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2 Brambach. Inscriptiones Rhenanie, urso ; Ibid., xi, and xv,

No. 211. Ille et prtocipiti venabula condidit urso,

DEO SILVANO Primus in Arcto'i qui fuit arce poli.

CESSORINIVS Capitolimus, Gordiani Tres, c. hi, Feras

AMMAVS1VS Libycas una die centum exhibuit, ursos

VRSARIVS LEG. una die mille. Vopiscus in Probo, c. xix,

XXXV . V • S . A . V.S.L.M. Venationem in Circo amplissimam dedit

where V.V.S.A. Ulpise Victricis Seve- — Addidit alia die in .A mphitheatro una

rianse Alexandrians?, v Orelli Inscc. No. missione centum jubatos leones — Editi

3395, and comp. Henzen's Supplement, p ursi siniul trecenti.

335. " Cf. cum custodc vivarii, Or. "_!2.' Turning from classical to mediaeval art,
Ibid. No. 6148, ursos quoque crudelea we find that in the symbolical systems of
occidit X, No. 6170; Orelli Inscc, No. the latter the bear appears as the emblem
2252, Propositus armamentario Ludi of luxury, violence, or anger ; Sketch-
magni. book of VVilars <le Ho'neoort, an architect
Ursarius is omitted by Forcellini, but of the thirteenth century, edited by Pro-
will be found in Quicberat, Addenda fessor Willis, p. 31, PI. VI, Note i.
Lexicis Latinis, with tin explanation


with the Romans. However, I need not enlarge on the
Venationes, because Gibbon has described them with such
power of word-painting, and such fulness of details, as
leave his successors but little to add. 1

No. 21, a pikeman waving a cloth. This is one of the
best preserved figures in the whole series. The cloth
must be explained with reference to the lion in the next
compartment ; the man has held it up either to frighten
the beast, or to protect himself by covering its eyes.

Nos. 24, 25, bull and toreador, a group that reminds us
of Spain. The bull, with head lowered, butts at his
adversary, who was called Taurarius or Taurocenta, for
both names occur in the same inscription (Orelli, No. 2530).
The movement of the animal is very similar to what we
see on a coin of Thurium ; there a Victory appears flying
down from heaven, with a palm branch and crown to
reward the conqueror, as in the medallion of Hermes
mentioned above. The man holds in his left hand a shield,
curved and oval in the lower part ; in his right a short
dart with a broad iron head, which would cause a large
wound. 2

No. 26, a stag wounded in the breast by a spear which
he has broken in his flight. The soil below is reddened
with blood.

No. 27, Mansuetarius (tamer) holds in his left hand a
ring, possibly to entangle the head or foot of the animal
in the next medallion ; in his right hand there is a piece
of cloth for the same purpose as before, No. 21. I should
be inclined to call this figure circulator, iuggler or mounte-
bank, who was so named from rings (circuit) used in tricks
performed by trained animals, bears, dogs, monkeys, &c.

1 Decline and Fall, chap, xii, vol. ii, 2 So Mons. Loriquet explains the coin :

p. 58 sq., edit. Dr. Wm, Smith. Over- " la couronne et la palme destinees an

beck, Pompeii, vol. i, p. 168, Fig. 126'. toreador vainqueur de l'animal, p. 316.

Gemalde an der Brustungsrnauer. Thier- Carelli, Numi Italiae Veteris, PI.

kampf — eines Stiers mit einer gewaltigen CLXVII, No. 27, p. 91 ; but comp. the

Molosserdogge ; ibid., pp. 177-180, Figs. British Museum Catalogue of Greek

131-135. Uebung eines Bestiarius, Coins, Italy, s.v. Thurium, Nos. 96,

Kampf mit dem Biiren, Thierkampf, 113, 115, 122, 143, "Nike crowning a

Jagdscenen ; comp, Tomb of Scaurus bull," whence it might be supposed that

mentioned above. the artist intended to represent the

On a coin of L. Livineius Regulus we animal as victorious,

see two gladiators fighting — one with a Merovingian javelins have been found

lion, the other with a tiger— and a resembling that in No. 25 ; one of them

wounded bull in the background : is preserved in the Museum at Reims,

Cohen, Med. Consulaires, p. 187, PI. Loriquet, p. 317, Note 1.
XXIV, Livineia, No. 1.



A good example may be seen in Rich's Dictionary, copied
from an ancient terra-cotta lamp. Exercises of this sort
were carried by the ancients to great perfection, as we
learn from the monuments and the authors. Suetonius
relates that the Emperor Gralba in his prastorship exhibited
elephants walking on a tight rope. 1

No. 30, a wild boar pierced on the side by a spear. He
is represented in profile, thrown down upon the ground,
with eye closed, mouth open, tongue projecting, and
blood streaming from the wound. A similar figure of a
boar is given by Caylus, Recueil d'Antiquites, vol. i, pi.
xxx, No. I, with the addition of a pikeman, who faces the
animal, and attacks him with his lance. Hence it is doubtful
whether the mosaicist meant to convey the idea that the
spear on the side was the cause of death. In lightness of
limbs and length of dorsal ridge this figure resembles the
famous Erymanthian boar, as he appears in Greek sculpture
and painting ; but it is said that the modern varieties
differ widely from those with which the ancients were
familiar. -

1 Martial, Spect. xvii, De Supplice
elephante, Non facit hoc jussus, nullocpie
doceute magisfcro. xviii, Lambere
securi dextram consueta magistri.
Tigris, ab Hyrcano gloria rara jugo.
Lampridius, Heliogabalus, c. 21. Habuit
et leones et leopardos exarmatos in
deliciis (as pets) ; quos edoctos per man-
suetarios subito ad secundam et tertiam
mensam jubebat accumbere.

Gori, Museum Florentinum, vol. 2,
Tab. XVIII, No. 2, p. 49 sq., has an
engraving of a remarkable gem (perrara) ;
the subject is a trainer who exhibits a
dancing bear. Rich has copied the plate,
but omitted the inscriptions on both sides
of the stone, ETTTXI (for ETTTXE1)
MAEKEAAE, Felix csto, Marcelle; EIPHNH,
Crescit fortuna, Antiochensium. Gori
refers to a curious inscription in
Gruter's Thesaurus, vol. i, p. 637, No.
1, which begins thus :

Ursus togatus vitrea qui primus pila
Lusi decenter cum meis lusoribus,
Laudante populo nmximis clamoribus
Thermi8 Trajani Thermis Agrippa; et
Ibid., the bear is called pilicrepus, ball-
player ; scholasticus, learned ; exodiarius,
actor in a comic interlude.

For the performances of elephants, see
Suetonius, Galba c. vi, Novum spectaculi

genus, elephantos funambulos, edidit :
^Elian, De Animalium Natura, lib. ii, c.
ii, translated by Sir Emerson Tennent in
his Natural History of Ceylon, Appendix
to chap, vii, pp. 237-240.

1 Caylus explains the Plate ibid. p.
90 sq. Representations of the boar and
boar-hunts will be found in the following
works: — Panofka, Rilder Antiken Lebens,
Tafel V, No. 1, Eberjagd, No. 2, Trans-
port des erlegten Ebers. Millin, Galerie
Mytlu.logique, PL CLXXII, No. 628;
Explication des Planches, vol. ii, p. 108.
Rev. C. W. King's Antique Gems and
Rings, vol. i, p. 453, woodcut in the
text, described p. xix, Combat between
Hound and Wild Boar of prodigious size:
ibid., vol. ii, PI. XL, No. 1 ; PI. LIV, Nos.
1, 2, 3, and Description of woodcuts.
Bellori, Pictime Antiqiuc Sepulcri
Masnnum, RomaB MDCCCTX, Tab. XXIX,
p. 60 sq. Apri Venatio, a most important
illustration of the subject. Catalogue
of Roman Medallions in the British
Museum by Mr. H. A. Grueber, Hadrian,
No. 10, PL IV, Fig. 3 ; Marcus Aurelius,
No. 2, PL XVIII, Fig. 3. In both cases
the Emperor is hurling a javelin at a
wild boar before him.

My Paper on Constantinople, Section
IV, sec. 5. Archceol. Jour., vol. xxxix, p.
148 sq., gives many references, especially
f< 'l- the Calydonian Hunt.


No. 31, pikeman advancing towards a panther or leopard
against whom he points his spear. The transverse bar
immediately below the head of the weapon should be
noticed; it was placed there to prevent the lance
penetrating too far, and so bringing the animal too close
to his adversary. This appendage was sometimes, as in
the present instance, of a crescent shape; sometimes, on
the contrary, it widened at both ends. Rich, in his
Dictionary, explains it well, s.v. Mora}

No. 34, lion rushing to left, with tail elevated. He is
not a mere repetition of No. 5, as his body is longer and
his mane less strongly marked. In the mosaic a man
contends with the lion ; but this part, as we know from
Martial, was sometimes performed by a woman. 2 The
monarch of the forests afforded entertainment to the
Eomans by his ferocity and his docility. We have an
example of both in the pavement at Nennig, where a
medallion represents the end of the venatio. A lion has
devoured a wild ass (onager), of which only the head is
left; he places his paw angrily upon it, but submits to be
led away by his keeper, an old slave who strokes him on
the back. 3 Martial has written six epigrams on a lion
carrying a hare in his mouth without hurting it — a subject
which became so popular that it was repeated as an
ornament on terra cotta vases. 4

III. Before describing the tomb of Jovinus, a few words
concerning his biography seem necessary by way of
explanation. His birthplace is not certainly known,
though, according to an ancient tradition, he was a native
of Eeims. He played a conspicuous part in the political
history of the fourth century ; and, if not on the throne

At Reims the boar is seen not only in are the kvuSovtcs ; the straight ones

the Mosaic but also on the tomb of with widening ends, like wings, the

Jovinus, cf. infra. irrtpvyes ; . . . . they are included

Professor Hartog has suggested that by the Latin writers under the one

the difference between the modern general name of mora."

animal and his representative in ancient 2 Spectac. VI. Femince in Amphi-

monuments may arise from a conventional theatro cum leone certamen.

treatment that copied inaccuracies. Dr. Haje jam feminea vidimus acta manu.

Giinther tells me that the bear in the 8 Allgemeine Geschichte in Einzeldar-

Mosaic at Reims is the same as that which stellungen, edit, W. Oncken. Abtheilung

is common throughout Europe, except 64. The engraving from Wilmowsky is

the British Isles. very well executed.

1 The man holds his spear level as in 4 Epigr., i, 7, —

Caylus's Plate mentioned above. See Nunc sua Ca?sareos exorat prseda leones,

the spear-heads engraved by Rich, loc. Tutus et ingenti ludit in ore lepus.

cit. "The sharp curved points, like teeth, Loriquet, Op. Cit. p. 253 sq. and note.



itself, he mounted the steps that led to it. Under Julian
the Apostate (or Philosopher, as some have called him),
Jovinus commanded armies in Gaul and Illyricum ; but he
stained his highest distinction in the war against the
Alemanni, whom he defeated in three battles — at Scar-
ponna (Charpoigne), on the banks of the Moselle, and in
the Catalaunian plains (Chalons-sur-Marne). This last
victory was a most decisive one. and long remembered in
that part of Gaul, as we infer from frequent allusions
made to it. The Emperor Valentinian not only came
from Paris to meet Jovinus, but as a reward for his
services, raised him to the consulship in the following
year, a.d. 367. According to Gibbon, Jovinus assumed
the imperial purple at Mainz, a.d. 411, and was soon
afterwards put to death by Adolphus, king of the Goths.
But there is surely some mistake here, for we can hardly
believe that Jovinus was commander-in-chief in a most
important campaign, that he disappeared for a period of
forty-four years, and then re-appeared as a pretender to
the throne. Gibbon might well say that every circum-
stance in this short reign is dark and extraordinary. It
is far more probable that the usurper was a member of
the same family, who belonged to the following generation. 1

Jovinus is supposed to have fixed his residence for
some time at Reims, partly from laws dated there, which
he himself may have suggested. 2 partly from the fact that
he built in this city the church of Saints Agricola and
Vitalis, and selected it as his burial place. It may be
observed, in passing, that the importance of Reims is also
shown by the long stay of the Emperor Valentinian, who
must have remained there in the year 367 until August
6th, at least.

Inscriptions throw little light on the family of Jovinus.

1 Decline and Fall, Chaps, xxii. xxv, Britain, and sends Provertuides thither

xxxi, vol. lii, pp. 115, 119, 126, 258 sq., before him, lxxiii, 2."
ed. Dr. Win. Smith. The chief ancient :! Dom. Bouquet. Becueil des His-

authority for the life of .Jovinus is toriens des Gaules et de la France, vol. i,

Ammianus Mareellinus, lib. xxi passim ; p. 7. r >4, Ex Codice Theodosiana. — Anno

xxii, 3; xxv, 8; xxvii, 2, 10 ; Cf. Chriati 370. [mpp. Valentinianus, Valens

Orosius, vii. 12. Tillemont, Histoire <les et Gratianus AAA. ad Jovinum Magis-

Empereurs, vol. v, p. 33 sq., p. fa'80, fcrum rnilitum. Commoneat tua Sinceritas

note xxv. hac Sanctione Veteranos ut loca absen-

Jovinus is connected with the history tium squalida . . . quantum vires

of our own country : Monumenta His- unius cujusque patientur, exerceant.

torica Britannica, vol. i, p. 140. "A.D. The object of the statute is to encourage

367, Jovinun is appointed Trsefect in the cultivation of land by the Veterans.


There is one at Kome, where Jovina, a female infant, is
mentioned : —




Another gives us the name of Flavins Jovinus, genera]
of an army in Istria ; il was found in Hungary, and the
forms of the letters prove that it belongs to a late period."

This sarcophagus is 2 metres 84 centimetres long. 1
metre 40 centimetres broad, and 1 metre 50 centimetres
high; it consists of one block of white marble, which is
not good in colour and unequal in grain : a crack in front
extends to nearly two-thirds of the height. The figures
on this side stand out in high relief, but those a1 the ends.
though they form a part of the same subject, are only
sketched, perhaps by some inferior artist. This com-
position contains fourteen statues, differing in age. sex,
condition and dress; but they all wear a mantle (sagum),
which a brooch on the right shoulder fastens.

The chief personage occupies the last place but one to
the spectator's left. He has short hair and no beard ; his
costume indicates a military officer of high rank. Like
the soldiers in the bas-reliefs on Trajan's Column, he wears
drawers (feminalia), 3 extending a little below the knees,
and a tunic (colobium), which also is short, and only covers
the upper part of the arms. His cuirass is of the kind
called -plumata or squamata, because it imitates the feathers
of a bird or the scales of a fish ; a double row of leather
straps is appended to it, as a protection for the thighs;
and on the shoulders there are similar straps, nearly cor-
responding to our epaulettes. This part of the armour

1 Gruter, p. 1504, No. 1. Ducange account, to which I am greatly in-

in his Glossary gives the form Neophytu.s debted, of this monument in the Tra-

also, Cf. Suidas, viuxnX (pvrevdeis. Sec vaux de l'Academie Imperiale dc Reims.

Smith's Dictionary of Christian Anti- Trentieme Volume, Anuee, 1 859-1 S60 ;

entities, art. Neophyte. The newly it forma parts of his treatise, Reims

baptized for eight days wore a white pendant la Domination Romaine d'aprea

dress, hence we find the expressions in les Inscriptions, and has been published

albia and albatus; Fabretti, Inscriptions, separately, with the title. LeTombeau de

pp. 577 sq., 735. • Jovin. He sometimes uses forms of Latin

- Orelli, Inscc. Lat., vol. iii. p. 345, words which are not strictly correct, e.g.,

Xci. Vu-'A, Supplement by Henzen. In femoralia for feminalia, clypeus for

Pannonia, in comitatu StvMweissenhur- clipeus or clupeus. Pharetrce occurs for

ijcvm Hungarise; . . . littene sevi recentis. pJwilerce, through a typographical error,

3 Mons. Loriquet has given a full Acad, dc Reims. Op. citat, p. 1 80.


may be very well setn in the figure of Caracalla, so called,
at Constantinople, a photograph of which I exhibited two
years ago. The Byzantine example, however, is more
ornate than the present one. 1 A short mantle, fastened
in the usual manner, is thrown over the lorica. The boots
resemble the cothurnus, but. having the toes exposed, they
would be more correctly designated by the term campagus;
at the top they are decorated with the heads of animals
and foliage, a fashion of which Montfaucon supplies many
instances. 2 Of the right hand the fingers are broken off,
but the left arm is preserved only as far as the wrist.

Around this figure four others are grouped : a young
man, with flowing curls and wearing a Phrygian cap,
holds by the bridle a horse ready for his master to mount ;
another, on the left end of the sarcophagus, whose tunic
has long sleeves (manicata), presents a helmet with chin
pieces ; a naked child looks up to the chief personage, and
also offers a helmet — a repetition which seems meaning-
less ; in the back-ground a man with a curly beard is
talking to the one first mentioned.

Xext, to the right, we see a young female standing in a
firm commanding - attitude, and looking towards the
principal action as if she were prepared to take part in it.
She wears a crested helmet, from which one lock of hair
escapes, descending on her shoulder. Her right arm and
breast are exposed {expa/pillata), her left shoulder is
.covered by a garment which forms many folds there.
This Amazon's tunic, like those of her male companions,
does not quite reach to the knees. 3 Her boots also

1 See my Paper on C mstantinople, cuirass in particular, Hope's Costume of
Archvol. Jaurh,, vol. xxxix, p. 143 sq., the Ancients may be consulted with
with engraving of Roman Emperor. advantage, vol. i, p. 46 sq. ; vol. ii, Plates

2 Montfaucon, Ant. Expl., tome iii, CCLII, CCLVI.

Part 1, pp. 54-66, Plates XXXIII-XXXV, 3 The general appearance of this

see especially lib. ii, c. v, sec. vi. Le figure recalls to mind the goddess Roma

campagus chaussure des Empereurs et on large brass coins, e.g., those of Ves-

des principalis omciers de l'armee — qui pasian, Cohen, Med. Imp., tome i. frontis-

differait pen de la caligc des Boldats ; piece, and p. 315, Rome assise a droite,

sec. vii, qui par intervalles laissaient uhe adossce ;i sept collihes, tenant un para-

partie du pied decouvert : Cf. ibid, tome zonium. Better illustrations are supplied

v, Parti, p. 158, lib. iv, c. x, Apotheose by Hirt, Bilderbueli fiir Mythologie, pp.

d'Auguste dans l'agathe de la Sainte- 183-185, Die Diimonen der Stiidte ; the

Chapelle (now in the Bibliotheque latter part of the section gives a full

Nationale.) account of the personification of Rome in

1 tucange, b.v. Campagus, explains the ancient art : Cf. Taf. xvi, 2, Sculptures

derivation, a Gneco Ka^nri eras, quod n presenting the apotheosis of Antoninus

crura tegeret. and Faustina ; also Taf. xxv, 15-19.

F"r Roman armour generally and the Auf dem Bogen Constantin't ist sie


resemble the campagns, previously described; they are
pierced with eyelets (ansce), through which ;i thong
\obstragulum) passes. In her right hand she holds ;i spear
(venabulum), of which a small portion is visible, and in
her left a large oval shield (clipeus). Below, there are
two animals, a wild boar and a creature that seems inter-
mediate between a stag and a reindeer.

The central place in these bas-reliefs is occupied by a
man on horseback; he has hair cut close, is beardless, and
wears a tunic with long sleeves; his left hand holds the
reins, his right a short spear which does not projeel
beyond the hunter's breast; with it he is going to pierce
a lion who advances towards him, though already wounded
by another weapon. 1 In front of the rider a man who
has been thrown down, now half erect, is defending him-
self with a shield against the lion, who plants his fore-paws
upon it. The dress of this figure should be noticed, as il
differs from all the rest. He wears long trousers (bracae),
the ends of which are tucked inside his shoes (calcei). His
countenance accords with his costume; both alike indicate
a barbarian. 2

In the back-ground there is a second personage on
horseback, clothed like the first; his action also is the
same, as he hurls a javelin at the lion ; but his face
presents a decided contrast, for his hair is long and in
disorder; moreover he has a beard and moustache. Then
come two men on foot; the one with an open tunic
(exomis) seems to be an assistant of the horseman; the

(Roma) in Relief gleich einer Amazone to distinguish her from Minerva. The

gebildet, wo sie den von Dacien ruckkeh- engraved gems exhibit the single luck oi

renden Traian stehend empfangt, p. 1S5. hair escaping from the helmet, as mi the

In the celebrated Vienna Cameo the sarcophagus at Reims,
helmeted female seated beside Augustus x A liou-hunt appears on a coin of

is usually considered to be the goddess Hadrian ; Grueber, Op. citat, p. 6, No.

Roma, but Mr. King calls her Livia, 18 (No. 8 is a mistake in index IV),

Antique Gems and Rings, vol. ii, p. 70, Reverse, VIRTVTI AVGVSTI: Empercr

Description of Woodcuts, Plate LII, 1 wearing paludamentum, on horse

(Gemma Augustea). The subject is galloping r. ; he hurls, with r. hand,

discussed by Wieseler, notes added to javelin at lion running before him.
C. 0. Muller's Denkmaler, Part I, No. '-' Froshner, La Coloune Trajane, Paria,

377. Tassie's Catalogue, vol i, Nos. 1865, 8vo, p. 8b' : un pantalon de fcoile

8295-8325. Grueber's Roman Medallions, plisse parlebaset serre dans la chaussure:

Antoninus Pius, No. 13, p. 9, and Plate Note (I) ibid, and Fig. 11: <>vi.l, Trisfcia

XI, Fig. 1 (Autotype process); comp. IV, 6, 47. Vulgus adest Scythicum, brac-

Index IV, Types, s.v. Roma. cataque turba Getarum. V, 7, 49. Pellibus

In some cases the identification of Roma et laxis arcent male frigora braccis.

is easy, because a special attribute has Fabretti, La Colouna Trajana, Tav. viii,

been inserted ; in others it is difficult &c.


second, like the child who presents a helmet, has a mantle
for his only covering ; his left arm is broken off in the
upper part. These men are separated by some foliage ;
the interval between them and the second horseman is
filled by a head which has short hair and no beard.

At tin- right end of the sarcophagus we see two figures
clothed in tunic and mantle; one of them holds a spear
and leads a dog by a string, the other appears to be
departing. There are three other dogs in the composition,
but as their noses are mutilated, the species cannot easily
be determined; each of them wears a collar ornamented
with borders and projecting studs. The horses are
caparisoned with the skin of an animal (stragulum), whose
head has been divided into two parts and re-united in
front of the chest; the bridles are decorated with lace,
studs, and metal pendants on the head stall ; at their necks
is a kind of martingale from which hang a crescent
(lumula), bells, and ivy leaves alternating with trefoils.
This part of the harness is like the crepundia oil the breast
of a child, as figured by Rich in his Companion to the
Latin Dictionary, s. v.'

At the left hand corner of these bas-reliefs a pilaster,
covered with a scroll-pattern and ivy leaves, supports a
cornice. The capital is adorned with reeds, in the midst
of which a river-god reclines in a semi-recumbent posture,
as usual ; his right hand holds some aquatic plant, his left
arm leans upon an inverted urn, from which water issues:
a cataract is also descending in front of him. M. Loriquet
endeavours to explain this subject by reference to an old
cosmogony thai regarded water as the origin of all things;
he thinks that it symbolized life and continued existence,

1 Loriquet, Acad, de lieinis, vol. xxv. antiquity was found ill Tkorsbjerg, and

p. 189. 11 y a aussi lets details, dans lo is represented in Plate XIII, Fig. 1. Borne

harnachement des chevaux, par exemple, details being drawn full-size in No. I s to

qui se retrouveront but la colonne d' l d , p. 60. A very great number of

Antonin (?), sur celle de Marc-Aurele, ornamental Studs and bosses for placing

sur l'arc de Septime-Severe it d'autres along the leather straps, as maybe seen

monuments du 11° Siecle, mais pas an- in our figure of the complete headstall,

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