 41, foot-note 6,
/or "hostile " reac? " hostilem ;" lb., for " manibus " m<</ " mccribus ;" ib.,for "on "
rrad " non."

ERRATA TO VOL. XXXV.

P. 384, note 3, /or "1543" read "1643." P. 387,1. 21, for " solenniae," read
" solennia."



AQUITANIA TERTIA SIVE NOVEMPOPULANIA

Pf^OVI NCIA ECCLESIASTICA AUSCITANA
SEPT EM Vl/E ROMAN /E V)NDEC\M D\CECESIS



//



V.VISC1 * ° yjJiaa Auriya/o^




Aran U« <f9 JV "' '-■■•,-., -,-. r ',^*



From the Gongres Scientifique de France. 1873.




(H\)t 3tcI)aeolag;tral Journal,



MARCH, 1879.



ANTIQUITIES IN THE SOUTH-WEST OF FRANCE,
By BUNNELL LEWIS, M.A., F.S.A.

The South- West of France was occupied by the
Romans, Visigoths, Franks, Saracens, and Normans suc-
cessively, and thus became rich in historical associations ;
it was the scene of the romantic legends that relate the
story of Charlemagne and his paladins ; it not only gave
birth to, but reared Henry IV., the greatest of French
Bourbons ;' it was the cradle of the Reformed Church,
justly called heroic ;* and lastly, in oar own century, it
witnessed some of the most brilliant exploits achieved by
the genius of Wellington. On the other hand, we find
here scarcely any temples, theatres, or aqueducts built by
the Romans, and no mediaeval structures that can vie
with the vast cathedrals in other parts of France.
In this region, therefore, an ample harvest of antiquities
is not to be reaped, but if we search patiently, some
scattered fragments may be gleaned.

I propose to limit my remarks for the most part to two
classes of remains — the Roman and the Romanesque. 3

1 Henry IV was born in the Chateau ing books are by Protestant authors :

of Pau, and reared in the neighbouring Histoire de Jeanne d'Albret, par Theodore

village of Billere, which is on the road to Muret ; Histoire de Jeanne d'Albret, par

Lescar. The house of his foster-father, Madlle. de Vauvilllers ; Crespin's Martyr-

Maison Lassansaa, shows over the en- ologie Protestante. The Soeiete d'His-

trance the inscription : Saubegarde deii toire de France has issued a limited

Rey ; Le Coeur, Promenades Areheologi- number of copies of a MS. by Nicolas de

ques aux environs <\o Pau et dans la Bordenave.

raUee d'Ossau, pp. 15, 16, and Le Beam, 3 Pre-historic antiquities are not want-

p. 102, plate 1. ing in this region ; e.g. from Bielle in the

- The accounts .it' the Reformation in Vallee d'Ossau, an excursion may be

the South of France have been written made to the Cerele de pierres above the

chiefly by Roman Catholics, but I under- village of Bilheres, which must not be

stand that Monsieur Cadier, a Protestant confounded with Billere abovementioned.

minister at Pau, is collecting materials It will be necessary to take a guide, as

for a work on this subject. The follow- the inhabitants speak patois, and to most

VOL. XXXVI. (Xo. 141) A



ANTIQUITIES IN THE SOUTH-WEST OF FRANCE.



Leaving out of consideration the coins, which would more
properly fall within the domain of the Numismatic
Society, we may group the existing monuments of the
Romans under three heads : — Roads, Inscriptions, and
Mosaics. '

The following are the most important roads :
I. From Asturica to Burdigala, i.e., from Astorga to
Bordeaux, a distance of 421 miles. 2 The stations on the
Spanish side of the Pyrenees are Pompaelo (Pamplona) 3
and Iturissa (Osteritz) ; the road crossed the frontier at
Summus Pyrenaeus (Roncevaux), and was carried
through Imus Pyrenaeus (St. Jean Pied de Port) and
Carasa (Gams) to Aquae Tarbellicae (Dax), 4 whence it
was continued to Bordeaux in a sinuous course. Some
traces of this way have been discovered south of the
Pyrenees, on the banks of the Iraty, and in the valley



of them French is unintelligible. For
this branch of the subject the following
memoirs may be consulted : Habitations
lacustres du midi de la France (region
Pyre"n£enne), par M. F. Garrigon, Contes
reudus de l'Academie des Sciences, tome
73, p. 1220 ; Les tumuli des environs de
Pan, par M. Paul Raymond, Revue
Areheologique ; Dolmen et cromlechs
situees dans la Vallee d'Ossau, arrondisse-
ment d'Oloron, par M. Paul Raymond,
Rev. Archeol. The late Mons 1 '- P. Ray-
mond, for some time Archiviste and
ards Secretaire-General of the
Basses Pyrenees, was probably better ac-
quainted than anyone else with the an-
tiquities of the department. An account
of the dolmen at Buzy is given by Le
Cceur, Le Beam, p. 185. The map of
the Vallee d'Ossau, Eaux-Bonnes, Eaux-
Chaudes, by J. B. Bonuecase, geonietre,
is on a large scale, and will be useful to

tile expll ']'<)'.

1 I purposely omit any description of
the Ruman remains at Dax, because a
full account of them has been published
ly Mr. Roach Smith, in bis Collectanea
Antiqua, vol. v, pp. 22G — 210, plates
xxv, x.wi. He censures the inhabitants
severely for the di if the ani ient

ay be i xc ised for pre-
fcheir health and comfort to the
ation ni' these monuments. The
mceintt of fortifications, excluding the
sun's rays anil preventing the circulation
of air, aggravated the humidity caused
by (In- hoi prings, from whiqh I he fcov a
lake, it i], inie ' ! ie Aijuis). Mr. Roach
Smith visited this place in 1858 ; since



that date the destruction has been
carried still further, and only the north-
eastern portion of the wall now remains.

2 Amongst the Spanish tribes the As-
tures have a special interest for English
readers, as they were stationed in the
north of Britain — a fact abundantly
proved by inscriptions. See the Lajji-
darium Septentrionale, p. I7i) ; Index vii,
Military Affairs ; and Dr. Bruce, Roman
Wall, especially p. 109. It should be
observed that the form Asturum occurs
on the stones, showing that Spaniards are
meant, and not the Asti in north Italy.

3 The Dictionary of Classical Geo-
graphy, edited by Dr. William Smith,
gives only the form Pompelo, which
occurs in Strabo (no/ATrtAwv), but Pom-
paelo is more correct, as appears from
inscriptions containing the word Pom-
paelonenses ; moreover, the best manu-
scripts of Ptolemy have Uofj.Tria.Awi/ ;
Hubner, Corpus Inscriptionum Latin-
arum, vol. ii, p. 401. He derives Pompaelo
from Pompeius, and compares with it
Graccurris, a town sixty-four Roman miles
west of Ctesaraugusta, named after Grac-
chus. The modern appellation Pamplona
comes from Bambilonah, a Moorish cor-
ruption of the Latin. Ford's Handbook
uf Spain, ed. 1878, p. 532.

4 This name is sometimes written
D'Acqs, which shows the derivation from
Aquae ; comp. Pliny, Natural History,
xxxi, e. ii, s. i. Emicant benigne passim-
quo in plurumis terris aliae frigidae, aliae
calidae, aliae junctae, -iiui in Tarbellis
Aquitanica gente,



ANTIQUITIES IN THE SOUTH-WEST OF FRANCE. 3

near Villain! eva ; but north of the mountains they are
absent ; l however we may infer the direction of the route
with a degree of probability so high that it almost amounts
to certainty. The road seems to have passed through
the Col d'Ibaheta, and to have descended by the valley of
Saint Michel to St. Jean Pied de Port, as the steep
mountains on the north side of the Val Carlos present
insuperable obstacles. But the natural configuration of
the sites is not the only argument ; this line of communi-
cation was used in the Middle Ages, as is proved both
by written evidence of titles and terriers, and by the
establishment of commanderies of the military orders.
When we consider the excellence of the Roman roads
and the solidity with which they were constructed, we
cannot doubt that the barbarians for centuries continued
to travel by the same highways as the nation that
preceded them. In all probability on this road the
great disaster happened a.d. 778, which is the subject of
the only French epic, the Chanson de Roland. 9 Charle-
magne was on his return from Spain, when half of his
forces were destroyed, and his famous paladin Roland
was killed. Such is the historical account, but according
to Spanish legends incorporated into our English epic,

Charlemain and all his peerage fell
By Fontarabia. 3

II. From Ca?saraugusta to Beneharnum, i.e., from
Saragossa to Lescar. 4 The stations on this road are
Forum Gallon un (Gurrea), Ebellinum (S. Juan de la
Peha), Summus Pyrenaeus (Santa Christina) 5 Forum

1 Even the paucity or absence of Roman speak more accurately, at the quartier St.

remains in the Pyrenean region is instruc- Julien, just below the town; but other

fcive, as it shows how obstinately the French antiquaries have expressed very

inhabitants resisted the Roman invaders. different opinions on this subject, Wal-

Horace, Odes, iii. 8. 21, Servit Hispanae, kenaer identifies Beneharnum with Mas-

vetus hostis orae. It seems as it the lacq, near Orthez ; Monsieur Perret places

Basques carried their hostility to the it at Orthez itself , and the Abbe Lartigau

Romans so far as to extirpate even the is in favour of Bellocq, near Puyoo.

traces of their dominion. Congres Scientifique de France, xxxix e

'-' La Chanson de Roland, with transla- Session a Pan. Tome ii. pp. 121-131.
tion, introduction and notes, edited bj 5 The ancient name Summus Pyre-

I-'. Genin. Chant ii. Chant iii, Table naeus still survives in the modern Sum-

analytique, p. 335. port or Somport, a village near S

3 Milton, Paradise Lost, book i. v. Christina, where the ruins of a monas-
586. tery may be seen : ii was founded by

4 Monsieur Francois St. Bfaur, follow? Gaston [V, who also built the hospital at
ing Marca, the historian of Beam, plaa Cabas and the convent al Sauvelade.

thr site of Beneharnum at Lescar, or to



4 ANTIQUITIES IN T^IE SOUTH-WEST OF FRANCE.

Ligneum (Urdos), Aspaluca (Accous), and Iluro (Oloron).
The modern name Gurrea may be only a corruption of
Gallorum, as the liquids R and L frequently interchange ;
Aspaluca and Iluro are evidently the same words as
Aspe and Oloron. With respect to the latter it is
worthy of notice that the place is called in Basque,
Iri-Uru, which means " the city of the waters ;" a very
appropriate designation, since the Gaves of the Aspe and
Ossau meet here, and by their confluence contribute
much to the picturesque beauty of the site. Moreover
Iluro is an instance of a Spanish name occurring north of
the Pyrenees, and therefore one of the many proofs of
the extent to which the Iberian race had spread. 1 The
argument from toponymy is confirmed by Casar's state-
ment that the Aquitanians, when they opposed the
expedition of the younger Crassus, obtained auxiliaries
and leaders from Spain. 5 This road, like that from
Astorga, is marked by Hiibner on both sides of the
Pyrenees as " certain, but not yet explored," hence it
offers a subject for original investigation to the antiquary;
but though material traces are at present wanting, its
course may be inferred not only from the places mentioned
in the Antonine Itinerary and the modern names corres-
ponding with them, but also from evidence of two other
kinds, viz. : the physical character of the country through
which it passed, and the inscriptions discovered upon it.
On the Spanish side the road must have followed the
Bio Gallego and the valley of Jaca, 3 while north of the

1 Iluro occurs twice amongst the cities 3, says the Aquitanians opposed Crassus

of Spain, in Baetica, north-west of Malaca so successfully that Caesar's presence in

(Malaga), now Alora, so that the old name their country became necessary; but

has undergone only a slight modification; Caesar himself tells us that they sur-

and in the Provincia Tarraconensis, north- rendered to his lieutenant Publius Cras-

east of Barcelona, near Mataro. The sus. The latter was a skilful and energetic

modern town corresponding to Iluro in commander, and had previously reduced

Aquitania is Oloron, not Oleron, and under the Roman sway, with only a single

thus may be easily distinguished from legion, the powerful States of Armorica.

the He d'Oleron in the Bay of Biscay, This important exploit is omitted in the

opposite Rochelle. account of Caesar's lieutenants, given by

- Caesar, De Bello Gallico, hook iii, the Emperor Napoleon I II. in his Vie de

chaps. '20-27, is the most importanl pass- Jules Cesar, tome ii. appendix D, No. 2.
age in the classical writers for the history 3 Jaca, is the modern representative of

of Aquitaine. Tin' commander-in-chief the ancient Jacetani, who with tin' <>s-

was not, personally engaged in the sul>- censes (Huesca) and other neighbouring

jugation of this pari of Gaul, which will states, rendered valuable assistance to

mil for the comparatively few par- Caesar in his campaign against the

i in ilai concerning this distrid found in Pompeian generals, Afranius and Petreius;

hi Commentaries. Le Cceur, Beam, p. Cats. De Bell. Civ. i, 60.



ANTIQUITIES IN THE SOUTH-WEST OF FRANCE. b

Pyrenees it must have been carried through the vallee
d' Aspe, where a stone may still be seen a few miles
south of Oloron, on which is engraved an account of its
repair in ancient times.

This road was always one of the chief lines of com-
munication between Spain and France, and along it
Abdalrahman led the Saracen host, that threatened to
overspread Western Europe, but was destroyed by
Charles Martel at the battle of Tours. It is difficult to
find in classical antiquity the name Beneharnum, for
other writers are silent, and Pliny does not give any
word that approaches nearer than Venami, for which
Marca has proposed to read Venarni, without manuscript
authority as far as I am aware. 1

III. From Aquae Tarbellicae to Burdigala, i.e , from
Dax to Bordeaux, through Cocosa, Tellonum, and Sa-
lomacum in a zig-zag, crossing No. II. twice, and finally
rejoining it at Boii. At first sight there seems no reason
for making this road, but it may have been designed to
connect with each other and with the grand route from
Astorga to Bordeaux towns that were formerly more
important than we should suppose them to have been,
judging from the statements of authors or existing
remains.

IV. From Aquae Tarbellicae to Tolosa, i.e., from Dax
to Toulouse, nearly following the present line of railway,
as is the case with several Roman roads in our own
country. The stations were Beneharnum, Oppidum
Novum, Aquae Convenarum, Lugdunum Convenarum,
Calagorris, Aquae Siccae and Vernum Solum. Oppidum
Novum may be identified with Nay, which seems to be a
corruption of the Latin adjective. Aquae Convenarum
is placed by some at Capvern, by others at Bagneres de
Bigorre, where many inscriptions have been found.
Strabo, who devotes only a single section to the whole of
Aquitania, mentions Onesion therma in the country of the
( 'on venae near the Pyrenees, and says that these waters

1 Marca's proposal to read Venarni in the most recent editors, Sillig and Jan.

the list of Aquitanian tribes given by Venarni approaches very closely to Bene-

Pliny, Nat. Hist., lib. iv,c. 19, is approved harnum, B and V being bo pronounced

by tie' learned and accurate Wesseling, in Spanish that tiny can scarcely be dis-

Antonine Itinerary, ed. 1735, p. 452 : but languished.
this conjecture has nut been adopted by



b ANTIQUITIES IN THE SOUTH-WEST OF FRANCE.

were very good to drink, but it is impossible to decide
whether he is speakings of Bigorre or Luchon ; however
an argument in favour of the latter has been derived
from the name of the rivulet One, which bears some
resemblance to the Greek name. 1 Lugdunum Conve-
narum is now called S. Bertrand de Commino-es ; its
great importance in ancient times is proved by numerous
remains, e.g., an inscription in honour of a Roman
Emperor on the south eastern gate, a head of Jupiter
and sepulchral stones in the facade of the cathedral, and
arches in the suburbs that belong to an aqueduct, and a
circus or theatre. Calagorris, now Cazeres, is another
proof that the Iberians had spread into Southern Gaul,
as we find the name a^ain on the road from Csesarauomsta
to Asturica. 2 Aquae Siccae is said to be Aygas-Secs,
which also sounds Spanish, and Yernum Solum is now
La Vernose.

V. From Burdigala to Argentomagnum, i.e., from
Bordeaux to Argenton-Indre. The stations were Sirio,
Ussubium, Fines, Aghmum, Excisum, Augustoritum.
The road took a south-easterly direction, following the
Garonne as far as Agen, whence its course was north-
easterly, towards the centre of France. Sirio is the
same as Cerons, near the embouchure of the River
Ciron, where it falls into the Garonne. Ussubium is
Urs, near La Reole, where a votive altar has been found
bearing the word Ussulico. A little north of Agen is
the station Excisum, now Villeneuve, but the site is
identified by a monastery there called Exsciense in the
titles of the abbey of Moissac.

VI. From Aginnum to Lugdunum Convenarum, i.e.,

1 Though Strabo says so little about stands pre-eminent, even in Spain, for its

Aquitaine, with his usual sagacity he has ferocious heroism displayed during a

struck the key-note for succeeding in- siege, as the defenders not only killed

quiries into the antiquities of this dis- and ate their wives and children, but

trict, both classical and mediaeval. He salted the bodies not required for imine-

remarks that this people differed from diate consumption. Ford, Handbook of

the other Gauls, both in language and Spain, p. Z>'2$, professes to give an his-

bodily constitution, and that they re- toxical account of Calagurris, but omits



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