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A Catalogue of the Greek Coins in the British Museum: The Ptolomies, Kings ... online

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of Alexandria, to which it should stand nearest. The known
dates, with a break for the rule of Cleopatra VI. with Bere-
nice IV. and Berenice alone, exactly suit the reign of Auletes,
and the type is the -same as that of the silver coin of Cleopatra



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ARRANGEMEirr. Ixxxi

VII., Btnick in her sixth year, therefore not long after the
death of Auletes (pi. xxx., no. 5). It is worthy of remark that
on his restoration Auletes appears to have issued a better coinage.
From the beginning of his reign to his expulsion there is
evidently a growing debasement accompanied by degradation in
work, but during his second reign the quality of the metal is evidently
better and the work more careful. (Cf. Feuardent, Coll. Demetrio i.
p. Ill, 112.) The weight throughout is irregular, and M. Feuardent
(1. c.) seems to be in error in stating that it becomes more uniform
in the second reign : the majority of the coins are, however, then
higher in weight than before; yet the low weights of 182.8 and
147.6 occur in the ten tetradrachms of the Museum collection
beloiiging to the second reign.



Coins of Ptolemy, Jcing of Oypi'us,

There is a series of silver coins which must, to judge from their
Coinage of Pto- style, be subsequent in date to Ptolemy Lathyrus,

lemy, king of ^^^ ^ ^j^ extend without break from the 1st to
C3'pm>.
(PI. xxix. 4-8; ^^^ 23rd year, they can only be of Ptolemy Auletes
XXX. 1-8.) Qp Qf }jig younger brother Ptolemy king of Cyprus

(b.c. 81 — 58). No other Ptolemy after Lathyrus had so long a
reign. The fabric of the coins is rather Cyprian than Egyptian,
though the converse seems to be true of the style. The obverse-
type at first resembles the later Cyprian money of Lathyrus and the
earlier Egyptian of Auletes. The reverse-type follows the extreme
simplicity of the Egyptian coinages before Auletes, there being no
symbol, nor any palm beside the eagle. The provenance is sometimes
Egyptian, but some of the Museum specimens come from sources
which would rather point to Cyprus as the origin of the coinage.
Strangely, however, I know personally of no instance of these coins
being brought from Cyprus. M. Feuardent, however, states that they



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Ixxxil INTfiODUCTION.

are largely found there. The attribution would be balanced between
the first reign of Auletes and his brother's reign as king of Cyprus
but for circumstances which seem to point in favour of the Cyprian
attribution. The types, except those of the obverses in the earliest
years, are different in style and work from those of Auletes, and the
reverse-types are markedly distinct. Besides the difference in style
and work, the silver is much better in the doubtful series. It is
thus safest to accept, as most probable, M, Feuardent's attribution
of these coins to Ptolemy, king of Cyprus. (Coll. Dem. p. 1 Id— 11 8.)
Certain copper coins of undoubted Cyprian fabric have been here
classed to the same king (pi. xxx., nos. 1 — 3). They are obviously-
very late in date, and those which bear the palm-branch under the
eagle's wing and the monogram of Cyprus ^ , are thus connected
with the time of Auletes and the early part of the reign of Cleopatra
VII. by the type, and with the Cyprian coinage of Cleopatra by the
monogram (xxx. 6). The attribution of these pieces is therefore
probable, and the others cannot be much out of place*

Ooins of the Successors of Auletes.

It is not probable that the reigns of the successors of Auletes
were commemorated by any but a scanty issue of
c»880MofAuleitei! Egyptian money suflScient to show their exercise
of the regal right of coinage. The earlier part
of the period was disturbed ; in the later, the Roman or virtually
Roman coinage, issued throughout the foreign provinces over which
Cleopatra held a joint rule with Antony, must have provided an
ample gold and silver currency even for Egypt.

It will be best to take the Cyprian coinage of the whole period

C mi copper l>efore the Egyptian. Cyprus was restored by Caesar

to the Ptolemaic family, and the two younger of the

children of Auletes, Ptolemy XV. and Arsinoe IV., made joint



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ARRANGEMENT. Ixxxili

sovereigns b.c. 47. This arrangement was broken in the same year,
when after the death of h«r elder brother Cleopatra VII. was associated
with the younger, Ptolemy XV., on the Egyptian throne. The
young king was murdered in B.C. 44, and Ptolemy XVI., Cassar, taken
as colleague by his mother Cleopatra, their joint reign lasting
until the overthrow of the Ptolemaic dynasty B.C. 30. Whether
Cyprus was handed over to any representatives of Ptolemy XV.
and Arsinoe is not clear : they never appear to have gone to the
island. It seems to have fallen into the hands of the Romans
soon after the arrangement which gave it to the young sovereigns,
and to have he&a retained by them until about b.c. 44, when
Cleopatra seized it and held it until B.C. 41. Antony gave the
island to Cleopatra and Ptolemy Caesar B.C. 36, and it thence-
forward remained part of the Ptolemaic kingdom. (Cf. Bngel,
Kypros. i. p. 455 seqq.) Thus it is possible that Ptolemy XV. and
Arsinoe may have issued coins in Cyprus, and even that the same
king and Cleopatra may have done so. To the

(PI XXX 6 ) interval B.C. 36 — 30 no doubt belongs the copper

coinage with the obverse-type of Cleopatra as

Aphrodite holding on her arm Ptolemy Cassar as Bros, and the

reverse-type of a double cornucopias, with the inscription

Ptolemy XV. KAEorATPAS BA^IAI^^H^ and the monogram
and Ar8ino§ IV. 1 of Cyprus ^. There are, however, other coins with

( . XXX. .) ^j^^ j^^^ ^£ 2eus Ammon, and the two eagles, with
the headdress of Isis in front, either with (no. 4) or without a stand,
or else no symbol: these coins must refer to a joint reign, and
seem later than the coins with the single eagle assigned to Ptolemy
King of Cyprus in this Catalogue. Probability would be in favour
of assigning them to Cleopatra and Ptolemy Caesar, were it not
that the bulk of the Egyptian coinage, copper, of the period of
their joint reign bears her head and name alone, the double reign
being merely indicated by the double cornucopieB, and that simi-



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Ixxxiv mTRODUCTIOIT*

larly in the copper coinage of Cypras before noticed the jonng

colleague simply appears in the inferior character of Eros. Thus

these coins should rather be assigned to the joint reign of

Ptolemy XV. and Arsinoe, but with hesitation, as we want proof

that the island was actually under the mle of these coregents.

The Egyptian coinage of the successors of Auletes presents no

difficulties. In her 6th year, b.c. 47-46, Cleopatra

Egypt. struck silver money of which the Museum has a

Silver, copper. specimen, a drachm with her portrait and the

reverse-type of Auletes. As there is no allusion to

any Ptolemy, a most exceptional phenomenon in ordinary silver

money of the dynasty, it is probable that this coin was issued before

Ptolemy XV. became her colleague, which took place b.c. 47, after

the death of Ptolemy XIV. in December B.C. 48 (Lepsius, Konigs-

buch, Syn. Taf. 9) : therefore it may be dated b.c, 47. The

copper coinage is no doubt of the joint reign with Ptolemy Caesar

(b.c 44 — 30), the double cornucopieB indicating the coregency.

The larger coins bear the mint-mark PI for PA, the smaller M

Ptolemy Caesar ^^^ ^^^ which may possibly indicate Memphis.

Copper. A single copper coin of very late style is assigned

{ . XXX. .; ^^ Ptolemy Caesar.



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MINTS. IXXXV

II. Mints.

The letters, monograms, and symbols indicating mints are more

constant and regular in the coinage of the Ptolemies than in any

other series of Greek regal money.

The place of the mint-name is usually in the field of the reverse,

and if the coin is dated, the mint- name and date

caUons o ^^^ ^^ opposite sides of the field. The rare positions

of the mint-name are the space between the eaglets

legs, and the^ rare positions of the date the exergue, and the

thunderbolt.

(1) Coins of Cyprus. In the sequence of coins dating from the

time of Ptolemy V. Bpiphanes to that of Ptolemy X,
Cypms.

Lathyrus and XL Alexander I., the three chief cities

of Cyprus are indicated as follows : —

Faphos. Salauu. Citium.

MM M MM

Ptolemy V. AH, P R SA Kl K

>} VI. PA „ r „ ,,

w Vlii. „ „ „ „ l\

V

9> ^^* }> yy yf >>

YT
yy -^^* ^^ » ^>

In coins of Egyptian fabric, PA {M) and |ZS] (M) stand for an
Egyptian mint, no doubt Alexandria (pp. Ixii., Ixx., Ixxi., above).
Under Cleopatra VII. fl {M) occurs. It is obvious from this list
that whenever we find these letters in the usual mint- places on coins
of -Cyprian fabric, or such fabric as we may fairly think to be
Cyprian, struck by other Ptolemies ruling the island, we may assign
the coins to these cities. Two monograms probably of Paphos FJI^
/^, of the Third Coinage of Ptolemy I. (p. 2), and a probable one of
Salamis (Q) of his Fourth (p. 4), suggest a classification to these
cities. The first attribution is confirmed by comparison with coins

m



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IxXXVi INTRODUCTION.

of Paphos (jp\) of the next class, a second monogram being common
to both (cf. p. 2, no. 10, and p. 3, no 19).

The symbols occurring on the coins of Cyprus, already noticed as
probably indicating offices of the strategos, are not connected with
any special mints. The same appears to be the case with other
symbols in the Cyprian series from Ptolemy Epiphanes downwards.

(2) Coins of Phoenicia and the neighbouring coast. The basis

of classification is to be found in the coins of
Phoenicia.

Ptolemy II. Philadelphus : its reasonableness will

appear from the following table, after short explanation of a few

points.



SiDoir.




PtOLBlCAlS.


JOPPA.


Oaza.

M


Bbbytus. TaiPOLis.

M M M


Ptol.II. il


1

11


¥


© IP




f^i m


F






„ III. „ s^

p«m.


1


PT „fh


Mpod.


lOP „ 1


»




Y


II I^» 91


II


11




fff"






r


\


.» vi.






{ft














The coins of Ptolemais are classed by their similarity in fabric to
the rest of the group. To Ptolemais in the Thebais coins are given
of Ptolemy I. and II. with mint-letters PT and monogram ITI, They
are of different fabric and of a connected series : as Ptolemy I. did not
hold Phoenicia, they cannot be of that country.

Most of the attributions to Phoenicia are obvious. The harpa is
assigned to Joppa on account of the myth of Perseus. The trident
associated with B is appropriate to Berytus. It will be observed
that the symbol almost always occurs alone without a monogram
on the copper money.

There is a remarkable deviation from the general system of the



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MINTS. Ixxzvii

Ptolemaic coins in those Phoenician pieces in copper which bear
a new type, a female figure, a city, facing, on an advahcing prow.
These coins are reasonably assigned to Sidon.

It is evident that under Ptolemy IL and IIL the coins of Phoenicia,
though having the mint-marks of the various cities, were usually
struck at a central mint, as stated in the previous section (p.xxxiv).
Coins with mint-marks which cannot be connected with any of the
coast-cities are probably of a common currency struck at the central
mint, and are therefore assigned to it.

(3) Coins of Egypt. In the coins of Egypt there are the following
mints : —

JLLSxiirpBii.. PtolbmaIs. DjlphhjiP

Aa • ixv ixv

» m A





M


Ptol. I.


AT


„ I. II.


J>


,, VIII.


TA


„ X.


>1


« XL


W


„ XIIL


f}


!leop. VII.


ff



The attribution of coins to the town of Ptolemais in the
Thebais, which as the Greek centre of Upper Egypt would pro-
bably have had a mint, has been already explained. The mint-
mark J^ is conjecturally assigned to Daphnas, because the coins of
Alexander with the same monogram have an Egyptian symbol.
A mint on the eastern border, where the Ptolemies must have
maintained one or more large Greek garrisons, is very likely. .

The paucity of mints we can assign to Egypt may be explained
by the limited Hellenization of the country, and the concentration
of the administration in Greek centres. Indeed the general absence
of mint-names on the money of Egyptian fabric probably indicates
that it was for the most part struck in Alexandria.



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Ixxxviii INTRODUCTION.

(4) Coins of the Cyrenaica. Most of the Ptolemaic coins of the

Cyrenaica are without evidence of mintage. Some,
Cyrenaica.

however, have indications by which they can be

attributed to special cities. Under Ptolemy I. the crab appears
to indicate ApoUonia, and the silphium Gyrene. In the coinage of
Magas the crab is again found. Under Berenice the star probably
indicates Gyrene, and her coinage of Euesperides-Berenice has the
reverse-type enclosed in an apple -wreath, and as symbols the trident
and silphium. Other coins show the apple-branch certainly or pro-
bably as the symbol of the latter town.

(5) Goins of Asia Minor ? and doubtful mints. Under the coin-

ages of Ptolemy I. in which he bears the title king,
dottbtful ^^^ Fifth and Sixth (the Sixth continuing under

Philadelphus as his First, and being the great issue
marked with the A), we find, besides the certain and probable indi-
cations of Gyprus and Egypt as well as of the Gyrenaica, a number
of mint-letters and monograms not characteristic of any other
Ptolemaic money.

In this doubtful class the Fifth Goinage is represented by a
limited number of coins which, judging from the provenance of cer-
tain copper specimens, would appear to be of Garia or the neigh-
bouring countries. Most are characterized by the club, indicating
a local worship of Heracles. It is possible that this symbol may be
of Gos.

The coinage with the A is as a whole difficult of classification.
It seems to be connected with the last by the recurrence of the
club symbol. ' But there is a great variety of distinctive mono-
grams or letters, some of which may be classed to cities jof Asia
Minor, if the coins bearing them be of Ptolemy II. The series
in general has a double set of mint-marks, one indicating the
issue, the other perhaps the mint. The marks of the issue are
fsli Pi ♦ for silver, and /C, A for copper. These general marks



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MINTS. IxXXix

run through the whole coinage, wherever struck, being combined
with the special mark supposed to indicate the mint. Thus the
general marks /^ and P are combined with the special mark
ffl on silver coins. At present the classification of these coins must
remain obscure. It is a significant circumstance that the general
mark does not extend to the coinage of the Cyrenaica of this
class (p. 12, nos. 97, 98). It might therefore seem possible that its
range was still more limited than its varieties would indicate, and
that instead of being classed to Asia Minor possibly and Egypt, it
should be wholly assigned to Egypt. However, the monogram ^
which is identical with that of Miletus, and the absence of any mint-
letters easily referable to Egypt, except Alexandria, Daphnes ? and
Ptolemais, do not favour this view,

A certain number of coins are classed to territories, not mints, on
account of their bearing letters or monograms of moneyers which
are found on coins attributed to mints of those territories, though
they are without the distinctive mint-letters, or for other obvious
reasons.



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xc



INTRODUCTION.



III. Weights.

It is necessary to state briefly what standards the Ptolemies are
known to have used, and to give the data aflPorded by the Museum
Collection for the elucidation of the only obscure part of the
question, that relating to the copper coinage.

Ptolemy I. first coined gold and silver on the Attic standard,
then introduced, perhaps in a local currency, the Rhodian for
drachms, while still issuing Attic tetradrachms, next adopted the
Rhodian standard, and ultimately chose the Phoenician, hence-
forward used by all his successors.

The table here given shows the denominations, and their probable
standard weights.

Weights of Gold and Silv*r Coins.





attic


BnODIAN.


PHOKHlCIAir.


Actoal. NormaL


Actual.




AotaaL Normal.


Decadrachm.








546 560


Octadrachm.








429 • 448


Hexadrachm.*


«






326 336


Pentadachm.*








275 ' 280


Tetradrachm.


265«"- 270«"-


243


240


228 224


Tridrachm.*








164 168


Didrachm.


(135)




(120)


109 112


Drachm.*


(67-5)


53


60


54 56


TetroboL*


43 45




(40)


(37)


Hemidrachm.


(33-7)




(30)


27 28



The denominations marked with an asterisk occur only under one
or two reigns, those within parenthetic marks are not found.

The copper coinage of the Ptolemies seems to follow the same
system of divisions throughout their rule. If the standard was
reduced at one or more times the individual weights appear to have



Digitized by VjOOQIC



WRIGHTS. XCl

remained the same^ a lower denomination representing a higher one
of an earlier period. The following table gfives the average or
individual weights of the well-preserved specimens in the National
Collection, the notes supplying all necessary information as to the
countries of issue, and specifying exceptional weights.

The supposed normal weight is given as Attic. If we adopt
Egyptian it would have to be raised, the Egyptian pound {uten)
having weighed 1400 grs., and its main division (the het), being the
tenth, 140 grs. The subdivisions would rather suggest the Attic
system, and it is unlikely, that an Egyptian one would have been
forced on the inhabitants of Cyprus and the Cyrenaica. The dif-
ference is, however, too small to be of consequence in the com-
parison, considering Ihe irregularity with which the copper money
was struck. M. Eevillout's discussion of the evidence of the demotic
papyri, in the Revue figyptologique for 1881, just published, is of
• the highest value for the solution of the problem.



Digitized by VjOOQIC



XCll



INTRODUCTION.





4) -^ «» .£3


(4


O b O U U


B


05 <N rH O O


s


05 CO »0 i-H C^


(N (N i-H .-H


M


S

1— 1




fe »< »J 00 J3 o «


>*


J3 J3 -O li W « O


$


O O ^ "^ CO 00 CO


J


lO t^ 03 N 1:^ 00 (N


s


w5co^ Ss


£


1—1




i-H




1 ^


>.


00 S -^ c^ - ^ '-"-^ 'J^ O 00


1


O "^ lO o \0 y-i Oi ^ 00'-'


CO 3 C05 .-H r-l




'^ ^ 5§




5 S ^


P


CO S) o


'-< ^ T-H « 03 ^ .^ ^




-^ja gQja,— (^ ^ .o


^


^ ^ "^ 00 00 1:- CO


Q


„iO .j^,H.(N ^ 00


•©


£


-r*H lO ^




00 CO T-^




l-H


^


SS*?S3StSS^[^S^


co^^^oocoooooocq


r


(N00O'-i'^l:^i-i00iO-r*H00


O CO iO 00 (N I-H I-H

i-H


b


S -S -S •? IJ 13 i


T-H CO O 00 r-H 00 ti-


»t»'


th 00 CO -^ t^ c<i a
1^ Tt< 00 (N I-H f-i a

CO


g"




05




>> -o


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^s^^^nS'SoS's


(N(NO00^0003t^iOOai


OOiOOO<NhCOOOO„ Tt<(N


Ol>-"^00'*»-i'-« S




(N CO


K


I-H— 22© p« ^ *<«




1


^00 COTt< ^ CO i-HiO


r<35 siS O CO (Mt-h

Tt< CO






I-H


fi


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C^ r-l


Hi

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lO d I-H lO !>. ^


(N CO CO ^ -^ ,-H




CO cq I-H ^


^




lO iO iQ 1^


"S-


l^» ^ *?> ^ ^ 00


i-a


OOOiOOOOioAt>-iC)03Cqcb


S"S


Tt<t^^C0t-COC0OCO-r*H00(Ni-H


If


00CO»C00(NrHr-l,-l
r-l


2g .




o'd C


OO00W5'^(NCqr-ii-H


s^ S^


(N.-H




(&.§








IP oo >>






1^



. bo



^^S



QOi-i';



c 'H •. p. - g

twS3 EoSs ^5 lorH



Digitized by VjOOQIC



I J



o

O
H

H









1^
§9

■ii



i

r

I



I*



a fl

I



I

I
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-SB



-II

If



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1-5









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r



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Digitized by VjOOQIC



( xciv )



TABLE II.— CHRONOLOGY.

B.C.

Ptolemaeus I. (Soter) Governor of Egypt .for Philip III. 323
„ „ „ Alexander IV. 316

„ Independent during Interregnum . .311

King . 305

Ptolemaeus IT., Philadelphus . 284

Death of Ptolemaeus 1 283 (?)

„ marries Arsinoe I. . . . . . .281

„ divorces Arsinoe I., marries Arsinoe II. . . • 277
Title Soter given to Ptolemaeus I. . . .261

Death of Arsinoe II. . . . . circ. 249

Ptolemaeus III., Euergetes 1 247 •

Ptolemaeus IV., Philopator 1 222

Death of Arsinoe IJ 1 209

Ptolemaeus V., Epiphanes 204

„ marries Cleopatra 1 193

Ptolemaeus VI., Philometor I. 181

Death of Cleopatra I. .... circ. 174

„ taken prisoner by Antioohus . . . ,170

Ptolemaeus VIII., Euergetes II. (Physcon) . . . circ. 170

„ Ptolemaeus VI. and VIII. reign together . .168

„ Ptolemaeus VI. marries Cleopatra II. ... 165

Ptolemaeus VIII., King of Cyrene 164-3

Eevolt and subjugation of Cyrena'ica . . circ. 156

Ptolemaeus VII., Eupator 146

Ptolemaeus VIII., Euergetes II., succeeds . . . . .146

„ marries Cleopatra II 146

„ divorces Cleopatra II., marries Cleopatra III. . 143-2

„ takes back Cleop. II., reigns with both (till 132) . 141

„ expelled 130

Cleopatra II., Philometor 130

Ptolemaeus VIII. returns, reigns with both Cleopatras (till 117) . 127
Ptolemaeus X. marries Cleopatra IV. . .127

Ptolemaeus IX. (Neos), Philopator IL, coregent

in Cyprus 121-0

Coregent, whole kingdom (till 117) . . . 119-8



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CimONOLOGY.



XCV



B.C.

Cleopatra IIL, Philadelphos . . 117

Ptolcmaeus X., Soter 11., taken by Cleopatjta III. as colleague . 117

Ptol. X. divorces Cleop. IV.vSand marries Selene . 116

divorces Selene . . . circ. 114

Ptolemaeus XL, Alexander I., king of Cyprus . 114

Ptolemaeus Apion, king of Cyrene . . circ. 114?

Cleop. III. and Ptol. X. lake titles Philometores

Soteres 114-3

Ptolemaeus X. expelled 107

Ptolemaeus XI., Alexander I., taken by Cleopatra III. as colleague 107

Ptolemaeus XI. still strikes money in Cyprus . 106-5

Death of Cleopatra III 89

Ptolemaeus XL, Alexander I., reigns alone . . . . . 99

expelled 88

Ptolemaeus X., Soter II., returns to Egypt, reigns alone . . 88

Berenice IIL, Philopator 81

Ptolemaeus XII, Alexander II., marries Berenice III. . . . 81

Ptolemy, King of Cyprus 81

Ptolemaeus XIIL, Neos Dionysos 81

„ marries Cleopatra VI. 79

„ expelled 58

Cleopatra VI., Tryphaena with Berenice IV. . . . . 58

Berenice IV. 57

Ptolemaeus XIIL returns 55

Cleopatra VII., Philopator with Ptolemaeus XIV. ... 52

Ptolemaeus XIV. alone . . . . . 49

Cleopatra VII. alone 48

Cleopatra VII. with Ptolemaeus XV 47

Ptolemaeus XV. and Arsinoe IV. granted Cyprus ... 47

Cleopatra YIL and Ptolemaeus XVI., Caesar* . . . . 45

Death of Cleopatra VII. and Ptolemaeus XVI. . 30



NoTB. — This and the previous table are mainly taken from Lepsius (Konigsbuch
d&T alten Aegypter, and Ueber einige "Ergebnisse der agyptischen Denkmaler f iir die
Kentniss der Ptolemaergoschichte, Kon. Akad. Berl. Abhand. 1862, p. 503, seqq. ).
Additional information is supplied from M. Revillout's articles in the Revue figypto-
logique and from the coins. A few incidents are omitted having no bearing on coins,
such as the joint ride of Cleopatra and M. Antonius, which was practically imperial.



* Association in 44, counted back to 45.



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XCYX



INTRODUCTION.



W

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Online LibraryBritish Museum. Dept. of Coins and MedalsA Catalogue of the Greek Coins in the British Museum: The Ptolomies, Kings ... → online text (page 7 of 13)