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2Tfje Eorjal &rc])aeoloc$ical Institute of ©teat Britain anti




Ci)r early anti jTOtile Sltjes.




(distributed gratuitously to subscribing members

to be obtained through all booksellers.


The Council of the Royal Arcreological Institute desire that it should he
distinctly understood that they are not responsible for any statements or opinions
expressed in the Archaeological Journal, the authors of the several memoirs and
c immunications being alone answerable for the same.

■ tiRQER

Vft !.T.Jtf-2U


The Architectural History of the Cluniac Priory of St. Pancras at Lewes. By

W. H. St. John Hope, B.A., F.8.A. ..... i

Traces of Teutonic Settlements in Sussex, as illustrated by Laud Tenure and

Place Names. By F. E. Sawyer, F. Met. Soc. - - - -35

On some Pottery, Flint Weapons, and other objects from British Honduras. By

General Sir Henry Lekkoy, R.A., F.K.S. - - - - -47

Saxon Remains in Minster Church, Isle of Sheppy. By J. Park-Harrison, M.A. 54

Address of Major- General Pitt-Rivers to the Antiquarian Section at the Annual

Meeting of the Institute, held at Lewes - - - - - 58

The Friar Preachers, or Black Friars of Kings Lynn. By the Rev. C. F. R.

Palmer - - -,. - . - - - . - 79

The Gallo-Roman Monuments of Reims. By Bunnell Lewis, M.A., F.S.A. - 105

On the methods used by the Romans for extinguishing conflagrations. By the

Rev. JosErH Hirst - - - - - • - - 155

Jewish Seal found at Woodbridge. By C. W. King, M.A. - - 168

Roman Pottery found at Worthing. By A. J. Fenton - - - 171

Roman Inscriptions discovered in Britain in 1883. By W. Thompson Watkin - 173

The Battle of Lewes. By the Rev. W. R. W. Stephens, M.A. - - .189

Some Remarks on the Pfahlgraben and Saalburg Camp in Germany, in relation

to the Roman Wall and Camps in Northumberland. By James Hilton, F.S.A. 203

Presidential Address of His Grace the Duke of Northumberland, at the New-
castle Meeting ........ 223

Un the Religious Symbolism of the Unicorn. By the Rev. JOSEPH HlRST - 230

Roman Jewish Seal. By C. W. Kino, M.A. - - - • - 242



The Roman Forces in Britain. By W. Thompson Watkin

On Gauntlets. By the Baron de CossON -

Swan Marks By Edward Peacock', F.S.A. .....

An attempt to discover the meaning of the Shears combined with Clerical Symbols
on incised grave-slabs at Dearham and Melmerby. By the Rev. Thomas
Lees, M.A. - - - -

Gundrada de Warrenne. By Edmond Chester Waters

Recent Roman discoveries at Lincoln. By Rev. Precentor Venables

The Discoveries at Lauuvium. By R. P. PULLAN, F.R.I.B.A. -

The Percies in Scotland. By J. Bain, F.S.A. Scot.

Roman Antiquities from San. By W. M. Flinders Petrie

Repton Priory, Derbyshire. By W. H. St. John Hope, M.A. F.S.A.

Civic Maces. By R. S. Ferguson, F.S.A.

On the difference in plan alleged to exist between churches of Austin canons
and those of monks, and the frequency with which such churches were
parochial. By the Rev. J. F. Hodgson - -






Original Documents : —

Inventory of Plate in the Refectory of Battle Abbey, 1420; printed in
Mr. Macray's " Notes from the Muniments of Magdalen College,
Oxford." Communicated by R. W. Banks - - - - 87

Inventory of Plate in the Refectory of Battle Abbey, 1437 - - 88

Inventory of Relics from Suppressed Monasteries - - - 89

Proceedings at Meetings of the Royal Archaeological Institute, November, 1883,

to July, 1884 92,211,323

Balance Sheet for 1883 - - - - 322

Report of Annual Meeting at Newcastle - - - - - - 415

Memorandum of Association of the Royal Archaeological Institute of Great

Britain and Ireland .»••••-■ 451


Notes of Archaeological Publications : —

History and Description of Corfe Castle in the Isle of Purbeck, Dorset.

By Thomas Bond, B.A. - - . . . - 97

Church Plate in the Archdeaconry of Worcester. By William Lea, M.A.,

Archdeacon of Worcester - - .. 220

Ancient Glass in the Church of St. Mary, Credenhill, by Rev. K. T.
Havergal, M. A.; together with A Description of the Roman Camps and

Stations in Herefordshire, by H. G. Bull, M.D. - - . 326


Index to Vol. XLI. - - - - - . . - 458

List of Members - - - - - . . - 461



Ground Plan of Lewes Priory, Sussex - - - - - To face 24

Antiquities from Honduras - - - - - „ 50

(The Institute is indebted to General Sir Henry Lefroy for half the cost of

this illustration.)

Early Window in the north wall of Minster Church, Sheppey - - „ 54

(The Institute is indebted to Mr. Park Harrison for this illustration.)

Corfe Castle. The Keep or Dungeon Tower, from the south - - „ 98

Corfe Castle. Herring-bone Masonry in the Chapel - - - 100

(The Institute is indebted to Mr. Bond for the loan of these two blocks.)

The Porta Martis at Reims - - - - - - To face 105

(The Institute is indebted to Professor Bunnell Lewis for half the cost of this


Gauntlets. Plate I - - - - - - „ 272

— - Plate II - - - - - - 275

Plate III ■ - - - - - 277

Plate IV To follow 2S2

Ground [Plan and Sections of Roman Remains discovered in the Bail, Lincoln,

June, 18S4 To face 318

Horses' Heads from Lanuvium - - .. 33]

Horse's Head from the Parthenon and Warrior from Lanuvium - 333

(The Institute is indebted to Mr. Pullan for this illustration).

Ground plan of Repton Priory, Derbyshire - 351

Repton Priory. Plans of bases - - .. 352

Repton Priory. Sections of base moldings. -

Repton Priory. Capital, base, and section of shaft of pillar. - - 351

Illustrations of Civic Maces. Plate I. - - - . . 370

Plate II. . . . .. ., r] Plate III. - ■ >-.,

(The Institute is indebted to Messrs. Chatto and Windus and to Mr. Llewellyn
Jewitt for the loan of these blocks).

Cl)e grrftaenlogtcal Sfoumal.

MARCH, 1884.


By W. H. ST. JOHN HOPE, B.A., F.S.A.

There are probably few religious houses the account of
whose foundation is so clearly set forth as that of the
great Cluniac monastery of St. Pancras, established at
Lewes by William de Warenne, earl of Surrey, eight
centuries ago. Here we are not dependent on the
written tradition of some medieval chronicler, nor on the
coloured narrative of an inmate of the house, but the
whole history is unaffectedly laid down for us by the
founder himself."

At some time between the accession of William Rufus
in 1087, and his own decease in the following year, on
the representation of his Lewes monks that the original
charter of 1077 founding the Priory had been sent to
the mother house of Cluny, and that the prior and
convent of Lewes had no title deeds or muniments to
produce in evidence of their rights and privileges if any
dispute arose consequent upon the unsettled state of the
kingdom, earl Warenne drew up a second charter,
confirming to the monks of Lewes the grants and gifts he
had made eleven years before. It is from tins most
singularly interesting document that we learn how and
under what circumstances the monastery was founded.

No better account of the foundation can be written
than an English version of earl Warenne's own words.'

1 Read in the Architectural Section at Archaeological Collections."

the Lewes Meeting, August 1st, 1883 3 For a transcript of the original in the

2 A very good account of the Priory Chartulary, made expressly for this paper,
will be found in Vol. II of " Sussex see Appendix, Note A.

VOL. XLI. (No. 161.) B


" In the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost.
Amen. I, William de Warenne, and Gnndrada my wife, wishing to
journey to Saint Peter at Rome, proceeded through many monasteries in
France and Burgundy for the sake of prayer. And when we had come
into Burgundy, we learned that we could not safely pass through on
account of the war that was at that time between the pope and the
emperor. And then we turned to the monastery of Cluny, a great and
holy abbey in honour of St. Peter, and there we adored and sought St.
Peter. And because we found the sanctity, the religion, and the charity
it there, and the honour towards us from the good prior and all the
holy convent who received us into their society and fraternity, we began
to have a love and devotion towards that Order and to that house
above all other houses which we had seen. But Dan Hugh, their holy
abbot, was not then at home. And because long before, and more so
then, by the advice of the lord archbishop Lanfranc, I and my wife had
it in purpose and desire to found some house of religion for our sins and
the safety of our souls, it then seemed to us that we wished to make it of
no other Order so gladly as the Cluniac. So we sent and asked
of Dan Hugh the abbot and of all the holy congregation to grant us two
or three or four monks of their holy flock, to whom we would give a
church, which we built of stone in place of a wooden one, below our
castle of Lewes, that was of old time in honour of St. Pancras, and this
(church) we would give them, and so much lands and beasts and property
to begin with whence twelve monks 1 could be there sustained. But the
holy abbot was at first very adverse to us to hear our petition, on account
of the distance of the foreign land and especially by reason of the sea.
But after that we asked for licence from our lord king William to bring
the Cluniac monks to England and the abbot on his part asked the king's
will, then at length he gave and sent, us four of his monks, Dan Lanzo
and his three fellows | to whom we gave all the things which we promised
in the beginning ami confirmed them by our writing; which we sent to
the abbot and convent of Cluny, because they would not send us the
monks before they had our confirmation and the king's, which Ave
promised them of all the things that we gave them. And so the Cluniac
monks were given to me and my wife in England. But after the death
of my lord king William, when his son William had come to England
for the kingdom and there had been much discord concerning the
kingdom and doubt about the end, ami I myself in many dangers daily :
Dan Lanzo the prior and my monks shewed me that my confirmation
which 1 had made of the things that 1 had given them at first was at
< luny, and that they themselves had since no protection, and that by
reason of the doubtful and future times I ought to make them every
security for my gifts and grants. Which I willingly made by the advice
of my faithful ones by this my other charter :"

'I hen follows a recapitulation of various manors, tithes,
|»nyi <-('s, jinimmities, etc., granted to the priory, after
which the earl continues :

" Besides I will that my monks and my heirs know that when I and
< " 1 " ,1, '" la Mked Dan Hu g° tlieabbot, who had come into Normandy
*A iwual number, representing with their head, Christ and the twelve Apostles.


to speak with my lord the king, to restore us Dan Lanzo our prior, whom
he hail kept a whole year at (Jinny whence we were so incensed that we
almost proposed to give up our undertaking, or to withdraw from them
and give our church to a greater monastery the ahhot then also granted
us, and promised with much deprecation, that if God should increase our
house, he would make it as one of the great (houses of the Order) after
Dan Lanzo's death, or promotion to any higher dignity ; that when the
monks of Saint Pancras should send to Clunv for a prior, they would send
to them as prior one of their better monks of the whole congregation, whom
they knew to he more pious towards the Order and the ruling of souls
according to God, anil wiser towards governing the house according to Ins
age, saving the greater prior of Clunv and the prior of Caritas. And that
he should remain, and at no time he removed, unless there should be so
just and manifest a reason that no one could reasonably gainsay ; and
thereupon he made for us his writing with his seal, which I have. And
these things we asked for, because we feared that Dan Lanzo, when he
returned, would soon be taken away from us, because the king exalted to
the dignities of the church the better men whom he could find, and, in
our hearing, asked the abbot to send him twelve of his holy monks, and
he would make them all bishops and abbots in the land of his inheritance
which God had given him. And Ave also considered beforehand that if the
still new and tender house often had a new prior and came into new
hands, it would never attain to great growth."

As in the case of many other great houses the later history
of Lewes Priory is remarkably scanty. Sundry items may
be gathered from theChartulary, 1 and others from a volume
among the Cotton MSS. known as the ' Annals of Lewes.' -
The latter work, however, chronicles events relating to
other monasteries of the Cluniac Order, both in England
and on the continent, and it is not always clear that Lewes
is the house referred to.

It will be more convenient to divide this paper into two
sections — the first describing the church ; the second the
conventual buildings. Curiously enough, of the church
itself we have hardly any actual fragments, at any rate
above ground, though almost all the historical evidence
relates to it ; while of the conventual buildings very con-
siderable remains exist, of whose documentary history
we are utterly ignorant. Another feature worthy of atten-
tion is the remarkably clear way in which, even from the
mere fragment of the entire ground plan we have been able
to survey, it is possible to trace how the monastery was
enlarged in various directions to meet the requirements of

1 Cott. MS, Vespasian. F. xv. 2 n , , ___ I Tiberius A.x.

3 Cott. Mb. { v,, , . ■ r»
y riutarch xxix. D,


increased numbers, and this, too, at periods very little
distant from one another.

There seems no reason to doubt that the first church of
the priory was the one given by the founder to the first
monks, which he describes as "the church which we
built of stone in place of a wooden one, below our castle
of Lewes, that was of old time in honour of St. Pancras."

As earl William came to England with the duke of
Normandy, William the Great, in 100G, this church in
1077 when the priory was founded — could not have been
more than a few years old, and it was doubtless large
enough for the handful of monks who formed the new con-
vent. Since, however, the founder had endowed the
prior)- for twelve monks, the first church would not long
suffice for the services of an increased number of brethren,
neither was it furnished with the necessary conventual
buildings. And as it was the custom in all the Orders,
first to build themselves an oratorium, or church, and that
of such a plan that the cloister and surrounding buildings
could conveniently be added thereto, the founder's stone
church, if not rebuilt, was probably enlarged by the
addition of a choir and transepts, and a permanent circuit
of offices attached to it.

According to a charter of the second earl Warenne l
this enlarged church w r as dedicated by bishops Ralph of
Chichester, Walkelin of Winchester, and Gundulf of
Rochester, that is between 1091 and 1098 ; a date that
agrees well with the remains of those portions of the con-
ventual buildings which were a continuation of the same

Further endowments furnished the means for, and more
monks necessitated, additional accommodation ; the church
was therefore again enlarged and a corresponding exten-
sion made of the conventual buildings. This took place
during the life of the third earl, and the church was dedi-
cated between 1142 and 1147.

In 1 2'29 the Annals record "the chapel of the Blessed
Mary was constructed anew, and the first mass celebrated
in it on the vigil of St, Nicholas."-' But we are not told
whether it was at Lewes or not.

1 Sec Appendix, Note li. ' For references to thu,so and uthur

eutrius see posted.


In 1 243 occurs another dubious entry. " On the day
of the anniversary of lord William the earl, the founda-
tion was laid in the new work of our church." The men-
tion of the founder's name seems to identify this with
Lewes, though the place is not named, and a charter of
1247 mentions one John who was magister operum ecclesie.

Passing by sundry records of burials, to which I shall
return shortly, we come to the year 1208, when prior
William de Foville died, leaving amongst other bequests
200 marks " to the finishing the two towers in the front
of the church."

This is the last record of any addition to, or alteration
in the church, and the next step in its history with which
we are concerned is its destruction.

The priory was suppressed on November 16, 1537 (29
Hen. VIII.) and three months afterwards by deed dated
Feb. 16, 1537-8, the King granted the whole of the site
to Thomas, lord Cromwell. ' The too infamous malleus
monachorum thereupon promptly proceeded to pull down
the church, as being part of the monastery that could not
easily be converted into cowsheds and piggeries. A
most graphic account of the melancholy destruction of
the great church has come down to us in a letter 2 written
to Cromwell by one of his agents, who calls himself " John
Portinari," but whose handwriting is strangely similar to
that of Richard Moryson, a well-known creature of Crom-
well's. The letter not only describes the mode of
destruction, but is especially valuable from giving the
approximate size and extent of the church. No apology
is therefore necessary for giving it in full.

My lord, I humbly coined my selfe unto y or lordshyp. The laste, I
wrote unto y or lordshyp, was the xx th daye of thys present monith, by
the handes of Mr Wyliamson, by the whych 1 advertised y or lordshyp,
of the lengthe and greatenes of thys churche, and how we had begon to
pull the hole down to the ground, and what maner and fashion they used
in pulling it down. I told y or lordshyp, of a vaute, on the ryghte syde
of the hyghe altare, that was born up, w h fower greate pillars, having
abowt it, v chappelles, whych be compased in w th the walles, lxx. stepes
of lengthe, that is, fete ccx. All thys is down a Thursday and fryday
last; Now we are pluckyg down an hygher vaute, born up by fower
thicke & grose pillars, xiiij fote fro syde to syde, abowt in circuferecc

1 See Appendix, Note D. Society by Thomas Wright, 1843, but as

2 Cott. MS. Cleopatra. E. iv. 232. The the printed copy contains several errors,
letter has already been printed in "Letters an entirely new, and it is hoped, correct
relating to the Suppression of the Monas- transcript has been made for this paper,
teries" (p. 180), edited for the Camden


xlv. fote. Thys shall dowfi for r .second worke. 1 As it goth forward,
1 woll advise v" Lordshyp from tyme to tyme, and that y or lordshyp may
knowe w* 4 how many me, we have don thys, we browght from London,
xvij. persons, •'? carpetars, 2 smythes, 2 plummars, and on that kepith the
fornace. ev'y of these, attendith to hys own office, x, of them, hewed
the walles ahowte, amoge the whyche, ther were 3 carpentars . thiese
made proctes to undersette wher the other cutte away, thother brake and
cutte the waules. Thiese are me exercised, moch better than the me
thai we i'ynd here in the contrey. Wherfor we must both have mo me,
ami other thinges also, that we have nede of, all the whych I woll w*in
thys i.i "l- thre dayes show y or lordshyp by mouthe. A tuesday, they
began t" casl the ledde, and it shalbe don w* such diligece & savyg as
may be, so that "'' trust is y" 1 lordshyp, shall be moch satisfied w* that
we dip, unto whom, I most humbly coined my selfe, moch desiringe God,
to mainteyn v" helth, v'"' hono r , yo r hartes ease, at Lewes the xxiiij of
March 1537.
y w lurdshyps servant John portinari.

Under nethe here, y or lordshyp

shall see, a iuste mesure
of the hole abbey
The churche is in lengthe, CL fote.
The heygthe, Ixiij fote.
The circuferece abowte it, M.D. lviij fote.
The wall of the forefronte, thicke x. fote.
The thyckenes of the stepil wall x. fote.
The thickenes of the waules interno, v. fo.

Ther be in the churche xxxij. pillars, standyg equally from the walles.
An hyghe Roufe, 1 made for the belles.
Eyghf pillars verry bygge, thicke xiiij. fo, abowte xlv. fo.
Thother xxiiij, ar for the moste parte x fote thicke, & xxv. abowght.
The heygthe of the greater sorte, is xlij. fo. of thother xviij fote.
The heygthe of the route before the hyghe altare, is lxxxxiij fote.
In the middes of the church, where the belles dyd hange, an CV fote.
Tie' heygthe of the stepil at the fronte is lxxxx fote.

So complete does the demolition of the church appear
iw have been, that its very site passed out of recollection ;
and it was not until three centuries had elapsed that mere
accident again brought it to light.

In 1845, during the construction of the railway from
Brighton to Lewes, a wide cutting was carried across part
of the site of the priory. It ran in an oblique direction
from south west to north east, passing over the sites of
the kitchen, fratry, cloister, chapter house, and part of
the church. Sundry curious discoveries were made during
its construction — amongst other finds being the leaden
cists containing the bones of the founder and his wife —

1 It ha been Buggested that the de- Bhow of destruction in the shortest time,
oommenced with the loftiest 2 Vautc craned.

portion to make the greatest


but at present we are only concerned with such as relate
to the fabric.

Mr. M. A. Lower, in a report to the British Archaeo-
logical Association, 1 after describing the discovery of
various graves, continues :

" Up to this point no regular foundations of buildings could be made
out. In several places, masses of chalk have been introduced into the
natural soil for the purpose of making a hard bottom ; but though of
vast extent and depth, it does not appear what kind of masonry they
supported. At the distance of some yards to the south-east, however,
the traces of masonry became more intelligible, and at length remains of
walls became distinctly visible. The first regular apartment discovered
was a room 26 ft. 6 ins. square, with a semicircular apsis on the east side.
From the foundation of the square basis of a pillar in the centre, and
some appearances on the walls, it is pretty certain that this room had a
vaulted roof. At the demolition of the conventual buildings, it would
seem that undermining was one of the means of destruction resorted to.
It seems that the earth was excavated beneath the south-east angle of this
apartment, and hence that portion of the wall was thrown out of the
horizontal line. Here was found the stone which formed the base of the
central column ; it is of Sussex marble, 2£ feet square. The floor of the
apsis was raised above the general floor of the apartment. The former
had been covered with concrete, and the latter with figured tiles, some
remains of which existed, but in so decayed a state, that they could not
be removed entire. On a part of the wall of the apsis which remained,
there were some slight traces of painting, representing the lower portion
of a sacerdotal robe. Near the middle of the wall of the apsis was an
oblong well, neatly lined with chalk, measuring 3 ft. 4 ins. by 2 ft. 9 ins.,
and 22 feet in depth. It had been filled up with earth and rubble, and
must have been disused before the building was erected.

" After this room, which may have been the baptistery or the treasury
of the convent, had been fully developed, the workmen employed by the
Committee began, under my direction, to explore the ground to the
northward, and soon laid open the apsis or chapel, bounded on the north
by a vast mass of flint work, apparently designed to support one of the
piers of a tower. Proceeding in an easterly direction from this, three
other semicircular chapels presented themselves. In some places three
courses of ashlar were exposed, placed upon the loamy soil, and unsup-

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