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gram at this time. It is therefore reasonable to class the copper
series to Euergetes, the husband of Berenice, for of course we could
not connect a Cyrenaean money er of Berenice with Philadelphus.
Moreover there is a cognate and more limited series with similar
reverse-types, which is undoubtedly of the same age as the copper
coins just discussed, and which bears on the obverse the laureate
bust of Euergetes.

The Second Coinage of Egypt is marked by the new gold money

Second Coinage, ^j^^^j^ y^^^^^ ^^^ ^^g^ ^f Euergetes, with a radiate
gold, copper.
(PL xii. 3-7.) diadem, and over his shoulder a sceptre-trident ; and,

on the reverse, a radiate cornucopiaa. The copper coinage is simply

an inferior continuation of the common type of that which preceded

it, except that in the smaller denomination the constant types are the

head of Alexander in the elephant's skin, and the eagle with spread

wings. Throughout the gold and larger copper we find the moneyer's



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ASBAKGEMENT. xlv

lettel'S Al ; in the smaller copper^ (with Alexander's head)^ A> E>
€ and E, probably for £, which we find in the Second Coinage of
Cyprus* It is to be remarked that the copper Tyrian coins of the
Third Coinage of Phoenicia, which are strikingly like the heavier
copper coins of Egypt of the Second Coinage, bear in higher
denominations the letters Al. Thus we have two certain instances
of prevalent moneyers' letters in ^ and Al. It is indeed in this
^nd the succeeding two reigns that this recurrence of prevalent
moneyers' letters or monograms, as in the various mints of the
coinage with A, is particularly to be noted*

It must also be observed that the cornucopiao begins to be a

characteristic symbol of large groups of coins under

•ymbolT Euergetes. Its position is usually in front of the

eagle : und6r later sovereigns the type is varied by

the reintroduction of the double cornucopiee of Philadelphus, and

its place is also changed from time to time«

The only coins here assigned to the Cyrenaica of the reign of

Cvrenalea, Ptolemy Euergetes are copper pieces analogous to

Copper. the smaller pieces of his Second Egyptian Coin-

( .xiu. .; ^^^ j^ gj^^ ^^^ style, making allowance for local

fabric, and having for types the head of Zeus Ammon and the

eagle with open wings. One of these coins was acquired from a

Tunis collection rich in Cyrenaic pieces. It is not to be expected

that more coins of this king should be assigned to the Cyrenaica,

as will be obvious from the next section.

Coins of Berenice IL, Eu&rgetis.

Berenice II. is the first Egyptian queen who bears her title,

BcurlXKraa. on the coins. The second Arsinoe takes
Coinage of Bere-
nice n. Title of her husband^s surname, Philadelphos : similarly

fr'ort^' to! Arsinoe III. is not queen but Philopator. Cleopatra L
Ptolemaic Coin- in her own coinage struck by her as regent after the
*^*' death of Ptolemy Epiphanes is called queen, and

9

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xlvi INTRODUCTION^

the samo is the case with the only other Egyptian queens whos0
names occur on coins, Cleopatra II. or III. as wife of Ptolemy
Physcon, Cleopatra III. as his widow, and Cleopatra VII., Hh'e last
and most famous of that name, when sole queen, and when co*
regent with Ptolemy Caesar. It is to be remarked that each of these
queens had a hereditary right. Berenice II. inherited the Cyrenaicaj
Cleopatra I. brought with her the claim to Ccele-Syria and Phoe-
nicia, her dowry; Cleopatra II, was treated as co-heiress by hep
brothers; Cleopatra III. was heiress of Philometor; and the last
Cleopatra was co-heiress of Auletes, striking money with the reg^
title, as sole sovereign, or coregent with a junior. It was necessary
to premise this, lest it should be supposed that all the coinage of
Berenice II. as queen should be limited to her reign in Cyrenal'ca, from
the death of her father Magas, B.C. 258, to the accession of Ptolemy
Euergetes, b.c. 247, when, or a little later, the diadems of Egypt and
the Cyrenaica were united, by the marriage of Ptolemy and Berenice.

It will be best to begin the study of the coinage of Berenice II.

Cyrenaica. with that of the Cyrenaica, as this class could alone

comprise specimens of her currency as queen before the reunion
of the province to Egypt.

The Cyrenaic coinage is limited to Cyrene and Euesperides, or
Cyrene. Berenice, new-named after the queen* The coins of

Gold, sUver. Cyrene are gold and silver, and remarkable as
( . xni. .) aflFording divisions peculiar to them of the Phoe-
nician weight-system. The gold coins are the tridrachm and
its fifth and tenth, whereas the regular Ptolemaic coins are,
first the pentadrachm, didrachm, and hemidrachm, then the
octadrachm and tetradrachm. The silver coin is a hexadrachm,
a denomination unknown to the true Ptolemaic currency. It
is therefore evident that this is a special coinage. It may.
be conjectured that the system was adopted with the object of
harmonizing the Ptolemaic standard with the Attic standard pre-
viously current in the Cyrenaica. It will be observed that the fifth

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▲BRANOIMINT. xlvii

b£ the Ptolemaic tridrachm is an Attic hemidraclim, and the tenth of
the tridrachm the quarter of the Attic drachm. In the gold coinage
issued before the rale of the CyrenaTca by the Ptolemies, the hemi-
drachm occurs, and possibly its half. The hexadrachm in silver is
an Attic pentadrachm, equally with it an entirely new denomination.
Do these peculiar coins belong to the sole reign of Berenice II.,
Dateof iwTO. or to her joint reign with Ptolemy Euergetes ? The
coinage in precious metal of the Ptolemies after the settlement of the
standard has but one great change, the substitution of the gold octa-
dr^rchm and tetradrachm for the pentadrachm and hemidrachm. It
seems therefore very unlikely that after the union of the crowns
Berenice should have innovated, particularly as her money struck out
of the Cyrenaica is uniform in system with that of her husband. On
the other hand, it must be remarked that the monogram >|i: found
on a silver hexadrachm (p. 60, no. 8) characterizes what I believe to
be the first issue of Ptolemy Euergetes in bronze, and this would
indicate that Berenice's coins of Cyrenaica are part of those of the
empire, and thus not of her sole reign. The question must for the
present remain undetermined.

The coins of Euesperides-Bereniee are probably of the queen's
Sitesperides- first or sole reign. The portrait is youthful, and
(PI. xiii. 7, 8.) ^^^ fabric poor. They present the monogram of



Date of iasue.

The rest of Berenice's coinage presents nothing exceptional but
the Cyprian money bearing her name as well as that of Ptolemy.

Other part! of ^® ^^^^ octadrachm struck at Ephesus, and the
empire. Egyptian silver decadrachm, are simply a new issue

( .xui. , , , .; ^^ |.j^^ principle of the great gold and silver coins
of Arsinoe II. The Cyprus coins are copper, assigned on the
evidence of the provenance of a similar coin and the fabric of alL

Note on the coins of Gyrene xoith the inscription KOlNON.
The series of the Cyrenaica presents a gap in regal money between

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Xlviii INTBODUCTTOH.

Berenice II. and about the time of Ptolemy V., and is interrupted

by an autonomous issue in silver and copper characterized by the

Fote on Cyrene inscription KOINON . The weight is Phoenician, and

coins witk there are no names of magistrates^ The description

of both silver and copper is as follows : —

Head of Zeus Ammon r., diademed. Rev. KOINON Silphium*

In style these coins are good. The head of Zeus Ammon re-
sembles that of the first Egyptian coinage of Ptolemy Euergetes I.,
the fabric that of the Cyrenaic coins classed to Ptolemy V.

Hi&ftory explains the appearance of this new coinage, relating how
Ecdemus and Demophanes, having been sent for by the Cyrenaeans,
governed them and preserved their liberty {en Si KvprjvaUov ovtov^
fAerawefiy^afiiva^p, i7rt(}>av&9 irpovaTqaav koX 8i€<f>v\a^av avT0?9 Ti)f'
iXevdepiav, Polyb. x. 25. Kvprjvaioi^i Setjdelaap, T€Tapar//jUva>v r&v Karii
Tvjv iroKw KoX voaovprav, ifKewavre^ evvofiiap eOevro koX SieKoafLrjaav
apiara ttjv woXw, Plut. Philop. i. 1). Unfortunately the date is not
given, but Thrige cannot be far wrong in placing the events between
B.C. 250 and 220 (Res Cyrenensium, p. 240, 241). The lowest pos-
sible limit is B.C. 216, when Livy, speaking of the detention at
Cyrene of the ship carrying Decius Magius of Capua, states not only
that the city was under royal rule but that an appeal to Ptolemy
was possible. (Navem Cyrenas detulit tempestas, qu© tum in ditione
regum erant. ibi quum Magius ad statuam Ptolemaei regis con-
fugisset, deportatus a custodibus Alexandriam ad Ptolemaeum^ etc.,
xxiii. 10.) The accession of Ptolemy III, took place B.C. 247, that
of Ptolemy IV. b.c. 222.

The evidence of the regal coins seems to show that during the
reign of Euergetes scarcely any coins were struck in the Cyrenaica
in his name. The coinage may have been Berenice's, if her money
was issued in the Cyrenaica after her husband's accession. But it
seems most probable that Berenice conceded a certain degree of
autonomy to Cyrene, which included the right of coining; when a
Ptolemy, probably Philopator, withdrew the one privilege he may



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ABBAKQEMENT. xlix

not have interfered witli the other, (On the whole question, see
Thrige p. 239, seqq.; on the coinage here discussed, Muller, Numis-
matique de TAncienne Afrique, i. 37, seqq., iiL 187.)

Corns of Ptolemy IV; Philopator,

The coinage of Ptolemy Philopator presents that conftision which

Coinage of Pto- we should expect in a reign marked by a great war,
political ^^hiftu- causing the temporary loss of the eastern provinces,
«ncos. and characterized by bad government.

The money of Cyprus appears to fall into three groups : first the
CypruB. reissue of the Cyprian tetradrachms of Ptolemy

marked. " Philadelphus, with countermarks for Salamis and

(PI. xiv. 1.) fQp Citium. These coins are presumably later

than the Cyprian coinages of Euergetes, which, it will be
remembered, complete the old series (to an earlier part of which
these countermarked coins belong), and add to it another with that
king's portrait. They are certainly anterior to the reign of Ptolemy
Epiphanes, under whom a new coinage of Cyprus was issued
immediately on or very soon after his accession, which coinage was
continued by his successors. It is also unlikely that old coins
would have been thus recirculated in the prosperous reign of
Euergetes. These countermarked pieces are therefore probably of
Philopator, and if so they may be reasonably placed before the issue
of the dated series, and therefore in his first and second years.

The second, or dated series, consists mainly of copper, the Museum

, containing one silver coin that may be here classed

Silver and eop- °

per dated. with probability. The copper pieces are dated in

( .xiv. -5.) ^j^^ third and fourth years. They bear on the
obverse the monogram ^ or the letter K ; on the reverse, in the
field (1.) S, and (r.) the date preceded by the symbol L. The obverse
type of the largest denomination is the head of Zeus Ammon, of the
next that of the bearded Herakles, and of the smallest that of Pallas.



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1 INTRODUCTION.

The reign is probably fixed by the oceurrence of 5^ for the earliei?

2 or ^ of Cyprus, as on the coin of Tyre (pi. riv., 10) which bears
the king's title (rToAEMAlOY ♦lAOPATOPO^). This com-
bination has been conjectured in the earlier part of this essay to be
the abbreviation of SHTHPO? (p. xxxv). The symbol L for the
yeai* is here first seen : we find it in the Cyprian coinage of Bpiphanes,
and thenceforward on nearly all silver coins, ultimately of Egypt as
well as of Cyprus.*^ The silver coin of Salamis dated in the fourth
year, and with the owl a» symbol in the field (1.) (pi. xiv., 2), is
here placed on account of its being> both on obverse and reverse, of a
finer style than the Qoins of Cyprus of Efpiphanes. It might, but for
its style, have been attributed to the regency of CteopatraI.,on a stiver
coin of which the same symbol occurs. (Berl. Zeitsch. iii., Taf. ix. 15.)

The third group, which was probably contemporary with the other
Dionysiac aU- *^^^ ^^ ^^® beginning of a series evidently issued
▼««^. through several reigns in Cyprus, the fabric and

V • ^iv- > ') provenance being equally in favour of this attri-
bution. The obverse-type is the king's bust as Dionysus, clad in
the nebris, his diadem entwined with the ivy-wreath, and the
thyrsus over his shoulder. The unmistakable portrait on the
earliest coins of the series (pi. xiv., 6, 7), those here classed to Philo-
pator, and that king's known attachment to the worship of Dionysus^
fix these coins to him as their originator. Thus, as in the cases of
Alexander the Great, Ptolemy Soter, Arsinoe II., and later, Cleo-
patra I., the portrait of Ptolemy Philopator was retained in later
currency. The Dionysiac type of Philopator recalls the story in
the third book of Maccabees, of this king's persecution of the Jews,
characterized by his ordering them to be branded with the ivy-leaf ;
though this story may be a combination in a dramatic form of the
persecution by Antiochus Epiphanes, and that attempted by Ptolemy
Physcon, with which indeed it has been connected. It may also

• Most probably it is the Egyptian demotic symbol for * year.'



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AitRANOiici&irr; li

be remarked that the Dionysiao Guild of the oi irepX tov Atopvaov
rexvlrai. was of some consequence in the island (Boeckh, C. I. G. 2619,
2620^. If Boeckh's restoration ef the first of the two inscriptions
referred to be correct, the office of Secretary of the Guild was at one
time held by a Strategos, who was i^o admiral and high-priest of
Cyprus (2619). According to the second inscription, this guild was
at another time -connected with the cultus of the Euergetae, whether
Euergetes I. and Berenice 11. or Euergetes II. and one or both of the
Cleopatras, cannot be proved (2620). If we could infer that the
Secretaryship of the Guild was held er officio by the governor of
Cyprus then the recurrence of a Dionysiac coinage marked by the
symbols (with ^thers^ of the supposed offices of the Strategos would
be very significant. In the present state of knowledge all that can be
dene is to point to a possible connexion of the Guild and the coinage.
The Phoenician money of Ptolemy Philopator falls into two classes,
Phoenicia. which I have termed the First and Second Coinages,
"iiver?**^^' To the First Coinage I have assigned a tetradrachm
(PI. xiv. 8.) represented in the National Collection by two speci-
mens from the same die, which differs from the latest or Third
Coinage of Euergetes in having the inscription BA^IAEfl^ instead
of SHTHPOS. The fabric is remarkably similar, but the portrait of
Ptolemy I. is varied. The letters in the field to left appear to be
eE 51 5TPA, which I would conjecturally read ©EOAOTOY
^lAHNOS or ^lAIlNinN JTPATHroY, Theodotus having been
governor of Phoenicia and Coele-Syria from B.C. 222 to 219. To the
right in the field there are traces of letters which appear to be SH,

equivalent to S on coins of Cyprus and a coin of Tyre to be presently
noticed. This coinage would have been naturally interrupted by
the temporary success of Antiochus III., B.C. 219 — 217.

The Second Coinage would foUow the recovery of

^Silver * *^® Asiatic provinces after the Battle of Raphia, b.c.

(PI. xiv. 9, 10.) 217. The ordinary silver coins assigned tothiscoinage



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lii INTRODUCTION.

are merely a continuation of the usual Phoenician series of the earlier
kings with the inscription ^flTHPO^, the inferior work of which
would induce us to put them as late as possible, and thus to
Philopator^s second rule in Phoenicia, there being no place for them
in the Phoenician money of Epiphanes. The coinage of Tyre is
represented by a coin of this group, equally barbarous with the rest,
haying the monogram and symbol of the city in the field (1.), and

the letters 5 (rO> ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^7 * ^^^^ ^^^ *^® king's portrait and the

Q

inscription PTOAEMAIOY ♦rAOPAToPO^, the letters 5 occur-
ring in the field as before (pi. xiv., 10). A coin classed to Sidon
is a link between this coinage and the First Coinage. The obverse
bears the king's portrait : the reverse has the title BA^IAEQS; in
the field (1.) are the letters ^£1, while 51, here presumably the mint-
name, appears between the eagle's legs, a very unusual place (no. 9).
The reverse of this coin is closely similar to that of the Phoenician
and Egyptian silver coinage of Ptolemy Epiphanes. The irregularity
of the Second Coinage may be explained by the disturbance caused
by the temporary loss of Phoenicia to Antiochus III. It may be
added that the head of Ptolemy Soter on this group is similar to that
on coins of the Era Series (cf. pi. xxv., 3-5), probably struck in
Phoenicia or the neighbouring territory, which it is reasonable to class
to about the same period.

Philopator's copper money of Phoenicia is classed as later than

that of Euergetes, and earlier than that of Epiphanes:
Coppsr.

it cannot be said to which of his two coinages in silver

it corresponds. The pieces are small and scanty. That of Ptolemais

is interesting as ofiering the symbol of the tripod as well as the

monogram of the town.

In the gold assigned to Egypt the octadrachms bear the king's
Egypt, Gold. ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ eagle, with the title Philopator, like the
(PI. xY. 1, 2.) silver coin of Tyre noticed above. The copper

coinage is attributed to this reign as naturally following the latest of



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▲ftRANQ£M£l«T. liil

Ptolemy Eaergetes^ and bearing between the eagle's legs sometimes
Copper. a letter and sometimes the monogram £[ » which is

(PI. XV. 3-5.) probably identical with E in the issue of Euergetes
just mentioned. It is characterized by the reverse-type of the
eagle looking back and bearing a comucopiso on his left wing.
A similar coinage, probably from its inferiority issued after this^
shows the eagle looking forward with open wings. The two are
connected by their mint-letters. In both issues the head of
Alexander in the elephant's skin takes the place of that of Zeus
Ammon on smaller coins.



Coins of Arainoe HI., Philopaior.

Gold octadrachms were struck for Arsinoe III. in continuation of
Ooinacre of Arsi- ^^^^^ ^^ Arsinoe II. and Berenice II. They are
nod m. remarkable for the absence of the veil. The cornu-

* ^ ' ' copiae, as in the case of Berenice II., is single, but

accompanied by a single star above it This star being a common
symbol in the money of Cyprus might indicate a Cyprian mintage,
but on the whole it seems most probable that the coins were struck in
Egypt, There are also small copper coins found in Cyprus bearing
what appears to be the portrait of this queen, and on the reverse the
name of Ptolemy with a double cornucopisD.



Coins of Ptolemy F., Epiphanes,

The coinage of Ptolemy Bpiphanes is marked by the great

Coinage of Pto- disaster of his reign, the loss of the eastern pro-

lemy Epip wws^ vinces, and, in consequence, his issues after the

enoes, earlier years are mainly limited to the mints

of Cyprus and Egypt.

h

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liv INTRODUCTION.

The Cyprian Coinage of Epiplianes is the true commencement of »

series of dated silver tetradrachms, with the symbol L,
Cyprus.

which were issned by the three chief towns of Cyprus,

Paphos, Salamis, and Citium, with little interruption, one period

excepted, at least at one mint, generally at all three.

Beginning •f until the disturbed condition of the island under
series of dated
tetradraclims. *^® "^^^ ^^ Ptolemy Lathyrus after his expulsion

from Egypt by his mother. The important inter-
ruption is in the troubled early period of the reign of Philometor.
The classification depends on the dates the coins bear and their style.
The portrait of Ptolemy Soter, although greatly varied, must be taken
into consideration, as similar types of this portrait are repeated at the
same mint during several years, though there is a change every few-
years, without departure from the general type.

The starting-point for the arrangement of the whole series is

Bates of arrange- *^® reign of Physcon after the death of Philometor.

ment of series: Certain silver coins bearing the dates from 41 to 54

can only be of him, no other Ptolemy having reigned

ypr««« gQ long. This series presents the mint-letters PA,

5A, and Kl, for Paphos, Salamis, and Citium. Two distinct styles

of work, and consequently two mints with the letters PA, will be

found to be due to an Egyptian and no doubt

PA, for Egyptian Alexandrian issue with the well-known letters of the
mint, Alezan- ^ . . ^

dria. Cypnanmmt.

Having once determined a Cyprian coinage of
Physcon, it becomes possible to class the money of earlier and later
kings.

The later issues of the series will be seen to follow accord-
later coinages ^^S ^^ ^^® sequence of style, there being some
of series. difficulty in the case of the Cyprian coinage of

the first four years of the two sons of Physcon, Lathyrus, and
Alexander I.



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ARRANGEMENT. Iv

The coins struck before Physcon's undoubted money fall into two

ffroups. One of these is clearly of later style than
Earlier coinages. ^ ^

the other, and contains certain pieces which from

their high dates can only be of Philometor or Physcon. By a careful

comparison, based on the undoubted coinages of Philometor and of

Physcon, those coins which bear dates suited to either king may be

classed with probability.

There remains the earlier group of Cyprian coins. This resembles
Coins of the group assigned to Philometor, but is unquestion-

Silver. * ^^^7 antecedent to it. The dates range from year
(PI. xvi. i,2,4.a) 2 to year 20. Such a series would suit Epiphanes,
the predecessor of Pbiloinetor, his reign having lasted 24 years, and
would not suit the next earlier king Philopator, who reigned 1 7 only.
They cannot possibly be anterior to Philopator. It must be added
that a single coin (pi. xiv., 2) previously assigned to the 4th
year of Philopator would, if this be the true attribution, be the
earliest instance of dated money of Cyprus marked by the symbol L.
The comparatively continuous series begins with Epiphanes.

This determination of the ordinary silver staters of Epiphanes
struck in Cyprus is supported by a coin with his bust (known .to
represent him by its being elsewhere accompanied by his distinctive
title HTOAEMAIOY Eni<l>ANOY2 pi. xxxii., 7), and the letters
in the left of the field PO corresponding to PO on a coin of Paphos,
undated, but probably of his first or second year, judging from the
style. The letters are unusual, and may be conjectured to indicate
Copper. .Polycrates, governor of the island until B.C. 196.

(PI. xvi. 3,9,10.) fjjQ Cyprian copper money of this reign may
be determined by a comparison of the series here assigned to
Paphos and Citium with the copper coinage of the island under
Philopator, which is of similar but better work. The supposed
copper of Salamis appears to be of the same time as the two groups
classed to Paphos and Citium.



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Ivi INTRODUCTIOlTfc

Daring the short period for which Epiphanes held Phoenicsia

(B.C. 204-198) his chief mint appears to have been

Gold Silver and the federal city of Tripolis. The occurrence of the

opper. ^^^^ ^j ^j^^ Dioscuri on the reverse of the gold octa-

(rl. xvii. 1-4.) ^ ^

drachms here assigned to Tripolis is likely to create

a doubt whether the same symbols on the gold coins struck by

Berenice II. in the Cyrenaica should not weaken the present

attribution. It is^ however, to be remembered that no symbols

would be more likely at Tripolis than these, and that a silver

stater presents the united monogram and symbol ^, TP and palm,

which can scarcely be of any other mint. In the silver coinage with

the head of Ptolemy Soter, the style PTOAEMAIOY SIITHPOS

still appears giving way in this class to PTOAEMAIOY ^A^IAEAS.

This would be the natural effect of the portrait-coinage of Epiphanes,

which could not well bear a reverse with the legend of Ptolemy

Soter. The copper coinage of Tyre is classed here on account of it»

late style and the occurrence of the monogram fi^ , which appears


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