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that the first coins with the monogram of Magas are earlier,
this sequence is most natural, representing rebellion following on
previous encroachment, and it would be difficult to find room for
the abundant issue here called the third before t^e revolt of
Magas, while it is needed after that event. The rarity of the regal
money of Magas would indicate that his reign was very short.
Later coini of A coinage of silver and of copper, with the re-
w*Mcond*ti^e"'' currence of the monogram of Magas (p. 39,
(PI. vLll.) nos. 25, 8eqq.)y is placed last, as its obviously

later style than the other series with his monogram indicates
a revival of his pretensions towards the close of his reign, when
the betrothal of Berenice to young Ptolemy would have made
the king of Egypt less tenacious of his rights.

Coina of Bere- "^^^ review brings us to the accession of Berenice
nice, queen of as queen of Cyrene, B.C. 258. Her coinage will be
j^^ ' ' considered later (p. xlv.).



Coins of Ptolemy IL, Philadelphus.

Two great groups of the money of the second Ptolemy have been

assigned to him in the previous section. These

ooul^^e"* ^' are:— (1) part, presumably the greater part, of the

series marked by the A behind the king's ear ou

the larger gold and the silver coins, struck as the Sixth Coinage

of Ptolemy I., and continued as the First General Coinage of hia



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ABRAKaSMENT. ZXXIU

successor; and (2) the silver tetradrachms of Phoenicia^ with
which must be classed corresponding copper issued during the
second half of the reign of Philadelphus.

The earlier series^ or First General Coinage of Philadelphus^ has

First General been already described under Ptolemy I. (p. xxy.^
ulyT)^'"*^*^" supra). It will be farther noticed under the
(PI ill.) section on Mints.

The later series^ or the First and Second Phoenician Coinages of
Philadelphus, is of silver and copper. The copper includes the
large piece which has been thought to be the Egyptian pound struck
as a coin« The gold is to be sought in other series. Accordingly,
we find gold octadrachms of Arsinoe II. struck in Phoenicia during
this period. The heavy coins, indeed, in all metals, octadrachms of
Arsinoe II., and those with the portraits of Ptolemy I. with
Berenice I., and Ptolemy II. with Arsinoe II., the silver decadrachms
of Arsinoe II., and the rarer silver octadrachms of Ptolemy I. of
the A series, as well as the heavy copper of both Egypt and
Phoenicia, seem to have had their origin under Philadelphus, and
also to have been struck in the second part of his reign, except
the octadrachms of Ptolemy L, which can only be of the first half.

Thus there is a marked change in the coinage of Philadelphus in

^ ^ the middle of his reiffu, characterized by the issue

IConetary change ° ' -^

in middle of of large gold coins, of silver decadrachms in large

reifirn. numbers, and of heavy copper money. The change

was, however, restricted to Phoenicia and Egypt In Cyprus,

except that a few gold octadrachms of Arsinoe II. may have been

. , issued, the old types continued in a Second
Cyprni, seoona ' *

Coinage. Coinage of gold, silver, and copper of later style,

^ • *^' •' characterized by the buckler as symbol, and in the

gold and silver and the copper in part by the monogram J^ or !T

shown by later coins to read SXl. These coins
Monogram Sn. , _ . « „ .,

clearly next loUow the series with the A , which



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XXXIV INTEODUCTION.

ceases by the middle of the reign of Philadelphus ; and there is

no reason to assign any of them, except perhaps a few of the

copper, the latest, to Euergetes.

The appearance of the buckler on the coins of Cyprus as a

constant symbol is of much importance. It also
Symbol, buckler. _ , . i. ., -r« ,. . i . i

characterizes some of the Egyptian coins, which

stand in the same relation as those of Cyprus to the series with

the A , and also tho earliest, coins with the four portraits. There

can, therefore, be no reasonable doubt that it is a badge introduced

by Philadelphus. This symbol does not usually recur later except

in the series of the four portraits, where, it must be remarked,

it is specially associated with the busts of Philadelphus and

Arsinoe II.

The coinage of Phoenicia must be more specially noticed, as it

presents some noteworthy peculiarities, and affords

an important chronological indication.

This silver coinage seems to have formed the bulk of the ordinary

silver currency of Philadelphus in the second half of his reign, to

judge from the abundance that has come down to our time, and

from the certainty that in several years more than one die was used

for the coinage of the same town. It appears that
f minting *^^^ coinage was struck at a central mint, for the

five cities, Sidon, Tyre, Ptolemais, Joj^a, and Gaza.
We observe, that on the whole the type of the head of Ptolemy I.
changes very remarkably year by year throughout the five cities,
that some coins bear the mint-letters of Joppa and Gaza together,
and that a reverse-die of Joppa, year 33, was altered to suit Tyre,
year 34 (no. 97).

The Phoenician coinage is farther remarkable for the title Soter
given to Ptolemy from the year 25 inclusive, showing that it was
issued commemoratively in his honour. It is of three classes, under
two groups, here called the First and Second Coinages of Phoenicia;



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AEEANQEMENT. XXXV

The First Coinage has the style PTOAEMAIOY

^"^ * BASIAEfl^, and is at first undated (A), of Sidon,

Tyre, and Ace-Ptolemais. Then follows a dated series (B) of Tyre,

Undated. years 20 to 24, the dates after 20 appearing in

(PI. V. 7-9.) monograms. There is no certain coinage parallel

Dated. with this of the other cities, which probably did

(No. 10.) ^^^ |.jjgj^ issue money, or it would have been dated

Second Coinage, like that of Tyre. The Second Coinage is of Sidon,

^ ^'' Tyre, Ptolemais, Joppa, Gaza, and Joppa with Gaza.

Tlie change of style from PTOAEMAIOY BASIAEAS to

PTOAEMAIOY SXITHPOS is accounted for by

M. Revillout's discovery that the worship of the

first Ptolemy with the title Soter was introduced by Philadelphus

between the 22nd and 29th years of his reign. {Revue J^gyptologiqiie,

i. 15, seqq,). These Phoenician coins show that the actual date was

the 25th year, b.c. 261-0. As the head of Ptolemy I. was retained

on the coinage, it was not unnatural to associate it with his special

honorary title. It is, however, remarkable that no coins known to

have been struck out of Phoenicia by Philadelphus or his successors

present the style PTOAEMAIOY SXITHPOS. In all other cases,

therefore, the head of Ptolemy I. on the obverse is associated with

the name of the reigning king on the reverse. It is obvious that

the issue of the Phoenician coinage in the 25th year of Philadelphus

seems to indicate a more complete organization of the country than

does the earlier money. It may be conjectured that the king of

Egypt allowed his new subjects, wrested from the Syrian dominion,

some degree of autonomy, and by this commemorative coinage

indicated this favour, and the final success of his father's efibrts

to subdue them under cover of deliveranca This conjecture may

account for the concurrent use of the style PTOAEMAIOY

BfiiilAEili and PTOAEMAIOY SXITHPOS by Philadelphus ;

but there is a farther phenomenon which may explain it more fully



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XXXVl INTRODUCTION.

the usage of the coins of Cyprus under the same king. In the
First Coinage, the silver has the ordinary style PTOAEMAIOY
BASIAEA^* In the Second Coinage, the monogram J^ for i£l
appears on the gold and silver coins, and some copper ones. This
monogram does not stand for the name of a city or a magistrate, as
no city corresponds, and no magistrate could have held office during
the three successive reigns in which it is first constant and then
frequent. Can it be connected with the Phoenician style, PTOAE-
MAIOY, SXITHPOS ? The coins of Phoenicia may solve this ques-
tion. At first, under Ptolemy II. and III., they present the
inscription PTOAEMAIOY SXITHPOS, once combined with SH
on a coin of Ptolemais, where similar coins present AS and ZE, as
though these inscriptions stood for cognate titles of the city,'Acri;Xo9,
Bevia, and %(OT€ipa. Under Ptolemy IV., the two styles PTOAE-
MAIOY SnTHPOS and PTOAEMAIOY BASIAEflS occur side
by side, but the second form (Sidon) is PTOAEMAIOY BASIAEIIS
in (p. 64, no. 23) ; and PTOAEMAIOY ♦lAOPATOROS SH
(Tyre, no. 24), the form being g, also occurs. It seems, therefore,
possible that in these coins SXl, except in the singular case of its use •
apparently for a city title, is a survival of SXITHPOS. Against this
might be urged the occurrence of these letters on the coin with the
title Philopator, and on another of the same king, also of Tyre, with
the style PTOAEMAIOY SHTHPOS (no. 25) ; but this might be
accounted for as the efiect of long use. If we might suppose that the
letters i£l in Cyprus at least are an abbreviation of SXITHROS,
the Cyprian style would be a link between the Phoenician and the
Egyptian, and read BASIAEflS PTOAEMAIOY SnTHPOS. It
would seem, therefore, as if Ptolemy Philadelphus, in order to con-
ciliate the Phoenicians, issued the coinage commemorative of his
father, in harmony with special privileges, that in Egypt, where the
regal power was always absolute, and most emphatically so with the
natives, he struck in his own name ; but that in Cyprus a conces-



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ABBANaiMINT. XZXVii

Bion was made^ and the Phoenician style was adopted in a modified

form^ so as not to disturb the long-existing coinage.

A few words must be added as to the new copper coinage of

Hew copper coin- Phoenicia and Egypt. It is marked by very large

a^e, Phoenicia ...

and Egypt. pieces for its highest denomination, of which the

(PI. V. 7-9.) weight nearly corresponds, in the heaviest examples,

ProbablyofEgyp. ^ ^j^^ j^^^j^^ Egyptian pound, or uten, of about
tian ftandard, o^ r r

(PL vi. 4.) 14d0 grains. As this was the chief weight of the

Egyptian system, it has been supposed that the coinage was adjusted
to it, especially as copper was the principal currency among
the natives under the Ptolemies, the money of Egypt in this metal
having a special importance in their issues, as may be seen in a
moment if we compare the Ptolemaic with the Seleucid or Mace-
donian currencies. Since M. Revillout's researches doubt has been
cast on this hypothesis. For the information of the reader, the
weights of the Egyptian copper are given later. (Section,
Weights.)

The obverse-type of both Phoenician and Egyptian copper is the
head of Zeus Ammon.. The Egyptian coins present the new reverse-
type of the Eagle on the thunderbolt with open wings, looking back^
The largest Phoenician coins have two eagles for the reverse, indi-
cating the two Adelphi or Philadelphi, Ptolemy and Arsinoe II.,
like the double comucopi© on the coins of Arsinoe II. The coins
of the next size have the eagle with open wings, the smaller, the
ordinary Ptolemaic eagle. (See pi. v., nos. 7 — 9.) The style is
TTOAEMAIOY BASIAEflS. With very few exceptions, of
which the most important are the Cyrenaic issues of Ptolemy
Euergetes U. and Soter II., all copper coins of the Ptolemies bear
only the titles BASIAEY^ or BASI AISSA . The absence of the
portrait of Ptolemy Soter would account for the absence of his
title in the Phoenician copper, and it should be remembered that
money in this metal was always of less importance in reference

/

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XXXVlll INTRODUCTION.

to the authority by whom it was issued than that in the precious
metals.

The heavy copper money of Egypt above described appears to
belong to the reign of Philadelphus only, a new reverse-type being
issued by Euergetes : that of Phoenicia was continued for a while
with the silver under the later king.



Coins with lusts of Ptolemy II. with Arsinoe 11. , and Ptolemy L
with Berenice J.

To the reign of Philadelphus we must assign ihe first issue of two
series of coins of a medallic character, which were
^ **'^** • ^ long continued under later sovereigns. The one is
first issued by principally of gold octadrachms. It bears the busts
PhUadelphns. ^^ ptolemy II. with Arsinoe II., and Ptolemy I. with

Berenice I. The other is principally of gold octadrachms and silver
decadrachms. It bears the bust of Arsinoe II. No such great gold
coins are known of Ptolemy I., who issued pentadrachms ; the first
step in the direction of these heavier issues having been made by the
coinage of the very rare silver octadrachms of the series with the
A , most probably by Ptolemy II. It is consistent with the mag-
nificence of the reign of Philadelphus, and true to his policy that
these medallic family coins should have been first issued by him.
The coins with the four portraits, on the obverse those of

Ptolemv II. with Arsinoe IL, and the inscription
Coins with four '' ^

portraits: Ptol. AAEA<M1N, and on the reverse Ptolemy I. and

n. Arsinoe n. Berenice I. with the inscription OEAN, must be
Ptol. I. Berenice I.



first noticed. The portrait of Philadelphus may
toi'myn III ^^ compared with that in the Hunter Collection
(PI. vii. 1-4.) (pi. xxxii. 5). The earliest in style are charac-



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ARRANQEMINT. XXXIX

terized by the buckler on the obversej as in the general coinages of
Philadelphus. They are not inconsistent in style with his other
coinages^ and with the gold octadrachms of Arsinoe II. of his reign,
and that of his successor Ptolemy III., to be discussed under the
next head. That these coins were first issued under Philadelphus
appears from the titles OEO| and AAEA^I; Ptolemy I. and
his consort already deified, but not Ptolemy 11. and Arsinoe II.
Of a slightly later style are coins with the same symbol. These
may be a later issue during the same period. Thus the mass of
these coins would probably be of Ptolemy II. or III., or both. Of
a markedly different style are others with, as symbol, a spear-head

Second gi%up ^^ ^^^ reverse, and on the obverse the mpnogi*am

Ptolemy y. fi^. Monogram and symbol occur together on

' * coins of Ptolemy Epiphanes (pL xxxii. 7, xvil 3),

and the heads of Ptolemy I. on the octadrachms, are of about

Third group, the same age. This issue may therefore be reason-
Ptolemy VL or ^j^j^ attributed to Epiphanes. A still later group,
(PI. viL 7.) for so its inferior style would seem to indicate, charac-

terized by the buckler only, is probably of Philometor, or perhaps
Physcon, the head of Ptolemy I. resembling a type of their time.
There is also a small silver coin with the same types, too ill-preserved
to be classed according to style. All these coins are probably of Egypt :
if this is admitted, their general inferior fabric could be explained.



Coins of Arsinoe IL, Philadelphos.

The coins which bear the portrait and name of Arsinoe Phila-
delphos are mainly octadrachms in gold and deca-

^^^^'*!!ir** drachms in silver. The gold coins probably range
of Arsinoe ii.

through a peripd of about a century and a half;

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xl INIfiODUCTION.

First group, the silver ones are, without exception, of one time
* ni. * o^^y* '^^^ earliest dated specimens are those in gold

(PL viii. 1-6.) which correspond in their dates and mint-letters,
monograms, &c., to the Phoenician currency of the latest part of the
reign of Ptolemy II. and the earliest of Euergetes. They are there-
fore of Arsinoe II., second wife of Ptolemy II. His first wife,
Arsinoe I., daughter of Lysimachus, was divorced in B.C. 277, in
his eighth or ninth year. There are no coins in the series which can
be reasonably attributed to her, and the undated coins bearing the
name of Arsinoe of the same or similar fabric and style to those of
the cities of Phoenicia may be assigned to the same period, and
therefore classed to Ptolemy 11. or III.

There is a solitary coin (pi. viii. 1) presenting a difference of style

rather than of portrait, and varied in the typo by
Variety of type. , ,. .

the want of the sceptre. The style limits us to

the reigns of Ptolemy II., III., and IV. If placed after the first

issues of this period, the coin would show that the sceptre was

dropped and resumed : consequently it seems reasonable to place

it provisionally at the head of the whole class.

Like the gold coins with the four portraits, those of Arsinoe in

ffold were acfain struck lonff after their first
Second group, o o o

Ptolemy V. great issue. The reissue apj»ears to have similarly

( . vui. ).) begun under Epiphanes, of whose queen we have

no gold octadrachms, as we have of her successive predecessors,
Arsinoe II., Berenice II., and Arsinoe III. The attribution to
Epiphanes is on these grounds : — The use of L for " year,'' as on
the coin in question, is not known before Philopator's coinage
of Cyprus, and the style of the octadrachms will scarcely allow a
later date than Epiphanes. Farther, as Philopator struck money
for his queen Arsinoe III., he is not likely to have issued this of
the earlier queen of that name. Thus Epiphanes probably resumed
the coinage. The next issues may be assigned to Philometor and



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IBRAKOEMINT. zli

Third group, PhyscoD, and perhaps one or both of his sons, when
Ptolemy VI. and
VIII. or later ^'^^ portraits of living queens on the gold money are

(PI. viii. 7-10.) equally wanting. The coin in the French Collection
of Paphos, year 33 (pi. xxxii. 6), cannot be doubted to be of
Philometor or Physcon, more probably the earlier. Allowing for
the Egyptian fabric, always inferior, one coin engraved (pi. viii, 7)
may be assigned with probability to Philometor, the rest to

Portrait aiaimi- Pl^yscon, while one or more of the latest may be of

lated to that of Soter II. or even Alexander I. It is quite possible
later paeons.

that in the coins later than the reign of Epiphanes,

the features of Arsinoe may be assimilated to those of one or more
queens reigning when they were issued. Indeed the likeness of one
head, in this part of the series (no. 8), to the portrait of Cleopatra,
Queen of Syria (Cat. Seleucid Kings of Syria, pi. xxiii. 1), sug-
gests that it may represent her sister, Cleopatra 111. of Egypt, second
wife of Physcon. The subsequent coins (pi. viii. 9-10) might then

show the same portrait at later ages, and bnng
Third group ends , . . . i. i-,,

under Cleopatra ^^ down to the ]oint-reign of Cleopatra III. and

IIL and Aiexan- Ptolemy Alexander I., or the subsequent sole reign
der I., or Soter n. tt a. i • i • •

of Soter IL, after which it is most unlikely that

Egypt had any gold coinage.

The silver decadrachms of Arsinoe, unlike the gold pieces, are all
of one period, that of the earlier gold issue, the reigns of Phila-
delphus and Euergetes. They cannot be more precisely limited,
though it is probable, from their want of variety, that they were
struck within a few years. The silver tetradrachm (pi. viii. 3)
appears to be of the reign of Euergetes.

On reviewing the evidence for the dates of the two classes of medallic
Summary of evi- coinage just noticed, it would appear that Ptolemy

denee of medaUie Epiphanes restored the gold money of Philadelphus
coinage.

which had fallen mto disuse during or after the

reign of Euergetes, and that his successors struck no other gold

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xHi INTRODUCTION.

coinage but this. The cultus of their ancestors under the Ptolemies,
and more especially of the earlier and more fortunate princes,
partly explains this, which is consistent with the use by most of the
later kings of the distinctive titles of the earlier.



Coins of Ptolemy III,, Euergetes J.

The coinage of the Third Ptolemy falls into two great classea, due

to the political history of hfs reign. First, he con-
Classes of coin-
age of Ptolemy tinned the issues of his predecessor, at least in

ni. dae to poUti- Cyprus and Phoenicia: then, no doubt in conse-
cal causes.

quence of the financial pressure of his great war

with Syria, it became necessary to strike rapidly in central positions,

and thus Egypt appears to have a new monetary importance, and the

Phoenician issues are simplified : at the same time these innovations

produce various changes in the types of the coinage.

The First Coinage of Euergetes in Cyprus is fixed by the data
Cyprus, which interpose a limited Second Coinage between

irs oinage, . ^ ^^^ ^j^^ money of the next reign, implying an earlier

(PI, ix. 1-3.) currency under the present one. It is the sequence

in style of the Cyprian money of Philadelphus ; and some of its

pieces are characterized by a monogram, L, occurring

sUver, copper. in the next coinage. This Second Coinage is fixed

(PI. IX. 4-7.) ^jj Y)j the occurrence of a portrait, which can only
be that of Euergetes, since it much more nearly resembles his known
head than that of any other king, but perhaps Philadelphus, for whom
the style of the coins is too late; (2) by the presence in its copper,
the latest of the style originating with the A coinage, and superseded
under Ptolemy IV. by a new style, of a monogram g, apparently
common to the later Egyptian money of Euergetes (Second Coinage),
and certainly to that of Philopator. It must be borne in mind
that under Euergetes there is a recurrence to the wide use of a



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ARKANOEMENT. xllli

moneyer's name which marks the series with the A : consequently

even a common monogram is not likely to mean two names in the

same period.

The First Coinage of Phoenicia continues that of Philadelphus,

and apparently ceases with the sixth year of Euer-

Pirst Coinage, getes. The metals are silver and copper, the type

^^Si\TT)' ^ copper being that with the two eagles; and

the correspondincf sfold pieces are octadrachms of
Gold, AAlmoS n. , . ^/ o o r

Arsmoe II.

The Second Coinage is mainly of Ptolemais, "where a class of coins
Second Coinage, seems to have been hastily issued, with the obverse-
rilver, copper J , ^f ^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^ g^^^^^ Coinage of Phil-

FtolemalB, &c. •' ^ ^

(Pi. X. 3-8.) adelphus, combined with reverse-types bearing

various monograms. With these coins may be classed others of
similar style in silver and copper which bear no mint-letters, but
only the monograms or initials of magistrates. This may be re-
garded as a local unimportant issue.

The Third Coinage of Phoenicia is characterized in the silver

. pieces by a late head of Ptolemy I., and a style of

silver, copper. work consistent with the time of Euergetes and

^ "• - v superior to that of Philopator, whose Phoenician
coinage is certain, combined with a copper issue, which, in the case
of Tyre, closely corresponds with the bulk of the Egyptian money of
Euergetes, the two eagles on the largest coin here giving way to
the single eagle 5 but the correspondence is in the matter of style
rather with his Second than his First Coinage in Egypt. The
silver pieces of this Third Coinage of Phoenicia are characterized
in the case of Tyre and Ptolemais by the monogram Ifl to the right.
The copper is marked by a variety of type in the case of that which
is probably of Sidon, and by a prominent town-symbol at Ptolemais^
Joppa, and Berytus, in addition to the symbol of Tyre, the club
already in use. At the close of the Phoenician series is placed a



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xUv INTRODUCTION.

remarkable tetradrachm (pi. xi., no. 9), with the symbol of an agalma,
apparently of the Asiatic Artemis, which in the portrait of Ptolemy I.
resembles in style a barbarous coin of Ptolemai's of the First Coinage,
and the earlier coins of the series of the Era (pi. xxv., nos. 1,2). It
is probably of Phoenicia or Syria.

The First Coinage of Egypt consists, as far as we know, of a
Egypt, series of bronze pieces, remarkable for the fineness

^ ^ * of their metal, which present generally one obverse-
(Pl. xii. 1, 2.) type and one reverse-type of all denominations, the
head of Zeus Ammon and the eagle with a cornucopias before it. The
smaller denominations have also Alexander's head in the elephant's
skin. The whole series is marked by the occurrence of the
monogram Jjt, which is also found on the silver money of Bere-
nice II. struck in the Cyrenaica. So peculiar a monogram can
scarcely have occurred more than once within the course of two
reigns, for this is the utmost limit fabric would allow for the coins
bearing it, and we must remember the wide use of a single mono-


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