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THE



$rd)aeologtcal journal.

PUBLISHED UNDER THE DIRECTION OF

THE COUNCIL



2Efjc -Eosal ^[rc^acoloflfral Institute of ©vent Britain anti

Jh-rlanfc,

FOR THE ENCOURAGEMENT AND PROSECUTION OF

RESEARCHES INTO THE ARTS AND MONUMENTS

OF

€\)t eailp ant) jtfttiMe Sgess.



VOLUME XLVI.



LONDON :

PUBLISHED AT THE OFFICE OF THE INSTITUTE,

OXFORD MANSIONS, OXFORD STREET, W.

(distributed gratuitously to subscribing members.)

to be obtained through all booksellers.

MDCCCLXXXIX.



The Council of the Royal Archaeological Institute desire that it should be
distinctly understood that they are not responsible for any statements or opinions
expressed in the Archceological Journal, the authors of the several memoirs and
communications being alone answerable for the same.

:ate

„ ; Ji'X

\ LIBRARY 30MMITTEE






CONTENTS.



PAGE

Roman Life in Egypt. By W. M. Flinders Petrie, Esq. ... 1

The Warwick Vase. By Professor E. C. Clark, LL.D., F.S.A. . . 7

Opening Address of the Antiquarian Section. By the Rev. Joseph Hirst . 12

The Battle of Edgehill. By the Rev. G. Miller, M.A. .... 36

Notes on Roman Architectural Fragments found in Leicester, and now in the

Town Museum. By G. E. Fox, Esq., F.S.A. .... 46

Notes on Roman Britain. By J. Haverfield, Esq., M.A. . 05

Bamburgh Castle. By G. T. Clark, Esq., F.S.A. .... 93

The Opening of the Tomb of Bishop Oliver Sutton, and the Discovery of a

Chalice, Paten, and Episcopal Ring. By the Rev. Precentor Venables . 114

The Castle of Fougeres and its Lords. By J. Bain, Esq., F.S.A. (Scot.) . 120
The Pasguard, Garde de Cou, Brech-Rand, Stoss-Kragen or Randt, and the

Volant Piece. By the Hon. Harold Dillon, F.S.A. . . 129, 433
Notes on Ritualistic Ecclesiology in North-East Norfolk. By J. L. Andre, Esq. 136
Cup and Circle Markings on Church Walls in Warwickshire and the Neighbour-
hood. By W. Andrews, Esq. ... ... 156

Banbury Cross. By W. Loyell, Esq . ...... 159

On the Monumental Effigies in Coberley Church, Gloucestershire. By

A. Hartshoene, Esq., F.S.A. . . . . . .165

Contribution towards a complete List of Moated Mounds or Burhs. By

G. T.Clark, Esq., F.S.A. ....... 197



IV. CONTENTS.

PAGE.

The Antiquities of Treves and Metz. By Professor Bunnell Lewis,

M.A., F.S.A. ....... 218, 400

Opening Address of the Antiquarian Section. By the Rev. C. H. Manning,

M.A., F.S.A. 245

Norwich Castle. By Albert Hartshorne, Esq., F.S.A. . . . 260

Opening Address of the Historical Section. By the Rev. A. Jkssoit, D.D. . 269
Castle Aero. By G. T. Clark, Esq., F.S.A. . . . .282

Traces of the Early Development of Municipal Organization in the City of

Norwich. By the Rev. W. Hudson, M.A. . . . .293

Roman Norfolk. By G. E. Fox, Esq., F.S.A. . . . . .331

Some account of the Remains of the Gallic Roman Temple discovered on the
summit of the Puy de Dome (Auvergne) in 1873. By the Rev. Prebend-
ary Scarth, M.A. ........ 350

The Perpendicular Style in East Anglia, chiefly illustrated by examples in

North Norfolk. By J. L. Andre, Esq. . . . . .377

On a Sculptured Stone with a Runic Inscription. By the Rev. Professor G. F.

Browne, B.D., F.S.A. ....... 395

On some Funeral Wreaths of the Grscco-Roman period discovered in the

Cemetery of Hawara, Egypt. By P. G. Newberry, Esq. . . 427

Original Document of William de Percy, died 1245. Communicated by Mr.

J. Bain, F.S.A. (Scot.) . 73

Proceedings at Meetings of the Royal Archaeological Institute, November,

1888, to July, 1889 ...... 75, 170, 286, 434

Report of Annual Meeting at Norwich ... . . 438

Balance Sheet for 1888 ..... . 457

Notices op Archaeological Publications : —

Early Lincoln Wills. By Alfred Gibbons . . . .77

Excavations in Cranbourne Chase, near Rushmore. By Lieutenant- General
Pitt-Rivers ........ 78

Annals of the House of Percy. By E. B. de Fonblanq ue 79

England in the Fifteenth Century. By the Rev. W. Denton . . 83



CONTENTS. V.

PAGE.

Notices of Archaeological Publications {continued) —

The Architecture of Provence and Riviera. By D. MacGibbon . 87, 172

Henry VIII. and the English Monasteries. Vol. II. By F. A. Gasquet . 177

The Book of Sun-Dials. By Mrs. A. Gattt . . . .188

The Monumental Inscriptions of the Church and Churchyard of St. Cuth-

bert, Carlisle. By Miss M. J. Ferguson . . . .192

A History of Mourning. By R. Davey ..... 458
The Church Plate of the County of Dorset. By J. E. Nightingale . 464
The Dark Ages. By R. S. Maitland, D.D. . . . . 469

Archaeological Intelligence ...... 194, 470

Index to Volume xlvi ........ 473

List of Members . ...... 476






LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



Roman Architectural Remains . . . . .to face 58

Plan of Roman Leicester ..... : , 64

(The Institute is indebted to Mr. Fox for the cost of these two
Illustrations.)

Bamburgh Castle, General Plan . . . . . „ 105

,, „ Plan of Keep, Ground Plan

„ „ „ „ First Floor Plan

„ „ „ „ Second „ „ .

„ „ » ,, Third „ „ .



to follow
108



I
I
„ „ Sections J

(The Institute is indebted to Mr. Clark for two -thirds of the cost
of these Illustrations.)

Toilet Scene from Neumagen . . . . .to face 220

Torso of an Amazon . . . . . „ 233

The four Leets of Norwich, 1288 ....,„ 308

The four Great Wards of Norwich, 15th century . . .to follow ib.

Runic Stone, from Cheshire . . . . .to face 394

Aqueduct at Jouy-aux-Arches, near Metz „ 401

(The Institute is indebted to Mr. Lewis for half the cost of this
Illustration.)



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



Vll.



Effigy of a Lady ......

Katherine of Valois ......

Lying in State of Elizabeth of York

Death Watch of Mary Queen of Scots

French Lady of the 16th century, in widow's dress

Ship from the Funeral Procession of the Emperor Charles V.

Philip II. at the Funeral of Charles V.

French Death Crier of the 18th century

Funeral Pall, in the Museum at Amiens

Chalice at Coombe Keynes .

„ „ Sturminster Marshall
Cup and Paten at Gillingham

„ „ „ Shipton Gorge
Paten, Whitchurch Canonicorum

)> » »

Porringer, Winterborne Whitchurch





PAGE.






460




to face


461




to follow


ib.




to face


463




to follow


ib.




>>


ib.


•■


• j>


ib.




• »>


ib.




»


ib.




to face


465




!)


466






467
ib.




to follow


ib.




»


ib.
468











Efjc &rcj)a*ological Journal.



MARCH, 1889.



KOMAN LIFE IN EGYPT. 1
By W. M. FLINDERS PETRIE.

I have no intention of entering on a systematic or general
consideration of the subject I name, but rather of la) r ing
before the Institute some of the more remarkable products
of Eoman work in Egypt, which have come to light in
the course of my excavations this spring. Nearly every-
thing that I have brought to Eno'land was found in a
large cemetery belonging to the town of Arsinoe, the
capital of the province of the Fayum ; this district is
about 60 miles south of Cairo, and is really one of the
oases of the western desert, near enough to the Nile to be
fed by a canal. I had this province assigned to me last
winter by M. Grebaut, the director of the department of
antiquities at Cairo, and for the archaic interest of the
pyramids and labyrinths, and the later value of the Eoman
portraiture, I could hardly wish for a better district.
The whole of the work in the cemetery of Hawara was
entirely a bye-affair; I did not stop there a single day
outside of the time spent in opening the pyramid there,
of which I hope to have somewhat to say next year ; and
the products of the cemetery were so much given in as
well, a prize to maintain patience.

The whole system of the mummification in later times,
and the decay of Egyptian customs, could be traced out
in this cemetery with great advantage. The native

1 Read at the Monthly Meeting of the Institute, July 5th, 1888.
B



2 ROMAN LIFE IN EGYPT.

custom in Egypt, as is well-known, was to embalm the
body and deposit it in a subterranean chamber approached
by a tunnel or well. In the Ptolemaic times this system
degraded into cutting a pit 8 or 1 feet deep, and letting
the coifin down on end into it, finally laying the coffin
flat at the bottom with its feet in a recess cut on one
side of the well and the head end in the bottom of the
well itself, in fact reducing the chamber to a minimum.
But about the beginning of our era a great change took
place, perhaps consequent on the Eoman occupation of
Egypt. The embalmed bodies in place of being interred
were kept for years above ground, probably in the houses
of their families ; and hence arose a new motive, and a
powerful one, for decorating them. This decoration at
first took the form of a more elaborate style of the same
covering used before. The head piece of canvas covered
with stucco and painted was enlarged downwards over
the chest, and covered with brightly painted scenes of
the deceased and the divinities ; not only the face was
gilt but more and more gilding crept into the decoration.
This stage, retaining the old motive but making it purely
decorative, with the original ideas partly lost, and the
old hieroglyphic inscriptions reduced to nonsense or mere
twirls of the brush, or even omitted altogether, — this was
in force during the first century of our era ; and a late
type of this is dated to about 100 or 120 a.d. by the
name of a person Titas Flavias Demetrias (misspelt
Flagias).

The next stage, when all the religious decoration had
become confused and corrupt, was to introduce the arms
of the figure in relief on the stucco work of the chest.
Barely the flesh was naturalistically painted, usually the
whole was gilt ; the conventional attitude was with the
left fore arm horizontal, and the right arm bent up and
holding a wreath of red flowers, grasped together in the
hand. This stage probably lasted some little time, judging
by the number of examples ; and if it is dated between
100 and 140 a.d. it will not be far wrong. These mummies
usually had a canvas wrapper richly painted with the
traditional religious scenes ; afterwards it was of pink with
gilt figures. The gilt heads were more and more carefully
modelled, the faces being in some an evident portraiture



ROMAN LIFE IN EGYPT. 3

of the individual ; and the general work is about as fine
as such materials could possibly allow, the richness of
the burnished gilding and its condition after such a long
burial being surprising.

Something more life-like was still craved for, to represent
the lost faces in the house, and the painted canvas
cover of the mummy suggested the next step, to paint
the face on canvas instead of modelling it. Accordingly
we find a few instances of portraits painted in colours on
a canvas ground, sometimes in tempera on gesso, some-
times with wax on the thread of the canvas directly. The
scheme was not very happy, and was felt to be unsuitable,
for it was continued but a very short time. Probably
this introduction of Greek painting — for Greek it dis-
tinctively is — at the period of about 140 a. d. may be
traced to the great impulse given to late Greek art,
particularly in Egypt, by Hadrian ; and his visit to Egypt
in 130 a.d. may well have been the cause of the settle-
ment of Greek artists in Egyptian towns. Another
attempt was made by the placing of a portrait on a
wooden panel in the place of the face, amidst the
moulded and gilt draperies, and arms encrusted with
onyxes and agates in their jewellery. This wooden panel
had a gilt background to the head, like a Byzantine
picture ; only one example was found, now at the Bulak
Museum.

These tentative experiments in decoration quickly gave
place to the use of a portrait on wooden panel alone,
without any remains of the gilt draperies or arms, but
with occasionally a simple stucco gilt border of vine
pattern around the face. The bandaging of the mummy
covered the edges of the panel portrait and secured it in
position ; while the body was covered with an elaborate
system of cross bandages forming sunken squares, with a
gilt button in the bottom of each. This system prevailed
for probably a century or so, from about 150 to 250 a.d.

About the time of Constantine portraiture seems to
have finally disappeared, and probably the mummies were
no longer kept above grouud. The bodies seem to be
then merely dried without the elaborate preparations with
bitumen or cedar oil which belong to those of earlier
times. While at the same time the personal possessions,



4 ROMAN LTFE IN EGYPT.

such as children's toys, &c, were more usually buried
with the body. Funereal offerings of coins in jars were
still made down to the end of the fifth century a.i>. ; as
large numbers as late us Leo are found buried, in one
case all cut into fragments to prevent their re-use, and in
another case plain blanks of thin copper foil were buried.

In all the Koman period the custom was to bury not in
a coflin, nor in a pit-well ; all that system went out when
bodies were kept above ground and decorated. The
custom then was to build brick chambers above ground,
along the sides of the road in the cemetery, and to bury
the bodies in shallow graves in the floors of the chambers
covered with loose earth and dust, often only a foot or
two down. Very frequently a whole family of mummies
appears to have been huddled off by an undertaker, and
buried anyhow in the first convenient hole, heads and
feet in any direction : in one case a dozen gilt head
mummies were forced into a square pit of an old tomb,
several upside down in order to get room for their
shoulders among the legs of the others.

All this period is of little interest from an Egyptian
point of view ; but as an illustration of the decay of
beliefs and customs of extreme antiquity, as a study of the
extent to which Greeks and Italians adopted the habits of
the people among whom they lived, and as the surround-
ing of an important chapter in the history of painting, we
may well give some attention to this series of changes
which I have now briefly traced.

We will now turn to some technical examples of the
products of Roman life in Egypt. The portraits on cedar
wood panels are rarely in tempera, only a few early trials
being thus executed. The regular mode was by mixing
the colours with melted wax, exactly as we do with oil,
and then laying them on, usually with a brush, sometimes
with pastel. A coat of priming of the ground-colour of the
subject was laid on first, and then the painting was worked
in upon that. Cross-hatching of a darker tint, or spotting,
is occasionally seen in the earlier examples ; but usually
the right tint was mixed and laid on smoothly with a great
delicacy of blending in and shading. Of the technical
excellence of these portraits I need not speak, as it is
manifest to all ; many of them could hardly be surpassed,



KOMAN LIFE IN EGYPT. 5

and would be creditable to any master of the present age.
Yet it must be remembered that these do not shew us the
best work of that time ; they belong to a small provincial
school of painting in an out-of-the-way district of Egypt,
and they may have been as far below the work of the
Greek artists of Alexandria, as a portrait painter's work
in a county town in England is below the quality of
Eoyal Academy pictures. If such work as we see in the
Fayum belonged then to a mere province, what would be
the skill of really celebrated artists in Alexandria ? And
if such was the art in the decadence of Greek work, of a
time when their vase paintings and sculpture are con-
sidered barely passable, what must we imagine the
paintings of the grand age of Zeuxis and Parrhasios, and
the richer magnificence of Apelles, to have been ?

But pictures were painted not only to decorate the dead,
but also to hang on the walls of the rooms. The first
actual example of a picture frame preserved to us comes
from one of these tombs at Hawara. It is almost exactly
like a modern Oxford frame, but with a slit and groove in
front of the picture to slide in a sheet of glass over it ;
and clear glass as large as this I have found some years
ago at Tanis. This had been placed by the side of a
mummy in its grave, having evidently been hung on a
wall before that, by the cord fastened to it.

Over the bodies wreaths of flowers were often placed,
both when buried in wooden coffins, and when laid in the
open ground. These wreaths of red roses, of narcissus, of
immortelles, and many other flowers are beautifully pre-
served, and can be identified, and the separate flowers laid
out as botanical specimens in the present day. Thirty-five
different species of plants have been labelled by my friend
Mr. Newberry in this collection from the cemetery of
Hawara. We are brought much nearer realizing the
flower wreaths of the Greek and Egyptian banquets, when
we see and handle these actual plants entwined when
the Ptolemies still ruled.

Some of the toys are remarkable for originality.
Eag dolls and pottery dolls may be expected ; but a bird
on wheels, and a sedan chair with a lady inside borne by
two porters all modelled in terra cotta, are very curious,
and unique as far as I know. A good example of the



b ROMAN LIFE IN EGYPT.

Roman cinerary urn of lead, filled with burnt bones, was

discovered.

In technical work a cut glass vase is worth notice, from
the clearness and whiteness of the glass, and the linn and
regular execution of the wheel cut pattern upon it. A
set of paint saucers was found in the tomb of a man who
was probably a tomb decorator ; and a perfect example
of a bow drill occurred amongst a quantity of carpenter's
chips and leavings, lumps of pitch, &c, &c.

My other work of this season, the examination of the
site of the Labyrinth, the tunneling of the pyramid of
Hawara, and the discovery of the remains of the
celebrated colossi mentioned by Herodotus, all lie outside
of the scope of this paper. But I hope it will be seen
how for purely classical art, literature, and work, Egypt
is one of the best grounds for research ; in no other
country could such remains have been preserved in such
perfect condition.



THE WARWICK VASE. 1
By PROFESSOR E. C. CLARK, ll.d., f.s.a.

I can add but little to the account given by the official
guide and the various guide books. Some few particulars
I have gathered from other sources as to its history, its
probable author, and its possible original destination.

The guide-books tell us that it was purchased by a late
Earl of Warwick from Sir William Hamilton towards the
close of the last century. The inscription on the pedestal 1
tells us that the vase was dug out of the ruins of Hadrian's
" lordly pleasure house " at Tivoli, that it was repaired at
the charge of Sir William Hamilton, then our ambassador
to the King of Sicily, sent home by him and dedicated by
him to the " ancestral or national genius of liberal arts " in
1774. The inscription in question is not, as sometimes at
Kome, a defacement of old work, the pedestal, and part of
the foot of the vase, being modern. The repairs j'ou can
see. They are evidently the faithful replacement of the
original in all cases but one — to be mentioned presently —
as to which there is some question.

What Sir William Hamilton meant by " the ancestral or
national genius of liberal arts," I do not exactly know.
Sir William was a man of elegant taste in more directions
than one. We owe to him the collection and preser-
vation of many beautiful works of ancient art, the majority
of which were purchased by Parliament for the British
Museum after his death in 1803.

1 Read at Warwick Castle, August 9th, greenhouse and filled it with beautiful

1888. plants. I placed in it a vase considered

1 I suppose this was the second Earl to be the finest ' remain ' of Grecian art

Brooke and Warwick who, according to for its size and beauty." Query, the

West, writes thus of the work of art and Earl's or West's writing ?
its present locality ; "I built a noble



8 THE WARWICK VASE.

The present one was engraved in his " Vasi e Candalabra,"
by Piranesi, from whose brief notes to the engravings I
learn the further particulars that it was found in the year
1770, during excavations carried on in the bed of a small
lake called Pantanello, which was anciently included in
the enceinte of Hadrian's villa. Of course, this is not the
time to describe that wonderful town of walls and terraces
which Hadrian built or finished on his return from his last
progress round the world. I cannot trace this lake Pan-
tanello on the modern plans. Near the entrance are the
remains of what is generally considered to be a Greek
theatre, overlooking the so-called valley of Tempe and the
stream at the bottom of that valley. The " lake " may
have been there. How the vase came into it we do not
know. The villa is said to have been occupied by the
Gothic King Totila, 544 a.d., in his siege of Eome. This
precious monument of art may have been flung in to save
it, on the invader's approach, like the mass of curiosities in
the well of Coventina, near Hadrian's own Roman wall from
Newcastle to Carlisle. Hadrian's villa was finished between
135 and 138 a.d., but the works of art brought to it from
all parts of the world might have various and much earlier
dates. This work is, I know not on what authority,
generally attributed to Lysippus, celebrated for his por-
traits of Alexander, a Greek artist of what is called the
third period, about the close of the fourth centur}^ before
Christ, in which the beautiful or elegant style began to
replace the noble severity of Phidias and his school. The
subject speaks for itself. The lower rim, so to speak, is
covered by two tiger or panther skins, of which the heads
and the fore paws decorate the sides of the vase, while the
hind legs are interlocked, and hang down between
the handles. These handles are formed of pairs of
vine trunks, the smaller branches and grapes of which
twine round the lip of the vase. Heads, each with a
thyrsus or a club, belonging to the owner of the head,
are arranged along the tiger skins. With one exception
these heads are generally, and, I think, correctly regarded
as Silenuses, or male attendants of Bacchus, the god of
wine. The exception is of a very beautiful female face.
This has been held by some savants to be modern, and it



THE WARWICK VASE. 9

has been suggested that it is in fact a portrait of Lady
Hamilton. I leave the question to interest your curiosity
or thirst for knowledge as soon as I have done, which will
be in a very few moments. There is a crack round the
greater part of the head ; the face is somewhat modern ;
the restorations of the eighteenth century were by no
means free from insertions of this kind. On the other
hand, the hair is, I think, continuous with the main
substance of the vase ; the face is attributed, you must
remember, to a period of beauty and softness rather than
of Phidian dignity ; and it does not appear to me to be
exactly that of Lady Hamilton. That she loved to be
represented as a Bacchante, we know — whether she would
have acquiesced in the pointed Faun's ear, which this
figure bears, as cheerfully as Hawthorn's Donatello, I am
not so sure. Piranesi gives the female head in his en-
graving, and says nothing of any change. Assuming this
to be an original Bacchante or Faun, the somewhat mas-
culine surroundings of the lady are not out of keeping
with the accounts of the strange and rather mixed picnics
in which the votaries of Bacchus indulged. Classical
scholars will remember, in that weird play, the Bacchae,
how the mother of Pentheus vaunts her prowess and
success in their wild hunting revel over the hills of
Boeotia. Apropos of hunting, I may say a word on the
club. This object is both pastoral and hunting — used
to throw at a stray sheep, also to knock down a chance
hare. The thyrsi bear the usual fir-cone, or the whorl of
vine or ivy-leaves, with the pyramid of grapes, or the
spear-point, inciting to madness, which peeps through.
The tigers or panthers, the vine trunks, tendrils, and
grapes, the thyrsi, and the beautiful Bacchante, amidst
the Silenuses, all belong to the same god. This is a
Bacchic representation, a subject which will suit very well
with the time of Lysippus, as the beauty of the work suits
the traditional characteristics of his school.

Several suggestions have been made as to the original
destination of this vase. The most favoured one appears
to be that it was " a vessel in which to mix wine with
water, and was intended for the centre of such apartments
as were devoted to festive entertainments," or " was pro-



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