British Museum. Dept. of Prints and Drawings.

A descriptive catalogue of early prints in the British museum: German and Flemish schools online

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deacon bearing the Saint's tiara. On the top of the low altar is an open tomb,
from which rises the figure of Christ, who looks down towards St. Gregory. Our
Lord is visible to the hips. A cruciform nimbus is present, and a close-fitting
loin cloth may be seen below. The arms are crossed over the upper part of the
abdomen, the right hand holding a rod, the Icfl a scourge. Blood flows from
various wounds. The hair of the head is dense and dark, the beard thick but
short. Behind our Lord stands an angel whose vestment is close at the neck smd
girded at the waist. Behind the angel and touching the left hand border line of
the cut are the pillar and rope of flagellation. Immediately by the right shoulder
of the celebrant rises a tan cross, on the transverse limb of which hangs the wreath
of thorns, and against it lean the reed with sponge and the lance. On the altar
before the tomb are chalice and paten, open book and two candles. To the right
of St. Gregory stand two Popes, each with tiara and nimbus. The one nearest St.
Gregory bears a crook in the right hand and raises the left, pointing with the
index finger to the wondrous apparition. He is draped in chasuble, tunic and alb,
and is seen somewhat in profile as he turns towards the altar. The other person
fronts the spectator, is draped in a mantle and long tunic, bears in the right hand
a double cross and in the left a book.

Colour has been resorted to of a somewhat pale tint. The nimbi, cross,
angels* vestment, loin cloth, ecclesiastical utensils, ornaments, etc. are yellow ; the
wreath, rod, outer edges of the angels' wings, tiaras and ground are green. The
chasuble of the celebrant is of pale madder, that of the attendant Pope with the
crook of a deeper madder colour.

The pictorial illustration is separated from the following text of the indulgence
by a narrow black line —

** ^ Hfm ibu xpt anbett icf? litcf) am ctiic^ ;)aneenlim ein Hurrun &ton u6f niiit
|)aupt ttaoennen* 3ci) bttt nict) I15 Uln creuc5 ndt^ erloet^ bom isci^lac^entien enoeI»
D l^etr iffu jcpe anbett icl) Hicf) am cruc; bertountten mit call unD emt^ ^ettmthu
3(c|) bitt nic^ n; Uln tounen 0i0enliem an^euioe miner 0el 9men 2D ben Ci^u xpt
set) bitt Hid) 3In00 0rab oeleot mit mQten unH toolrieci^enlien isalben 0e0albett» jt^
bitt Hicj) H? Hm toH fio min leben 9. D f^e? it)u f oiite ^irt bef^alt tiie sere^^tent
Hie iSunHer recl^tfento unti eibarm Hict) aller oeloubiaen toten vm bi^t oenemfi mir



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THE MASS OF SAINT QBEQOBY. 265

0un1ier 9imm, 2) ^ t|)u ]( ict» bttt ni^ tisnb H— (?) tmllen Htnea Wntna ttiU nu
fut vM^ Hucftiam tm0t eetttte am crac5« be&inner imn aMnmtUst in H* 0tiinli Ho
Hilt ml emeu 0el ijst uCsoeoanaen ton niton fibe etbarme titt) sditf £^ in mdn
tiG00an0 9men* 2) t^ef i|ni ? anbette ic() Hicf) abdtieentien 511 tien {^ellen unH erIo<r
isenlien Hie eeCanonen* jitb intt HicI^ nit 1000 mic)) Harin eon 9men* 2) f^tt i^u
f anbett ic() 1ii4 ufiR0tanlien Hon Hen totte OH uCbelamf 5tt Hen f^imll OR mt^enH?
its Her cee^tetfmnH H0 Hattes* Jtb him Hi4 edutm Hi^ ntfn 9mem

aaSer Hi0 oboe0€i)riim betdin HR » H * pf nt mitt iHacbt 0pti^t Hot Hem bllH
H^OOtileit 0ot} Hie 0ant file' er0tt»mei0t [erscheinstP] iatj^iuim abUus H5 0ant
0?0> be0tnieet (?) Hon meoT beF^ten*/'

A rather broad black border line encloses the whole design.

[loj X 7|- in.] [Coloured.]

D. 81.

THE MASS OF SAINT GREGORY, WITH
INDULGENCE.

LATTER THIRD OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY.

SWABIA.

{Pope. + 604.)

(No. 1 14, Wbioel.)

PHE greater portion of the sheet is occupied with a representation of
the Mass of St. Gregory. Below are ten lines of an Indulgence in
xylographic text of Gothic characters.

An altar occupies the middle of the composition, before which and
in the immediate foreground at the left hand comer kneeb St. Gregory with
raised and joined hands, and looking up at the apparition of Christ. St. Gregory
bears nimbus and tonsure, chasuble and tunic. Behind him and to the left stands
a cardinal in red hat and cloak bearing the Saint's tiara. Our Lord rises erect
at once from the upper surface of the altar, the open tomb being placed below at
the opposite foot of the altar to the celebrant. He looks down towfutis St. Gregory.
The arms are crossed at the wrists over the abdomen ; the legs are extended. The
backs of the hands and feet show the wounds from the nails. Blood comes from
these wounds, as also from the brow and the wound in the right side of the chest.
A cruciform nimbus and long loin cloth are present. The head is inclined oyer
the right shoulder, and from it hangs close black hair. There is not any beard.

On the altar are chalice and corporal, two candles and an open book. The
antependium is floriated, the step of the altar extends in the centre circularly
outwards, the floor of the chapel is parqueted or chequered. From behind the
Crucified and the back of the altar rises a cross. On the transverse limb hang
the wreath, the lanthom and garment without seam. On our left hand is a
ladder, on our right a reed with sponge and a lance. In the space between the
ladder and the cross is a mocking head, three dice, &c. ; on the other side, below
the garment, is a sudarium^ on which is the sacred head encircled by a cruciform
nimbus. Other heads and instruments of the *' Passion** are delineated on the
background.

A black border line encloses the whole design.

Colour has been resorted to.

This print was formerly in the Weigel cabinet.




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266 WOODCUTS.

The following is extracted from the *' AnTange, etc.," vol. i. p. 197 —
" All wood and metal work is of ochre-yellow colour, the garment* of the Lord
grey, the hair of the head and beard dark brown. The glory of Jesus is madder
red, as also are the vestments of the cardinal, the pieces of drapery connected with
the busts and hands, and the decorations of the altar and tomb. The upper vest-
ment of Bt* Gregory is of verdigris green, and also the ground, the fringe of the
altar-cloth, and the rod. The impression appears to have been taken off with
the rubber; the ink of impression is of a, brownish-black colour. Below the
design is the following inscription in ten lines, the lines being separated fi*oin
each other by transverse rules. (The inscription is damaged on the left hand
side.)

<< 0tt itttt i^UB fv^B er0c|)ein fssnt 6reoocien )u Eome in tier bur

ie man nennet porta cruci0 uflftiem 9ftar i|)eni0afem» unli«

on uhergec freune Hie er tia ton enp|)inoe tm oah ec alien Den»

oepeuoeten 6n?t)en unti mit antiac|)t mix hic^tt unti rutoe. 0pre

IPatrt no0ter unH enn 9t>e maria tor ti?f0er figur* af0o t>il ap

atie al0 in tieroelhen klxtbm iau De0 i0t t>irc5et)entu0ent*

. unti t>trc5i0 peb0ten ton ir icftcf^em 0ect)0 tar» unti

te ton iefic|)em tirc^Us taee ap[a0 unD 0int luus

0ecf)0 jar apfa0 unti tie oro05e cnata be0tett0

*t0anctu0 €lemen0 : —



The sharp nicked folds to be met with in all the draperies and the head-dress
of Mary lead us to award our print to the third quarter of the fifteenth century.
The text and the colouring, as also the technic, indicate Swabia as its place of
production. On the lefl hand side the text and the figure of the cardinal who
bears the tiara have been damaged. There is not any watermark present.'^ (Op.
cit vol. i. p. 197-)

[97 X 7i in.] [Coloured.]

D. 82.
THE MASS OF SAINT GREGORY.

LATTER THIRD OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY.

GERMANY.

(Pope. + 604.)

j N the left hand side of the print is placed obliquely the altar with an
open tomb, from which issues the figure of Christ visible to the pelvis.
Before the altar kneels St Gregory, his hands raised and joined in
adoration as he gazes up at the apparition of our Lord. He bears
nimbus, chasuble and tunic, and the tonsure. Behind him and to the right is the
tonsured Deacon — his secretary John (?) — ^bearing his tiara. Our Lord has a
cruciform nimbiis, long dark hair and beard. Part of the loin cloth is visible.
The hands are crossed over the abdomen, the right hand resting on the nearer
edge of the tomb, and showing the wound on its back. From between the arms
and the body proceed a rod on our left hand, a scourge on the right hand side.
Blood marks the body in various places. Above the nimbus of Christ runs the
transverse limb of a tau cross, on which hangs the wreath of thorns on the left;.
The spearhead leans against the right end of the cross. On the altar before the
tomb arc a chalice, corporal, opeu book and candle. Above the nimbus of St.




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THE MASS OF SAINT QBEGOBY. 267

Gregory rises the pillar with the rope of flagellation. Behind the attendant
Deacon is the reed with the sponge.

A black border line encloses the composition.

The print has been coloured in various shades, chiefly of pale brown. There
18 a little red on the body of our Lord and some green colour on the ground.
The nimbi, cross, with reed and sponge are of a dirty yellow tint. A white
ornament of foliage-like design on a black ground decorates the front and side of
the altar. A bull's head watermark is present.

[Si X 3j- in.] [Coloured.]

D.83.

THE MASS OF SAINT GREGORY.'

SIXTEENTH CENTURY.

GERMANY.

{Pope, J^ 604.)

^ HE altar is represented on the right hand side of the print running up
obliquely towards the centre. The open ton^b, over the side of which
hangs the grave cloth, is on the ground by the distant end of the altar.
Before the altar kneels St. Gregory, with raised and joined bands,
looking up at the figure of Christ. The Saint seems bald rather than tonsured.
A nimbus is over hb head. He is draped in rich ecclesiastical vestments, the
tunic falling in folds on the ground. Over the latter, where the Saint kneels, is
spread a folded piece of drapery, on which, where it rests on the step of the altar,
lies the tiara of the Saint, from beneath which extrude the ends of a stole. On
the ornamental cross upon the back of the chasuble of the celebrant is represented
the Crucified. Christ stands erect in a rather graceful though somewhat academic
or artificial manner at the middle of the altar, close to its back edge. He seems
to rest against the cross, which rises behind Him. The left foot is rather forward,
the right lower extremity is bent at the knee. The arms are crossed at the wrists
over the abdomen. A large loin cloth is present, one end of which passes through
the thighs behind, and flutters to the right From between the arms and the body
of our Lord proceed a scourge on the spectator's left, and a ix>d on his right
hand side. A cruciform nimbus is over the head, and a large wreath of thorns
encircles the brow. The head is inclined over the right shoulder, the counte-
nance expressing a passive sorrow. Behind the cross are the lance and reed with
sponge placed obliquely across each other. Behind these, on the right hand, is
the ladder, and by its side a hammer and a sort of bucket. On the opposite side
of Christ is a mocking head and two hands. These are included within what may
be termed the upright back of the altar, which has an arched top, but is seen only
in part. On the background, and directly facing the spectator, are five other heads
and the sudarium, and also the thirty pieces of money, flagon, dice, flaming
beacon, and other instruments of the " Passion." At the lefk limit of the design
and from beside the tomb rises the column with the rope of flagellation. On the
top of the capital of the first stands the cock, and as if crowing. On the altar
itself are the vessels, &c. of the Blessed Sacrament, a closed book and two
candles. The altar cloth has a harrow fringe; there is a richly ornamented ante-
pendium with fringe also. The altar step at the side projects in the middle in a

* On this subject, sec Cahicr, " Caractcristiques, etc." vol. ii. p. 553.



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268 WOODCUTS.

circular manner and corves at the angles. The ground is pavemented, the lines
of the payement running up perspectively to a point of sight outside of the com-
position. At the bottom of die cut at the left comer are the initials S. D.

A black border line encloses the composition.

Colour has been applied, but in shades of yellow only, with the exception of
the stole, which has been tinted green.

On the verso of the print are two colunms of Latin text in fine large Gothic
typographic characters.

This print was formerly in the possession of Mr. Ottley, and Nagler was con-
versant of its existence, but had never seen it. He alludes to it— ^ Monogram-
misten," vol. iv. p. 1 u8, No. 4022 — ^under the initials S D. Nagler, however,
fell into a mistake in supposing this print to have been the work of an old German
master of the middle of the fifteenth century. The design and technic belong to
a period three-quarters of a century later. In the figure and engraving of Christ
the influence of the School of Dtirer is surely apparent.

[84. X 6iin.] [Coloured.]

D. 84.
THE MASS OF SAINT GREGORY.

SIXTEENTH CENTURY.

GERMANY.

(Pope. 4t 604.)

^ O the left are the altar and the tomb, from which rises the figure of
Christ. On the first step of the altar kneels St. Gregory, with raised
and joined hands, looking up at the appearance of our Lord. The
Saint is tonsured. A Cardinal behind, and to the right of the cele-
brant, bears the tiara of the latter. Christ has a cruciform nimbus, but the loin
cloth is not visible. He extends both the arms, and opens the hands as if to show
the wounds in them. Above the nimbus rises a cross. On the altar are a large
chalice and open book. Not any instruments of the Passion are represented.

A black border line encloses the design. The print has been coloured. It is
unimportant in character.

[3I X 2J in.] [Coloured.]




D.85.



SAINT JEROME.

MIDDLE OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY.

SWABIA.

{One of the four Fathers of the Latin Church. Cardinal. •}« 420.)

LARGE and fine example of its time. St. Jerome, a m^estic figure,
stands erect, but with the head slightly inclined over the right shotddcr,
as he looks down on the lion at his feet. He is habited in a cardinal's
^ dress and hat, and bears a bordered nimbus. From beneath the hat

descends the pluviale over the shoulders to the chest. The cloak is full, with




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SAINT JEROME. 269

large folds, which fall upon the ground, concealing the feet. It is bordered and
lined with ermine. The long green cords of the hat descend to the ground, and
are partly hidden below beneath the red vestment ; the green cords have red
tassels. St. Jerome bears a cross on the right arm, the lower end of its staff
descending between the hind-l^s of the lion. The cross at the upper extremity
is traversed at the point of decussation of the upright and transverse limbs bj two
fine lines crossing each other also at the point mentioned, forming as it were a
second cross with equal limbs placed obliquely over the chief one. St. Jerome
supports both a book and the bat cords with the same hand as retains the staff of
the cross in situ and some of the folds of bis dress. The right hand is extended
through the hanging sleeve of the cloak downwards to the lion. The latter rises
from the ground on his hind-legs towards St. Jerome, placing his right paw on the
right leg of the Saint, and advancing his left paw to meet the right hand of the
Saint, who appears to take from it a thorn. The lion is frill maned, throws the
head upwards and backwards, and places his long tail between his legs.

On the left hand side (to the spectator) of St. Jerome, and above the lion, runs
an upright and bordered scroll, on which are the words, " ^nctU0. 0(tonpniO0 *'
in Gothic characters.

The foreground rises but to a short distance above the feet of St. Jerome.

A double border line encloses the composition.

The ink of impression is of a light brown colour ; both drawing and technic
are firm and incisive. The drapery is large in character and well cast, though
some of the folds are angular and hooked at the ends. The shadows are indicated
with short parallel oblique lines placed somewhat far apart

The print has been coloured. The Cardinal*s habit is of a deep red madder.
The hat and rim are of a paler red, the lining being of a very fiunt hue, while the
cords are green. The nimbus, cross and space between the border lines are
yellow ; the lion is of an orange colour, deeper in tone over the mane and back.
The ground, one border of the scroll, thorn and cover of the book are green ; the
other border of the scroll is of a pale madder red. A layer of gummy varnish has
been passed over the Cardinal*s habit. The print has suffered some damage, and
has been lined.

[l6| X lOfin.] [Coloured.]

D. 86.
SAINT JEROME.

MIDDLE OP THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY.

SWABIA.

(One of the Fathers of the Latin Church. Cardinal. •}• 420.)

(No. 87, Wbigel.)

|T. JEROIVIE is represented seated in the middle of the design with his
back to a reading-desk, which is on our right hand side of the print.
He is seen in full face, but in action is directed towards our left, on
which side is placed the lion. St. Jerome wears a cardinal's hat,
from below which descends the pluviale. A bordered nimbus is over his head.
The ends of the cords of the hat hang over the edge of the mantle in front of the
chest. The deep red mantle falls in folds upon the ground, concealing the feet.




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270 WOODCUTS,

Below is exposed a small part of the tanic. The Saint looks down at the lion,
seated on his haunches on the left upon the lar^e flat base of a step to the desk.
He raises the lefl paw to the right knee of the Saint, who extracts the thorn from
it with an instrument having a handle like a tan cross. St. Jerome touches the
lion^s left paw with the index finger of his left hand. The lion allows his ri^ht
paw to hang extended in the air. He looks attentively up at the Saint as the
latter relieves him of his trouble. The animal is somewhat heraldic in character,
fiill-maned and long-tailed, the tail lying along the edge of the dais of the desk.
In the countenance of the animal there is a kind of humanity nevertheless.

On the desk behind St. Jerome is an open book, behind which rises a little church
or tabernacle, the door of which is half open. At the side is a large round arched
window. At the side of the desk itself are little doors with large hinges, one of
the doors being slightly open. The front of the desk is carved in a Gothic
decorative manner. On the left hand side, behind the lion and St. Jerome, rises a
kind of round arched cloister, the roof of which touches with its pinnacles the top
border line of the cut, while one of the supporting columns descends to the plat-
form of the desk.

The print has been coloured. The colour is bright madder carmine, with
green and yellow employed in broad masses. The ink of impression is black, and
the print has been worked off with the press.

The principal figure is well posed and fairly delineated; the fijlds of the
drapery are soft, ftdl and well cast, and the technic is clear and determinate.

This example is well preserved, clean and fresh. The paper is white and
strong ; the watermark is a Gothic )P.

[lOj^ X 7i-in.] [Coloured.]

D. 87.
SAINT JEROME.

LAST QUARTER OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY.

SWABIA.

(One of the four Fathers of the Latin Church. Cardinal. ^ 420.)
(No. 187, AVeigel.)

DOUBLE action is represented in this example. St. Jerome, as
Cardinal, relieves the lion of his trouble, and he performs penance at
the foot of the cross.

In front to our right sits the Saint habited in a cardinal^s dress and

hat. A nimbus is present. The body is inclined forwards and downwards, the
head leaning slightly over the right shoulder as the Saint attends to the lion at his
feet. The latter sits to the left before the Cardinal, looking up at him as if thank-
ful, though anxious, as St Jerome draws the thorn from the lion's right paw.
This paw rests on the knees of the Cardinal, the left paw being placed on tb^
Cardinal's dress. The lion throws back his head, opens his mouth, and holds the
tail, curled, yet erect over his back. By the right side of St. Jerome, and above
the lion, is a desk, on which lies an open book. Above the latter lies a pince-
nez, and below it a book -weight or marker.^ Behind the Saint, and towards our




* Antea, p. no, B. 29.



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SAINT JEROME. 271

right hand, is a chapel or cloister, with a small cupola on the roof surmounted by
a little cross. Three Gothic arches and columns are at the side, and a round arched
doorway at the front of this building.

To the left of the building is represented the second, or penitential action.
The Saint kneels on a rocky eminence, tears open his tunic at the breast with
the lefl hand, whDe with the right hand he is about to strike his naked chest with
a stone which he holds in it. Blood flows from the chest already injured. A
nimbus is over the penitent's head ; his feet are bare ; close to the latter lies a
cardinal^s hat, and on the other side crouches a lion. From the rock between
the lion and the chapel rises a Cross with the Crucified, from whose wounds stream
blood. St. Jerome gazes up at our Lord as he performs his penance. On the
eminence at the background behind the Saint is a small chapel with belfry, to
which leads a winding-path from below. Behind the Cross on the line of the
background are the towers of several buildings. This cut was formerly in the
Weigel collection.

" The. drawing," remarks Weigel, " is firm and sure, the expression in the
countenance of the Saint is full of character ; the drapery is natural, and the dis-
position of it — particularly of the thick material of the upper vestment — well
managed. The folds are hatched. Perspective is wanting, and the rocks are
represented with a rough mannerism, but with the shadows hatched.

" The technic is clear and sharp ; the ink of impression is a black water colour.

'* The system of colour adopted is that of the * briefmaler * and of the schools
of Augsburg or Ulm. The upper vestment and hat of St. Jerome are of a bright
madder red ; the under garment, the shadows of the rocks and the building are of
a nut-brown colour of various degrees of shade ; the grassy banks, pavemented
ground, church roof, are of verdigris green ; cupola, church columns, cross, nimbi,
desk, and lion are yellow. The sky is shaded from above downwards with washes
of brown colour. The paper has the texture of Swabian paper which has been
pressed with felt The print was formerly fixed within the cover of a book printed
in 1480, and, judging from the form and hatchings of the draperies and from the
biiildings and rocks, itself might belong to that time.

" A broad black border line encloses the composition. A watermark is not
evident" (Op. cit. vol. i. p. 294.)

[lOir X 7|-in.] [Coloured.]

D. 88.
THE PENITENCE OF SAINT JEROME.

MIDDLE OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY.

SWABIA.

(One of the four Fathers of the Latin Church, Cardinal, ^ 420.)

(No. 93, Weigel.)

KT. JEROME is here represented as penitent. He kneels in the fore-
\ ground of a rocky and hilly landscape, looking towards Christ on the
Cross, who occupies the upper right hand portion of the background.
The Saint is clad in a short tunic open over the chest. The legs and
forearms are bare ; a bordered nimbus, with rayed disc, is present ; the hair of the
head and the beard are black and dense. The penitent raises both arms. In his
right hand he grasps a stone wherewith to strike his chest ; with the fingers of the
lefl hand he points towards the Crucified. By the knees of St. Jerome, and in the




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272 WOOD OUTS.

lower right hand comer of the print, sits a lion, who gazes up at him with open
mouth and raised right paw. The lion is fidl-maned, and curres up his tafl
parallel to the line of his back, recurving the tip of it. On the other side of the
penitent lie on the ground a cardinal's hat and a book, one above the other ; the
cord and tassels of the hat touch the lower border line of the cut. On our right
rises the Cross from a mass of clouds. Our Lord is dead ; the head droops over
the right shoulder; a wreath of thorns is around the brow. The hair of the head
is black and long. One end of the loin cloth projects and falls over on Christ's
right side. On the summit of the hilly background are buildings and trees. Lnme-
diately above the nimbus of St. Jerome is a tree, towards which runs a doe looking*
back, as if at the figure of our Lord. There is much foliage scattered about the



Online LibraryBritish Museum. Dept. of Prints and DrawingsA descriptive catalogue of early prints in the British museum: German and Flemish schools → online text (page 32 of 40)