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may be conjectured that the strategos was ex officio admiral and



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XX INTBODUCTION.



high-priest. These symbola cannot be assigned to any towns espe-
cially; they are not local, but general

^ere are two tetradrachms here attributed to the Cyrenaica,
Cyrenaica^witli- of which one (no. 55) bears two monograms occur-
in interval B.C. ^j^ ^^ ^ j^ ^^j^ ^f ^j^^^ province, struck by
808-805, Kagai . r ^ j

goremor; tetra- Ptolemy as king (no. 93) ; the other (no. 54) three*
drachma. monograms found on two similar gold coins^ one

monogram being common to both, the other two being found, one>
on each of the pieces compared** As Ptolemy lost the Cyrenai'ca in
B.C. 312, and did not regain it until ac. 308, he could have struck
money there in the name of Alexander IV., either between the
years B.C. 316-312 or e.g. 308-305. It ia evident, from the occur-
rence of the monograms of his regal coinage, that the issue, as far
as it is known to us, belongs to the later interval ; and it. is not
impossible that it was continued after his accession as king.

A remarkable autonomous coin of Cyrene struck under Ptolemy's

rule should be here mentioned. It is the gold stater

^®^***f^'^* with Alexander's types, formerly only represented

in the French National Collection, but of which a

second specimen has lately been acquired by the Britisk Museum.

The description is as follows, made out from the two specimens :
Obv. Head of Pallas r.

Rev. lilT'i'^^'fL Nike holding wreath and standard, 1. ;
PTOAEMAIH

tol. EY (Pl.xxxiL 1).

Unfortunately neither specimen is complete in the ends of the
words. The last letter but one of the first word may be either O or
n in both specimens : in that of the British Museum it looks like fl
altered to O in the die. The last letter, only seen in the Paris specimen,
may be I or the first limb of N. Again, there is no certainty that^

* Tho two gold coins last mentioned are in the possession of M. Fenardent«



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▲BBAKGEMENT. ZXl

A ends the second word ; it could liave been followed by an iota
subscriptum. The true reading may be discovered by comparing
the autonomous coins of Cyrene of the period immediately pre-
ceding. In them the ethnic name is always KYPANAlON, and the
magistrates' occur in the genitive with the Doric form in £i,
(Miiller, Numismatique de PAncienne Afrique, p. 113, on the second
point.) This evidence would give us KYRAN AlON PTOAEMAin.
A similar inscription is found on a remarkable tetradrachm of the
usual types of the Third and Fourth Coinages, in the Demetrio
Collection, kindly communicated to me by M. Peuardent : it reads
AAEZANAPEION rTOAEMAI[OY ?] (PL xxxu. 3). While the
form is grammatically similar, there is a diflference of meaning:
the coin is " of Alexander,'^ not " of the Alexandrians,'' but this
does not militate against the reading in the case of the stater of
Cyrene. The one is a civic coinage, the other a regal one. Ptolemy
in both cases is the magistrate who controls or issues the coinage.
Thus the coinage could be one in which the Cyrenaeans who
issued it paid honour to Ptolemy, who thus allowed them a privilege
of autonomy. This is quite consistent with the appearance on their
late autonomous coins of the same magistrates' names as those
which occur on Cyrenaean money of Ptolemy as king. (Cf. Miiller,
Num. de I'Anc. Afr., i., tab. 1. See Id., p. 53, 70, 71, iii. 189, on
the whole question.)

This coin must have been issued before Ptolemy took the title of
king; either during his first rule of the Cyrenaica, B.C. 822-312, or
his second, b.c. 808-805. The historical circumstances of each
period are too much alike for us to be able to choose between them.
In 322, as in 308, the rule of Ptolemy succeeded a local tyranny
from which the Cyrenaeans must have rejoiced to escape. How-
ever anxious for autonomy, many citizens must have welcomed
Ptolemy as a very different ruler from Thimbron, Ophelias, and
Agathocles. d



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XXll INTBODUCTIOK.

If we examine the series of gold coins issued daring Ptolemy^s
rule in the Cyrenaica bearing his name^ we may find a clue to the
period of issue. They show four distinct transitions of inscription,
and two of type :—

1. Stater, Attic, Alex, the Great's types, il'^^i!^!??^ ?

magistr. EY« (p. xx.)

2. Hemi-stater „ Same types, PTOAEMAlOY, magistr.

EY*PI . (Miiller, Suppl. p. 24, no. 359, A.)

3. Tetrobol „ Head of Ptolemy : Rev. of Alexander,

[5n]3AI5Aa PTOAEMAlOY. (Tables, p. 11.)

4. Didrachm, Phoenician, Ptolemy's types, PTOAEMAlOY

BASIAEIl^. (Ibid.)

It can scarcely be doubted that the coin inscribed PTOAEMAlOY
was issued during the Interregnum, after Ptolemy had recovered the
Cyrenaica, therefore B.C. 308-305. Hie name of Ptolemy could
not appear on any earlier coin except as a magistrate, as might be
the case with the first issue, where the people also appears in an
equally prominent manner. K this classing be correct, the magis-
trate's name EY^PI in the second issue compared with EY in the
first, supported by the identity of type, would lead us to assign both
to the same period. Should this be admitted, most probably
Ptolemy, not the people, struck the first coin. The change firom the
earlier types to those of the reign of Ptolemy would thus be
unbroken.

It will be necessary to recur to the subject of the coinage of
the Cyrenaica at the close of this section, where the whole currency
of the dependency, from B.C. 305 to the accession of Berenice II.
as Queen of Cyrene, will be examined.



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ARRANGEMENT. XXUl

The Fourtli Coinage probably occupied the greater part of the

periods during which Ptolemy was governor for

Period of Fourth young Alexander, and independent during the
Coinage, probaWy x j i. i.t. >

most pert of in- Interregnum. It is connected by the engraver s

terval B.C. 316- • njark A with the money of Philadelphus, and by

305. ▲

the remarkable moneyer's monogram ^ with that

of Alexander the Great The Second and Third Coinages were

merely tentative, and the Third may have been
Seoond and ,. , -r^ ^i . r^ i an

Third Coinages local, preceding the Fourth m Cyprus only^ On

tentative. ^^^ other hand, the Fourth Coinage is shown by

its importance to have had a long as well as wide existence; and

thus it probably covered nearly the whole period from b.c. 316 to

306, and may for a time have been the silver currency of Ptolemy

as king.

To the Interregnum may be classed without hesitation local copper
money of Cyprus, bearing the name of Ptolemy unaccompanied

Local coinage by any title. One type is certainly of Paphos,
PtoJem'^* ^^ another possibly of Salamis. The date of Ptolemy's

(PL i. 9, 10.) attempted coinage of his own, craftily united with

Interregna ^ special issue of the Cyprian cities, tyranny in

CB.C. 311-305). • ^

the guise of autonomy, may be conjecturally placed



Cypms, Paphos,

SalamiBt late in the Interregnum (b.c. 311-305), but before

Stnick within Cyprus was lost for a few years (b.c. 306). This

^zn^ towwds attribution in time would agree with that of the

close! gold hemi-stater struck in the Cyrenaica, having

the same inscription, which was almost certainly issued between

B.C. 308 and 305.

It is evident that when Ptolemy had taken the title of king

a reform in the coinage was speedily effected*
Eeformofcoin- ^ , ^ , . . i -, -. -i

agennderPtolemy All regal coins of the Ptolemies m gold and silver,

as king. irom his downwards, were struck according to the

Phoenician standard; and the last step in the depreciation of



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xiiv iirrRODUCTioN.

weight was then reached. Towards the end of

Plioeiilofaii i^jjQ monarchy there was a further descent, not in
standard fixiaUy "^

adopted for gold weight, but in purity of metal In the new coin-

and silver. ^^^^ ^j^^ copper money acquired greater importance,

Inciroaied im- but it Was not till the reign of Philadelphus that

porta&ca of oop- , . • i -i i • i

P^^ we have reason to suppose that it attamed the high

position it afterwards continued to hold.
That Ptolemy I. struck coins in his own name as king cannot
^ . , be doubted. The analogy of his hieroglyphic
of tegal coins of inscriptions, which successively present the names
Ptolemy I. ^f pj^jjjp Aridaeus, Alexander IV., and Ptolemy,

each with the protocol of the Pharaohs, cannot be set aside, nor can
the custom of the other kings who simultaneously assumed the diadem*
What, however, can we assign to Ptolemy in the vast mass of
silver money, issued for over two centuries and a half, wbich bears,
with insignificant exceptions, his portrait, and in the nfajority the title
king, in the minority the title Soter? To make our selection of
Ptolemy's own regal coinage, we have two guides, style, and the
presence of monograms and letters denoting moneyers common to
the coinage of Alexander IV. and a portion of the Ptolemaic
Earliest Ftole-^ regal currency. The gold and silver coins of the
male regal coins, earliest style fall into two great groups : (1) those
gold, suver. ^.^^^ ^^^ inscription PTOAEMAIOY BA^IAEfl^,

the larger section of which has the engraver's mark A behind the

J^ii^g's ear, on all silver and all larffe ffold coins ;
Group with title o j & © *

king; mostiy with (2) with PTOAEMAlOY BASI AEIl^ soon changed
^ • to PTOAEMAlOY 5nTHP05, bearing the mono-

grams, &c., of Phoenician and Palestinian coast-towns ; both being

/^ -«*i.,^ . *li6 earlier coins of a series from the later of which
vTonp witn king's

style changed to they are clearly distinguishable. Of these, the first

^da'- ^^ ^^**' S^^^Vy wi*^ ^^^ *i*l® ting, is connected with the

money bearing the name of Alexander IV. by the oc-



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ARBAKGEHENT. XXV

currence o{ the same inoneyers' monograms^ &o., and the reappearance
of the engraver's mark A . The dates presented by the second group,
with for the most part the title Soter, range from the 20th year
to the 39th, of one reign, and as far as the 6th year of another
reign immediately following. They would therefore be consistent
with the reigns of Ptolemy I. and II., or Ptolemy II. and III.*
. - That, however, they were undoubtedly struck under

Ptolemy IL and Ptolemy II. and III. appears, from the issue at the
same mints, by the same moneyers, in years of both
reigns, of gold octadrachms of Arsinoe II., which fact forbids us to
suppose the issue of any part of the series by Ptolemy I. It is to be
remarked that one of the undated coins immediately anterior to
this group (p. xxxiv.) presents K instead of A behind the king's ear.
(Demetrio Coll., communicated by M. Feuardent: pi. xxxii. 4). It
Title Soter giyen ^^7 ^^ added that the researches of M. Revillout

to Ptolemy L by have shown that the title Soter is first given to

Ptolemy II. in hie

35tli year, B.C. Ptolemy I. by Philadelphus in Egyptian oflScial

261-0. documents dated between his 22nd and 29th years.

This is in accordance with the appearance of the title in lieu of that of
king on the coins of the 25th year, which may thus be accepted as
the actual date at which it was conferred (p. xxxv.). The attribu-
tion of these coins to the second and third Ptolemies is historically
consistent, whereas the rule of the first in Phoenicia was too short
and disturbed for the issue of a consecutive coinage of many years.
The group of coins of which the chief section is characterized

Coiof of group }jj the A has now to be noticed. Leaving out for
with A .

(PL iii.) ^^^ present the insignificant fraction wanting this

sign, it is obvious that we cannot assign so large a class to Ptolemy I. :

yet we cannot deprive him of a fiiir share of it, or his rule as king

* The 39th year seems in excess of the reign of Philadelphas by one year;
but this may be explained as due to a different mode of reckoning in Phoenicia
and Egypt. ~



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XXVI INTRODUCTION.

would be almost a blank in numismatics. Having assigned the-
small gold and copper corresponding to the large gold and silver
with the A , by the occurrence of the same or similar monograms
and letters of moneyers, in combination with those of mints, we are
struck by the undoubted fact that this is a new general currency.

We next note that it presents a long series of mints
Mints of AmUa
Ujj^^y not represented in any earlier or later coinage, and

which, since they are not of Cyprus, Phoenicia, or

the Cyrenaica, and cannot all be of Egypt, must in part be of

Asia Minor, Europe being highly improbable, as the Ptolemies would

have been careful to maintain Hellenic privileges. This conjecture

seems confirmed by the appearance of the well-known monogram

of Miletus, and other monograms equally suiting the maritime

dominions of Philadelphus. If these attributions be correct, the

Coinage partty coinage must have been in part struck by Phila-

of Philadelphtti : delphus, Ptolemy I. not having had an opportunity

oinage. ^^ continuously coining money in Asia Minor.

Thus it must be partly the First Coinage of Philadelphus, and

partly of Ptolemy '^ould seem also to be partly the Last or Sixth of

I. : his Sixth Ptolemy I. The occurrence of a magistrate's mono-
Coinage.

gram common to the Fourth Coinage (cf. p. 6,

no. 54 ; p. 20, no. 56) is in favour of dating it in part before Phil-

adelphus : so also is the sequence of the coins of the Cyrenaica

(p. 11, 12, 37, seqq). It is also to be noticed that the Cyprian

issues of Ptolemy's Fourth Coinage, and of that with the A, are

connected by the copper money of the island, which will be seen

to belong to the Fifth or intermediate coinage, this copper,

inter alia, presenting monograms of both. There can therefore be

no great distance of time between the latest issues with the types

of Alexander IV., and the earliest of Ptolemy I. bearing the A^ or

the Fourth and Sixth Coinages.

The types of gold and silver are the head of Ptolemy and the



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ABBlNaBMENT. XXvii

eagle on the thunderbolt : the obverse of the copper presents on
the larger coins the head of Zeus Ammon, on the smaller that of
Alexander in the elephant's skin.

It is necessary now to discuss the limited class of silver without
Gronp without *^® ^ ' which does not belong to this section, and
^' forms the exceptional part of the whole gfroup.

Its coins are marked by the absence of the A , and the obverse-
type of the corresponding copper is a head of Alexander with
the horn of Ammon, and long hair instead of the short hair of
the Third and Fourth Coinages ; this copper, moreover, being of
diflferent denominations to that of the Ptolemaic regal series with
the A , As this type of the copper never returns in either of its
varieties, all later coins which present the head of Alexander show-
ing it clad in the elephant's skin and aegis, and as, moreover, the
denominations do not recur, there can be no doubt that this
money, with its corresponding silver and gold, should immediately
follow the Fourth Coinage, and precede the coinage with the A .
The Cyrenaic coins also indicate a similar intermediate issue (p. 11,
.^^ nos. 95, 96). This coinage would thus be the

Ptolemy I. Fifth of Ptolemy I. It is especially to be noted that

( . u. -8.) ^YiQ Cyprian symbols conjectured in the Catalogue to
ma?*k three great oflBces (p. xix.), first appear on the silver of the
Fourth Coinage, are continued in the copper of the Fifth, which
alone we possess of Cyprus of that issue, and then disappear for a
century. It is also noticeable that the silver coins set apart as the
Fifth Coinage seem in some cases of an earlier style than those of
the coinage with the A , and that correspondingly the head of
Ptolemy does not seem so aged on the supposed earlier as on the
supposed later issue. It might, of course, be urged that it is
unreasonable to intercalate the Fifth Coinage between the coins
with the types of Alexander IV., which have the A, and those regal
Ptolemaic coins characterized in the same way, and that in con-



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XXVUl INTROPUCTIOH.

sequence the coinage here called the Fifth of Ptolemy I. should
follow instead of precede the similar series with the A . The
answer to this objection is, that the copper money with the head
of Alexander, which corresponds to the silver of the Fifth Coinage,
would under the changed arrangement present an inexplicable
recurrence to a previous coinage after the issue of one in a more
complete system into which it would break.

To sum up : — the Fifth Coinage appears to have been the first
attempt at a new currency by Ptolemy as king* It may have
been local: certainly it was not of long duration. Part of th^
coinage with the A ^ as Ptolemy^s Sixth Coinage^ marks the final com->
pletion of the reform. Partly issued by Ptolemy L, it was no doubt
mostly struck as the first general coinage of Philadelphus.

The coinage of the Cyrenwca, under Ptolemy as king, must here

be noticed separately, as it stands almost alone.
Coinage of Cj- ^ "^

rena'iea. a^nd it will be necessary to take in the same view

(PL ii. 9-11.) ^^^ Qf ^^Q ^i^Q ^f Ptolemy H. until 'the accession of

Berenice II. as Queen of Cyrene, B.C. 258, referring the reader

here from the notice of the money of Philadelphus.

The historical facts of the period from the first
Hiftoneal data. ^

acquisition of the Cyrenaica to the accession of
Berenice are as follows, it being best to go back for the moment
to Ptolemy's governorship.

The Cyrenaica was acquired by Ptolemy B.C. 322, and apparently
held, notwithstanding a rebellion b.C- 313, until b.c. 312, when
Ophelias successfully revolted, and ruled it independently until
his death, B.C. 308, shortly after which Ptolemy recovered the
province. The successful general was his stepson Magas, son of
Berenice I., who as governor, and for a time as independent king,
ruled for fifty years, until B.C. 258. He was governor so long aa
Ptolemy I. reigned, but revolted against his half-brother Ptolemy IL,
and became king, for how long we do not know, peace being ulti-



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AERANOEMENT. XXIX

mately made by the submission of Magas, and the betrothal of
Berenice II., his heiress, to Ptolemy Euergetes, son and ultimately
successor of Philadelphus. This engagement was evaded by the
mother of Berenice, but in vain, and the young queen was at last
married to Ptolemy. The marriage appears to have taken place
about B.C. 255, Berenice having ruled as queen till that date from
her father's death, and her husband becoming, as we may infer,
king consort rather than king of Oyrene.

The date of the revolt of Magas, and the length of his reign, are
obscure. In the war with Philadelphus, Antiochus I., king of Syria,
was in alliance with Magas. Consequently this war must have
occurred within the limits of the Syrian king's reign, B.a 280-262.
The last date is two years later than the lowest that modern
writers have assigned to the revolt, b.c. 264 ; the first is identical
with the highest.

The numismatic evidence may narrow the question. Ptolemy

Philadelphus was involved in a war with Antiochus

I., as partizan of Magas. It must have been thus

. that the Egyptian king acquired Phoenicia. He struck dated coins

for Tyre from B.C. 266-5 (no. 44), to his death, B.C. 247. A prior

undated coinage was issued at Tyre and Sidon (no. 32, seqq,) , to which

we may assign at least two more years, and place the first issue of

coins of Phoenicia by the Ptolemies not later than B.C. 268-7.

Making allowance for the preparation for war, and the time needed

for the conquest and reorganization of Phoenicia, so that mints

could be established, we may venture to add two years more, and

obtain as the most probable lower limit for the war with Antiochus I.,

B.C. 270-69. Thus the period of uncertainty as to this war, and

equally as to the revolt of Magas, would not exce3d the years

B.C. 280 to 269.

The probable order of the coins of the Cyrenaica struck during
the period from the accession of Ptolemy I. as king, b.c. 305,



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XXr IKTRODUCTIOir.

to that of Berenice II. as queen of tlie Cyrenaica,
le order
of ocins.



ProtaMe order ^^^ 258, may now be stated, in order that the pro-



blem may be farther elucidated.

It may be well to observe that the earlier coins struck by Ptolemy

in the Cyrenaica after its reduction by Magas, give
Kaxne of Magpai

wanting on earUer no indication of the authority of the successful
®® general and governor, whether struck during the

Interregnum, or after Ptolemy had taken the royal title.

There are two local gold coinages of Ptolemy as king ; (1) Attic

Coins of Ptolemy tetrobols having his head, and on the reverse Nike

* L ^td Id. carrying a wreath and palm, a type which is clearly

ririt Coinage, derived from Alexander the Great's identical but

(PL ii 9 ) unusual type of gold stater ; and (2) Phoenician

Seeond Coinage, didrachms with the head of Ptolemy, and on the

Phoenioian etan- ., i i.i x r i. ji n

^^^^ reverse the remarkable type of a beardless ngure

(PI. it 10, 11.) (Alexander the Great ?) in the character of Zeus,

in a quadriga of elephants. There is no corresponding silver of

Ptolemy. It is to be observed that the autonomous coinage of

Antonomone Gyrene closes for a time with a gold, silver and copper

Coinage of Cy- currency, the gold of Attic weight, the denomina-
rene; lame pe-
riod, iilver, oop- tions being the tetrobol and obol, the silver of

P®'- Rhodian didrachms, the weight apparently falling

to Phoenician, as if influenced by a parallel coinage (the Egyptian)

of that standard. These coins are connected by their monograms.

with Ptolemy's gold coinages just mentioned, and they must

represent the autonomous issues of the period before he was king,

whether Gyrene was subject to him or not, continued into his reign

in the case of the silver and also the corresponding copper. If so,

the silver coins of Alexander IV. already noticed (p. xx.) must have

been issued under Ptolemy's governorship, together with another

silver coinage, the autonomous of Gyrene just mentioned, which

survived into his reign. The autonomous copper of Gyrene of this



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ARBANQRMBNT. XZXl

local coinage, group is interrupted by a local Ptolemaic coinage
opper. distinguished by the head of Apollo, and by the

Sixth ooixLftgo. coinage considered to be the Sixth of Ptolemy I.
Copper. ^^^ First of Philadelphus, having a remarkable

variety^ a large denomination^ with the head of
Ptolemy I. for obverse-type. This last coinage would seem to be of
Ptolemy I. rather than Ptolemy II., as it presents the beginning of
a magistrate's name IP (p. 12, nos. 97, 98) common to the second
gold coinage of Ptolemy I. (p. 11, no. 93) as king for the
Cyrenai'ca, as well as to the autonomous silver of Gyrene. (Miiller,
Num. de PAnc. Afr. i. tab. 1.) It may be here suggested
that a concurrent coinage of Ptolemy and the city of Gyrene
may indicate that the king left a privilege of autonomy to
the head of the Pentapolis, while not allowing it to the other
towns.

The coinages described above are followed by copper with the

Period of Phil- nionograms of Magas only, to be carefully distin-

adelphuB. Local guished from his later copper with his monograms,

coinage of Ifagat

as governor. ^ ^^^ ^^^ magistrates' names now disappearing.

(PI. vi. 5, 6.) Here is a distinct innovation, dating, to judge from

the number of types of coins anterior to it, and the unlikelihood of

any such change under Ptolemy I., rather early in the reign of his

successor than late in his own. It would thus appear that the first

pretensions of Magas were advanced not long after the accession of

Philadelphus, though the coinage would indicate that he did not

at once declare himself independent. This view would favour an

early year in the period B.C. 280-269 for the revolt, and accordingly

B.C. 280 (?) is given in the tables.

A new coinage in copper, having for the obverse-
New coinage of
Magas as king, *yp® *^6 head of Ptolemy, and for the reverse that of

and governor Libya, would appear to mark the revolt of Magas and
second time. .

(PI vi 7-10 ) i^s suppression. It may be classed as follows : —



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XXXll INTRODUCTION.



1. Obv. Head of Ptolemy, Rev. inscT.BA^IAEfl^ MAP A.

2. „ „ Magas, „ „ „ „

3. „ „ Ptolemy, „ „ BA^IAEA^ PTOAEMAIOY.



The only difficulty is as to the order. If, however, we recollect


2 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

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