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on the coinage of Epiphanes (nos. 53, 54, cf. pi. xxxii. 7).

The Egyptian gold and silver coinage is classed to that country

on grounds that seem conclusive. The series of

Gold and silver. Cyprus is determined, and that of Phoenicia must

.) have been necessarily very limited. Indeed, if the

letters in the left of the field of some coins of the remaining group

are dates, their Phoenician attribution would be impossible, as some

of them would fall after the loss of the province. It is not likely

that any city of the Cyrenaica was chosen as a principal mint, and

thus probability limits us to Egypt, the only country left for their

issue. This conjecture is supported by the style of the coins, which

is rather Egyptian than of any other part of Ptolemy^s dominions.

The letters in the left of the field are A, B, H, O, and either denote

years or mark a series of issues. There is, however, no certain instance

of a mere mint-number on the reverse of any Ptolemaic coin, and.

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tte occarrence of dates would well correspond with the contemporary
issue of dated coins in Cyprus.

The copper money here assigned to Egypt under Epiphanes is
Copper ^^ *^^ classes. The First Coinage is simply an

(PI. xvii. 6. inferior repetition of the Second, or last. Coinage
of Euergetes; the Second Coinage similarly re-
peats in its larger coins the Second Coinage of Philadelphus,
the smaller size presenting a type which varies the type of
Philopator. The distinctive types are of course those of the
reverses, (i.) Eagle 1. ; in front, comucopiee. (ii. a.) Eagle 1., wings
open, looking back. (ii. 13.) Eagle 1., on left wing double comucopiae.
These classes are connected by the common use of the letters 2E,
separate or in monogram. The double comucopiae probably indi-
cates the marriage of Epiphanes in B.C. 193. A small coin, with the
reverse-type of the eagle with open wings looking back, is interest-
ing as having for the obverse-type the head of Nilus (pi. xviii., 3).
It is evident that these coins are later than the time of Philopator, as
one retains in a Varied form a type of his copper, and is connected
with the rest, while all show a decline in style. Are they, however,
earlier than the reign of Philometor ? in other words, are they of
Epiphanes ? A careful comparison of the new issues of the regency
of Cleopatra I., widow of Epiphanes, and of the coinage of her sons
Philometor and Physcon, gives a general support to the classifi-
cation, as also does the coinage of Cyrenaica here attributed to the
present reign.

The later Cyrenaic coins with the types of the heads of Ptolemy L

Cyrenaica *^^ Libya, are all, but the latest, here classed to

Copper. Epiphanes. Like the coins attributed to Egypt,

( .xviii. .) ^j^^y ^^^ characterized by the single and double
comucopiae on two classes. They also bear the letters 2E in mono-
gram and ME. They must be later than the coinage of Berenice IL
and the autonomous copper coinage with KOINON, which may

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be assigned to the period including the reigns of Euergetes and
Philopator (p. xlvii). They are anterior to the rule of Physcon,
whose title Euergetes (II.) occurs on all his Cyrenaic money. Allow-
ing a few of the class under consideration, in its latest style, and a
coin of the regency of Cleopatra I. of a different character, to the
period between the accession of Philometor, b.c. 1 SI, and the separa-
tion of Cyrenaica under Physcon^s rule, B.C. 164-3, it is obvious that
the coins attributed to Epiphanes could only be of him or Philopator.
That they are of Epiphanes is almost certain, from the presence of
both ME and 2E (monogram), the first also occurring on a silver
coin of this king, assigned to Egypt, the second on the Egyptian
copper which is most probably his.

It may be well to observe that the gold octadrachms attributed ta
Phoenicia and to Egypt, and some of the silver staters of both

countries, present the bust of Epiphanes, with (in

gold) a radiate diadem, this type combined with a

radiate cornucopiaa on the reverse,, a diadem adorned with an ear of
com, and (in silver) a plain diadem, as in the solitary coin of Cyprua
with his portrait* It may be remarked that the plain diadem only
occurs on this Cyprus coin supposed to have been struck while Poly-
crates was governor, and if so, between B.C. 204 and 196, and on an
Egyptian stater which is here supposed to be of the 8th year
(b.c. 198-7), on which the ear of corn appears to have been effaced
on the die. The divinity to whom Epiphanes is assimilated by the
radiate diadem and the ear of corn is probably Sarapis^ who, as a
form of Osiris, would be solar, and connected with the idea of pro-
ductiveness. Certainly Sarapis appears as the consort of Cleopatra I.,
the widow of Epiphanes, represented on her coins in the character
of Isis,

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Coins of Ptolemy FT., Philometor.

It is necessary in this reign and those of Euergetes II. and his
p^j sons to begin with a table of the periods of which

Phikmetor. they consist : —

1. Regency of Cleopatra I., b.c. 181 — circ. 174.

2. Regency of Bulaeus and LensBus, b.c. circ. 174 — 170.

3. Usurpation of Antiochus IV. ) i«a i/*o

-r^ ,^^ X x^. >B.c. 17U — lOo,

Ptolemaeus VIII., Euergetes II. (Physcon) King j

4. Joint reign with PtolemsBus VIIL, B.C. 168 — 164-3.

5. Sole reign, B.C. 164-3 — 146.

6. Joint reign with PtolemsBus VII., Eupator, B.C. 146.

The reign of Ptolemaeus VIII., Euergetes II., has the following

periods during his brother's reign :—
JTTllZ 1. Sole King, B.C. 170-168.

Of Ptolemy Eiier- 2. Joint reign with Ptolemseos VI., B.C. 168—164-3.
^^^^ "• 3. King of Cyrene, b.c. 164-3—146.

The coinage of the Regency of Cleopatra I. is, in part, easily

determined by the fact that the earliest in style of
Coinftg^ of Ke-
gency of Cleo- the four portraits of Queens occasionally accom-

patraL panied by the name Cleopatra is copied on the

Cyprna. Copper. Egyptian copper money of Antiochus IV. Epiphanes,
(PI. xviii. 7.) brother of Cleopatra I., struck during his usurpation.
His Egyptian coinage is clearly imitated from earlier issues of Egypt,
no actually new type being introduced but the head of Antiochus him-
self. The second denomination has for obverse-type the head of a
Queen in the character of Isis (Cat. Seleucidae, pi. xii., no. 12), a head
which we find on copper money of Cyprus and Egypt. One of the
earliest in style of the Cyprian coins in question has on the obverse
the inscription BA2IAI22H2 KAEOPATPAS, and on the reverse
PTOAEMAIOY BASIAEXIS (pi. xviii., 7) . This Cleopatra can only
be the first of that name, striking with the title Queen probably

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as heiress of Coele-Syria and Phoenicia, in association with her son
Philometor, for whom she was regent.

The interesting staters with the busts jugate of Sarapis and Cleo-
patra as Isis appear to have been the special silver
Silver ^h busts ^^"® ^^ ^^^ regency. The two busts are repeated,
of Sarapis and but separately, on the Egyptian coinage of Antiochus

^ ' * Epiphanes ; and the reverse-type, the eagle looking

(PI. xviii. 8.)

back, with a double cornucopias resting on and passing

under his right wing, only diflfers from the usual reverse of the

Cyprian copper with the head of Cleopatra just noticed in the cornu-

copiae being double. The association of Cleopatra with Sarapis

implies the protection of the most popular Egyptian divinity of the

time, just as Apollo, who shared with Ammon a similar position with

the Greeks of the Cyrenaica, appears with Cleopatra on her Cyrenaic

coinage, to be next noticed. The usual representation of Epiphanes

with the diadem adorned with the ear of corn has been already shown

to be a link with the Osiris cycle to which Sarapis belongs ; but this

must not be too strongly insisted upon. From their fabric, these silver

staters with the two busts are probably of Egypt. To the same

Copper. country are here assigned copper coins which are

(PL xviii. 9.) identical with those of Cyprus without the name of
Cleopatra, except that they are of Egyptian fabric.

A single copper coin represents the Cyrenaic currency under

Cyrenaica, Cleopatra I. The obverse has the busts of Apollo

Copper. g^jj^ Cleopatra as Artemis, jugate; the reverse, the

head of Ptolemy L, with the inscription BASI AEXIS TTOAEM AIOY

(p. 79, no. 13). Here Apollo and Artemis take the place of Sarapis

and Isis.

The issue of coins with the head of Cleopatra seems to have been

Eecnrrence of iJ^t^rrupted by the Eegency of Eulaeus and LensBus.

type of Cleopa- The later pieces with this head, but a diflTerent

reverse-type, are here classed to the sole reign of

Physcon after the death of Philometor.

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It 18 necessary to state briefly the reasons for attributing certaia

coins of Cyprus to the reign of Philometor^ as it will

Clai8iil«ation of be seen that according to the arrangement proposed

cies of Philomel *^® earliest date of these coins falls in the year

tor and Phyicon. which was the last of the Regency of Cleopatra^ and

the first of that of Euleaus and Lenaous, — ^by whom

the coin was probably struck, — the point now reached.

There can be no doubt that there are some coins in the Cyprian

series of Philometor. and others of Physcon. The
Bases. *^

dated series from year 41 to 64 can be of no other

Ptolemy than Physcon, he alone of his family haviog reigned above
88 or possibly 40 years ; and considering that they are of a class
which can only be of Philometor or Physcon, as Philometor reigned 36
years, the dates assigned to Physcon may be extended as far as 37
inclusive, giving years 37-64 inclusive for his undoubted coinage.
Similarly all coins dated before year 25 of like fabric can only be of
Philometor, Physcon having become ruler of Cyprus in his own 25th
year. But as Philometor reigned 36 years, all coins of this group dated
year 25 to 36 may be of either Philometor or Physcon, The discrimina-
tion is extremely difficult By comparing the coins of Philometor
before year 25 with later specimens of the series, and similarly by
carrying up a comparison of Physcon's coins later than 37, it is possible
to establish two groups, 28-34 probably of Philometor but possibly of
Physcon, and 25-36 probably of Physcon but possibly of Philometor.
Although the period from the 36th year of Philometor to the 36th
of Physcon is only eleven years, a difierence in style is to be expected.
Such a difference we certainly find iu Physcon's undoubted coinage
within as short a period. At the same time there are insuperable
diflSculties in the way of a final division of the coins of the doubtful
groups. \ careful study of those of the class year 25-36, attributed
to Physcon probably or Philometor possibly, shows that the same
obverse-die was used in later years for the same and another town.

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(Thus the obverse-die of Salamis year 31 is used with two diflfefenfe

reverse-dies of Salamis 82 and with another of Citium 32 : again, an

obverse-die of Citium year 31 is repeated with several different}

reverse-dies, and another of 32 with a different reverse-die, p* 90-92.)

It follows that coins which are apparently of two classes^ the obverse

resembling Philometor's undoubted currency^ the reverse Physcon's,

may be reissues of Philometor's obverse-types by Physcon. It is

even possible that Physcon reissued Philometor^s reverse-types for

the corresponding years of his own reign, though the actual proof

cannot be expected.

Another difficulty must be here noticed, that due to the fact thafc

from the time that Egypt and Cyprus were separate

Mint-letters FA monarchies, B.C. 114, the mint-letters of Paphos PA,
also used for an . /. -ri

Egyptian mint, ^^^e also used for a mint of Egypt, presumably

presnmablyAlex- Alexandria, a point to be considered under the

andria. Proof of mi • •

tliis position. coinage of Physcon. This is proved by the

occurrence of these letters on coins with the

double dates of Cleopatra III. and Ptolemy Alexander I. of

four years within the period B.C. 107-6 — 99, when those princes

did not hold Paphos except perhaps for a year or two, and thus

actually of dates when Cyprus was lost to them. The Egyptian

style can apparently be carried back to the 25th year of Physcon,

although between that date and 36 there is a difficulty. There

•can be little doubt that Physcon had an Egyptian coinage of

later years than 36 : it will be seen that Philometor appears to have

issued such coinage with Eupator in his 36th year. If any of

the coins conjecturally assigned to an Egyptian mint were a

Cyprian issue, they would be of a rougher fabric than that of

Paphos or the other mints of the island, and this of course favours

the attribution to the mint of Alexandria here preferred^

The style of Philometor's certain coins is better than that of the

•certain coins of Physcon. The head is usually larger and in

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Stylet of Phiio- ^^^g^^r relief, and has a nearer resemblance in

metor and Phys- many cases to that of the later coins of Epiphanes

of Salamis. The eagle is generally better designed,

and has a fuller form and larger stride.

To return to the cun'ency of the reign of Philometor under the

Regency of Eegency of Eulaaus and Lenasus : the regular issue

Enl8BU8 and ^j ^^^ silver coins of Cyprus with the traditional
I^ms, Silver. portrait of Ptolemy I. seems to have marked the

(PL xix. 1.) beginning of the period, as we have coins (p. 80, nos.

1 4, 1 5) dated in the 7th year (b.c. 1 75-4). This year corresponds to the

close of Cleopatra^s Regency, and as she appears to have used special

types of her owu, the reissue would mark their abandonment, as we

shall see was the case with the copper of Egypt. It may be observed

that the thunderbolt is winged as on one of the two specimens of

the next issue dated year 19 (PI. xix. 5, p. 83, nos. 31, 32 and 33).

A new copper coinage was issued in Egypt under this regency.

Egypt '"•^ bears the head of Zeus Aramon and the eagle.

Copper. under whose left wing in the larger denomination is

/pj xix 2 ^

^ ' ' '' a sceptre, while in the left of the field is a lotus, the

prevailing symbol on Philometor's copper money, according to the
classification of this catalogue; between the eagle's legs are the
letters EYA for Eulaaus. Were there any doubt as to the
attribution of these coins, it would be removed by their being
countermarked by Antiochus IV. in Egypt with the Seleucid anchor,
a circumstance which has additional value in showing them to have
been a currency of Egypt The occurrence of the name of EulaDus to
the exclusion of that of his colleague is of historical value.

C * of BUT- ^® usurpation of Antiochus IV. was marked

pation of Anti- not only by the countermarking of the current

copper just noticed, but also as already observed

Egyp . opper. |^y ^j^^ issue of a new copper currency for Egypt

with his own name, two of the obverse- types of which, the heads

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Coinage of joint
reign of Philome-
tor and Physcon*

Cyprns, Copper.
Egypt, Copper.

(H. xix. 3.)

of Sarapis and Isis, were borrowed from his sister's, the regent
Cleopatra's, money.

The joint reign of Philometor and Physcon B.C. 168-164-3 may
perhaps be commemorated by the issue in Cyprus
and Egypt of hastily-struck copper coins which have
the air of money of necessity. There appear to hare
been two issues in Egypt, the first repeating the
largest denomination of Eulasus, without the lotus,
the second a barbarous reissue of the same types
(pi. xix., no. 3). Possibly part or all of this group
should be classed to Physcon's first sole reign^ B.C. 170 — 168.

To the period between the death of Cleopatra I. and the close of
the joint reign of the two kings, when Physcon
became king of Cyrene and issued a special coin-
age, we may con jecturally assign the latest copper
coins with the heads of Ptolemy I. and Libya>
which have some analogy in size and fabric with
the Egyptian coins of about the same period.
The Cyprian silver coinage assigned to Philometor . during his
Sole reign of sole reign has been already discussed. Certain
copper coins of Cyprus with the types of the
head of Zeus Ammon and the eagle on thunder-
bolt, with closed wings, and dates ranging from
26 to 36, are classed to this period. Most have the
lotus in the field left, beneath the date, but one bears
a star above the date (cf . pi. xx., nos. 4, 5). * The lotus is markedly
consistent with the attribution, the star is consistent, and the dates
correspond to those of the issue of Cyprian silver in the series
assigned to Philometor. One large coin in copper of the maximum
Egyptian size (pi. xx., no. 3) is here classed to Cyprus, on account of
its provenance and style, and its similarity in the reverse, not ex-
cepting in the form of the lotus, to the dated pieces. It should be


Coinage firom
first Begency to
separation of Cy-

(PI. xix. 4.)

B.C. 6 4-3—46.

Cyprus, Silver.
(PL xix. 5-8;
• XX. 1, 2.)

(PI. XX. 3-6.)

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remarked that the lotus in the Egyptian money classed to the same
king had usually a diflTerent form (of. pi. xx., nos. 3, 4, 5 with 8 and
xix. 2, 3). This occurrence of copper of the largest size out of Egypt
is very unusual. It also occurs in Phoenicia under Ptolemy II.
and III., and the Cyrena'ica under Physcon with Cleopatra II.
and III.

Two coins of the Dionysiac series are assigned to Philometor's

Dionysiao series, reign in Cyprus between B.C. 164-3 and 146, as one

Silver. bears two symbols, both of which occur separately

(PL XX. 6.) Q^ ^jjQ regular silver coins assigned to this period,

and both are marked by their characteristic striding eagle (pi. xx., 6).

The short reign of Philometor in Phoenicia from the date of his

Phoenicia. capture of Ptolemais B.C. 148-7 to his death b.c. 146

Silver and copper. ia,commemorated by two coins, the silver tetradrachm

(Pl.xxxii. 8;xx.7.) represented in the Biblioth^que Nationale at Paris,

and the Hague, and a copper coin in the British Museum. Both

bear the diademed portrait of the kinff, as a kinsr
Portrait of Phi- ^ &> Q

lometor as a Se- of Syria, not of Egypt, for they lack the aegis ; and
^^^^ ' this is in accord with the statement of the

historians that Philometor was offered at Antioch the diadem of
Syria, to which it may be added his maternal descent from the
Seleucids gave him a claim, though one inferior to that of
Demetrius II. Nicator, in whose favour he appears to have

There is therefore nothing surprising in the occurrence of coins of
Ptolemy Philometor in the character of a Seleucid king. These

♦ nTo\€na7os, 6 rfis Guptas $a<ri\flft, icotA rhv ir6\(fJiov wXriytU iTcXcvrria'c rhv filov,
Polyb. xl. 12. iKdity 84 icphs robs *AvTtox6*s UroXefiaios ficuriKths iw* airrwv Kalr&y vrpa*
r€Vfidrwy iLvctSelKwrai, Koi iivayKaffOfls 8t5o wtpirlBeTai SmS^/iaro, tv fi\y rh rrjs 'Adas,
tirtpop 84 Tijs Aly{nrTov, Jos. Ant. xiii. 4, § 7. ko) clo-^AOe TlroXcfiaios eis *Ai'TiJx*tai', Kal
vepUOiTO 8t}o 8ta8^MaTO irtpl r^y Kecpak^v avrov, rh rijs 'Atrlas Koi [rh T^r] Aiy^nrrov,
1 Mace. xi. 13. So far there is no difference: Josephus adds that Ptolemy at once
resigned at Antioch in favour of Demetrius II. Nicator.

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Ixvi introduction:

coins might have been struck by him as a claimant to the throne of
Syria on his invasion, or under the circumstances of his receiving
the Syrian diadem at Antioch, or indeed for Phoenicia alone, to
which he had an undoubted right.
The coins may be thus described : —

Head of Ptolemaeus VI. r. diademed.


Eagle 1. on winged thunderbolt ; under r. wing corn-stalk ; to
r. rn; between eagle and thunderbolt lA T A. M.
Struck at Ptolemais. (PL xxxii., no. 8,}

The Syrian style of the inscription is particularly to be noticed. —

The type of the eagle and corn-stalk was first correctly described by^

Dr. Imhoof-Blumer (Zeitschrift f iir Numismatik iii. 352. Tkf. ix. 16).

Head of Ptolemy VI. r. diademed; countermark f!^.

Rev. PTOAEMAIOY BA5 Eagle 1. on thunderbolt,

wings open ; in front, dolphin r., downwards. M,

(PL XX., no. 7.)

This coin, struck at some coast-town of Phoenicia, Palestine, or

Syria, bears a countermark which seems peculiar to Cyprus.

The Egyptian coinage of Philometor as sole king from B.C. 164-3

Egypt;. to 146 probably comprised gold octadrachms of

Geld t

Arsinoe II. (supra, p. xL). The copper money here

(PL XX. 8.) classed to him is characterized by his supposed dis-

tinctive symbol the lotus, and is remarkable as containing the latest
known example struck in Egypt of the heaviest piece in this metal
(pi. XX., no. 8). In style this copper stands between the coinages
assigned to Epiphanes and to Physcon.

It is necessary here to notice a remarkable coin, apparently with
double dates, which appears to be of Philometor and his son

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There has been a difference of opinion as to Ptolemy Eupator,
Ptolemy VI. Some considering him to have been an elder brother

PhUometor, and ^^^ immediate predecessor of Philometor, others as
Ptolemy VII. ^

Enpator. Philometbr's young son and successor, put to death,

(PI. xxxiu 9.) after a reign of a few months or days, by his uncle
Physcon. An inscription copied at Apello in Cyprus determines
the question. It is as follows : —

ISatrtXia TlToXe/jialov, Oeov ^inraTopa,

Toj/ €7 HaaCkew^ TlToXe/Maiov koI Ba(rt\ta"ai79

KX€07rar/3a9, Oe&v ^iXofirjTopwp^

(Le Bas et Waddington, iii. 1, p. 646, no. 2809.) The date of
Eupator is therefore B.C. 146, and I have numbered him Ptolemy VII.,
as intermediate in the legitimate succession between Philometor and
Physcon.* Professor Lepsius had, however, ascertained that
Eupator was associated during his father^s life with him in the
dynastic worship (Ueber einige Ergebnisse der aeg. Denkmaler
fiir die Kenntniss der Ptolemaergeschichte, Berlin Acad., 1852,
p. 464), and this M. Revillout explains in an unpublished paper
in the Revue ifigyptologique, kindly communicated by him, to
Coin which be a mode of designation for the heir to the throne.

appears to com- rpj^^ ^^j^^ referred to, first published by Mr. Reichardt
memorate their

association. in the Numismatic Chronicle (N. S., iv. 189), appears

(PI. xxxii. 9.) to show an actual association of Eupator with

Philometor on the throne. It may be thus described : —

Obv. Head of Ptolemy I.

Rev. nroAEM AIOY BA2I AEXIS Eagle ; in field 1. and r.


A PA (PI. xxxii. 9.)

* M. Waddington numbers Eupator Ptolemy VIII., and I regret to have
inadvertently adopted a different numbering, although on reasonable grounds.

Digitized by VjOOQIC


This coin is evidently related to a group classed in the tables to
Alexandria with the mint-mark PA, ranging from year 25 to 36,
probably of Physcon, possibly of Philometor. The type of the head
is most like that of the coins with the extreme dates. As the 25th
year of Physcon was the 36th of Philometor we have here an
agreement of type, however we attribute the group.* If we are
justified in reading LAC KAI A, as a double date as in the coins of
Cleopatra III. and Alexander I., where the years are arranged in
the same manner without the conjunction, we have to choose between
Philometor and Physcon. If the coin is of Philometor it would
indicate that at the close of his reign he endeavoured to strengthen
the position of his heir by direct association, only a slight step
beyond the association in the family cultus. On the other hand,
there is nothing in the reign of Physcon which would explain a
double date in his 36th year. The presence of xai might be urged
against this reading, but a magistrate's name would be more
strange in this part of the series ; and if, as is likely, this was an
innovation, the presence and subsequent dropping of the conjunction
would be quite natural.

Thus this exceptional coin cannot reasonably be doubted to be of
Philometor and Bupator; thus furnishing us with a coregency,
which is a new fact in history ; and it is not unlikely that it begins

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