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1870. 3S.

























THE object of the present Catalogue is to give a List of all the
genera and species of the family of the Stony Corals, or Lithophytes,
known to exist in the collections of Europe and America. The
letters B.M. after the specific names denote those species that are
now contained in the Collection ; and the absence of those letters
indicates the species which are desiderata, and therefore desirable to
be procured for the collection.

This is the second part of the ' Catalogue of Polypes and their
Corals.' The other Parts are in preparation.


British Museum,
July 8, 1870.









Suborder II. RUPICOL^J.

Coral social, tree-like or expanded, fixed by an expanded
base, supported by more or less abundant, fusiform, calcareous
spicules. The mass of polypes or corals often supported by
a central calcareous or horny tree-like axis with an ex-
panded base. Living attached by the base of the coral and
axis to rocks &c. on the sea-shore.

Polypiers corticiferes, Lamk. A. s. V. ii. p. 288.
Polypes corticaux, Cuvier, R. A. 1817, iv. p. 78.
Corallea, Blainv. D. S. N. Ixx. p. ; Man. cCAct. p. 501.
Gorgoniadae, Johnston, B. Z. p. 182 ; Gray, List of Brit. An. in B. M.

i. p. 55.

Gorgonidae, Dana, Zooph. p. 637. n. 181.
Ceratocorallina, Ehrenb. Corall r. M. 1834, p. 142.
Coralliadse, Gray, Syn. B. M. 1840, p. 134.
Gorgonidae, MUne-Edw. $ Haime, Corall. i. p. 134 j Kolliker, Ic. Hist.

p. 135.

I. Polypes social, growing closely side by side, forming a fleshy crust, the
young polypes being developed from the ends of the branches, or in the
centre of the disk.

Section I. Axifera.

Social polypes, supported by a central horny or calcareous axis,
and attached to marine bodies by the expanded base of the axis,
and the mass of polypes.



Gorgoninse, Milne-Eihv. fyHaimc, Corall.i. p. 134; Ko'llikcr, Ic. Hist.
p. 135.

" The polypes are short, cylindrical, connected laterally by a porous
coenenchyma at their bases, by a common membrane, and by spe-
cialized longitudinal canals, and arranged around a firm central axis,
which is secreted from the common basal membrane. The commu-
nities are attached to foreign bodies by the expanded base of the
central axis." Verrill, Mem. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 1862, i.

Synopsis of Suborders.

I. Lithophyta. The axis calcareous, continuous or separated

transversely into joints.

II. Ceratophyta. The axis horny, continuous.

III. Solenophyta. The axis expanded, coriaceous, foliaceous,
folding into a more or less perfect tube, with tubular branch-

IV. Suberophyta. The axis soft, cork-like, with interspersed
spicules, sometimes so numerous as almost to form the entire


Coral aborescent. Axis calcareous, continuous or jointed,
effervescing with muriatic acid.

Lithophyta (Lithophytes), Gray, P. Z. S. 1857, p. 282.

The axis is generally entirely stony and hard, and usually
of a white colour ; but in Corallium it is generally deep bright
red, but sometimes pink or white. It is usually solid, and
formed of concentric laminae. In Melithcea it is cavernous,
pierced with cylindrical tortuous canals.

Synopsis of Families.
I. Axis jointed, calcareous; articulations spongy, swollen.

1. MELITH^ADJE. Joints and articulations with tubular canals.

2. MOPSELLAD^;. Joints solid, reddish, articulations red, spongy ;

branches from the spongy articulations.

3. TRINELLAI^E. Joints solid, white, articulations spongy ; branches

from the solid joints.

II. Axis jointed, calcareous ; articulations narrow, horny, or

4. MOPSEAD^E. Branches from the cartilaginous articulations. Bark

thick ; cells conical.

5. ACANELLAD^:. Branches from the cartilaginous articulations.

Bark and cells spinous.


6. KERATOISLD^. Branches from the stony joints. Bark and cells


7. ISIDJE. Branches from the stony joints. Bark thick ; cells minute,

scattered overfall the surface, sunken.

III. Axis continuous, calcareous; the apex of the branchlets calcareous.


IV. Tlie axis continuous, hard, corneo-calcareous ; the apex of the

branchlets often horny and flexible.

a. Baric granular, thin ; polype-cells more or less prominent.


b. Baric formed of imbedded calcareous spicules ; cells prominent,
covered with spicules, and adpressed to the sides of the stem.


c. Baric formed of scales ; polype-cells prominent.

11. CALLIGORGIADJE. Polype- cells tubular, in series on the sides

or round the branches.

12. CALYPTROPHORAD^:. Polype-cells peduncled, formed of two cones,

in whorls round the stem.

13. PRIMNOAD^:. Polype-cells peduncled or sessile, covered with

scales, in whorls round the stem.

Section I. Axis articulated, calcareous, stony ; articulations swollen, spongy
or cork-like; buds and branches from the swollen articulations.

Fam, 6. MELITH^AD^E.

Coral branched, on a plane ; branches furcate, often anastomosing.
Axis articulated, permeated by flexuous cylindrical canals, inter-
rupted by harder swollen calcareous articulations ; the joints and
articulations at length solidifying into a continuous hard axis per-
meated by small tubular canals. Bark granular. Polypiferous cells
small, in series on the edge of the stem and branches.

Melitsea, Lamx. Polyp. Flex. 1816, p. 461 ; Lamk. Mem. Mus. i.

p. 410; A. s. V. ii. p. 270.
Melithsea, Milne-Edw. Corall i. p. 199.
Melitea, Warne, Corall p. 229.
Melitfeadffi, Gray, P. Z. S. 1857, p. 284 ; Ann. $ Mag. Nat. Hist.

1859, iv. p. 442.

Dr. Kolliker calls the canals in the axis tf food-canals."



Coral fan-like, expanded, forked ; branches subparallel, often
parallel and inosculating ; buds and branches from the swollen arti-
culations. Bark granular, rather thick. Cells small, not prominent,
in two series on each side of the branches and branchlets, leaving the
upper and lower surfaces bare or nearly so (see Espcr, t. 21. f. 1, 2,
3). The axis of the branchlets rather solid, calcareous, of the lower
joints pierced with numerous tortuous pores.

Melitaea, Ehrenb.

Melithaea, Lamk. A. s. V. ii. p. 279.

Isis, sp., Pallas.

Melitodes, Verrill.

The name Melitcea having been used for a genus of insects by
Fabricius in 1808, four years before it was employed by Lamouroux,
Mr. Verrill proposed Melitodes for the genus as restricted by Gray,
P. Z. S. 1859, p. 485. (Verrill, 1. c. p. 38.)

" The axis is jointed like that of Isis ; but the horny matter is so
small in quantity as only to suffice to hold together the numerous
spicula of which the calcareous part of the axis is composed. These
spicula are of a reddish colour in the more solid parts of the axis,
those on the surface being larger and darker than those in the
centre, as shown at B ; but those on the joints are of a yellow colour
and smaller, as shown at c." Quekett, Lectures, Histology, ii. p. 127,
f. 66.

70. Melithsea ochracea. B.M.

" Rather forked, very branchy, expanded, fan-like ; joints swollen ;
branches and branchlets erect, flexuous, free." LamJc.

The axis of the stem thick, calcareous, pierced with numerous very
tortuous pores; the articulations prominent, spongy; they become
obliterated with age, especially near the root.

Accabarium rubrum, Humph. Amb. vi. p. 234, t. 85. f. 1.

Pseudocorallium croceum, Rai. Hist. Plant, i. p. 63.

Accabaar, Seba, TJies. iii. t. 101. f. 1.

Lithoxylum ramosum, Linn. Hurt. Cliff", p. 480.

Corallium rubrum, Ellis, Phil Trans. 1. p. 188, t. 3.

Isis ochracea, Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 10. p. 799 ; Pallas, Zooph. p. 230 ;

Solander $ Ellis, Zooph. p. 105 ; Esper, i. t. 4. f. 4, 1-3, Suppl. t. 11 !

f. 1, 2 ; Gmelin, S. N. p. 3793.
Melitsea ochracea, Lamx. Polyp. Flex. p. 462 ; Deslony. Enc. Meth.

p. 512 ; Lamk. Mem. Mm. i. p. 413 ; A. s. V. ii. p. 279 ; Meyen, Nov.

Act. Leop. xvi. t. 29 ; Ehrenb. Corall. p. 131 ; Meyen, Nov. Act. Nat.

Cur. xvi. p. 168, t. 29; Gray, P. Z. S. 1857, p. 285, 1859, p. 485;

Dana, Exp. p. 682; Kolliker, Ic. Hist. p. 142, t. 19. f. 37, 40, 43.
Melitea ochracea, Warne, Corall. p. 230.
Melithsea ochracea, Milne-Edw. Corall. i. p. 199.
Melitodes ochracea, Verrill, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. p. 38.

Coral orange-red; cells rather produced, bright cinnabar-red,
rather far apart.

a. Coral bright yellow, with purplish-red cells ; cells in two or
three rows, chiefly confined to the sides of the branchlets.


/3. Coral dark red, with yellow cells ; cells small, in two rows, almost
entirely confined to the sides of the branchlets ; in some specimens
the cells are not so distinctly marked and bright- coloured as in

The interarticular pieces of the branches vary in surface : in some
specimens they are nearly smooth, in other specimens they are deeply
and irregularly longitudinally channelled.

Lamarck describes three varieties :

a. Purple, ramuli very numerous.

b. Whitish yellow, ramuli less numerous.

c. Yellow, with series of purple cells on the sides of the branchlets.

71, Melithaea virgata.

Coral expanded ; principal branches nearly parallel, much elongated
tapering, and subdividing far less rapidly than in M. ochracea ; the
calcareous segments of the axis elongate.

Melithaea ochracea (part.), Dana, from Fejee Islands.
Melitodes virgata, Verrill, Butt. Mm. Comp. Zacd* p. 38.,

Hob. Feejee Islands.


Coral branched, on a plane ; branches from the articulations,
forked, often parallel and anastomosing. Axis calcareous, solid,
hard, semitransparent, pink, longitudinally striated. The inter-
nodes swollen, spongy or cork-like, red. Bark moderately thick,
granular, spiculose. Polype-cells somewhat prominent, in one or
more series on the edges of the branches.

Synopsis, of Genera.

I. Coral fan-shaped.

1. MELITELLA. Polype- cells long, in several rows.

2. ACABARIA. Polype-cells broad, short, in one row.

3. AJSTCELLA. Polype-cells small, prominent, in one row.

II. Coral shrub-like, forked.

4. MOPSELLA. Coral shrub-like, dichotomous.

5. CLATHRARIA. Coral shrub-like, dichotomous, inosculating.

I. Coral fan-shaped.

Coral fan-like, expanded, .forked ; branchlets generally inoscu-
lating, often divaricated. Cells rather convex, numerous, in several
series on the sides and upper surface of the branches and branchlets,
leaving a slender impressed line -destitute of cells on one (the lower)


surface of the branches. The axis solid, calcareous, not becoming
spongy, longitudinally grooved. Buds and branches from the swollen
joints. Bark hard, smooth. Polype-cells convex, with a thick,
rounded, raised edge and sunken centre.

Melithaea, sp v Milne-Edw. fy Haime, Corall i. p. 200.
Melitodes, sp., Verrill, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool 1864, p. 38.

* Branches virgate, subparattel, inosculating.

72. Melitella elongata. B.M.

Coral fan-shaped ; joints cylindrical, elongate ; internodes swollen ;
orange; branches virgate, subparallel, much divided; brauchlets
slender, compressed, sometimes inosculating ; joints of the branch-
lets very long, slender, compressed.

? Isis ochracea (ramorum summitates), Esper, Pflanz. t. 4 A. f. 2, 4, 5

(not 3).
Melitella elongata, Gray, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 485,; Verrill, Bull. Mus.

Comp. Zool. p. 38.

Hob. Singapore.

This species is very like Melitcea oclimcea, but the cells are much
more numerous and crowded, and the axis is solid and calcareous.

Esper's figures somewhat represent this species ; but the cells are
not sufficiently crowded and numerous in figs. 4 & 5.

The lateral groove is distinctly marked on the outer side, and
more or less indistinctly so on the uppersides of the branches and

73. Melitella flabellata. B.M.

Coral fan-shaped, ovate, longer than broad; joints slender, in the
middle thicker.

Hal. ?

74. Melitella atrorubens. B.M.

Coral much branched, dichotomous, fan-like ; branches radial ;
branchlets cylindrical. Bark dark, uniform deep brown red. Polype-
cells on the upperside and edges of the branchlets, with a hard,
slightly raised, circular margin.

Melitea ochracea (part.), Lamx. MSS.
Hab. India. From M. Lamouroux's Collection.

75. Melitella linearis. B.M.

Coral very much branched, on a plane ; branchlets very slender,
filiform, of a uniform size, coalescing at each joint, leaving oblong,
elongate interspaces; articulations large, swollen, red. Axis white.
Cells rather prominent, very few, rather far apart, one or two series
on each side of the stem ?

Ha b. ? A fragment only.

Coral fan-shaped, white ; branches parallel, linear, very slender,


thread-like, regularly anastomosing ; joints elongate ; internodes
swollen ; the bark with many imbedded spicules ; cells scattered.

** Branches divaricated, reticulatety inosculating.

' 76. Melitella retifera. B.M.

Stem thick ; branches nodose at the joints, flat, ramulose ; branch-
lets divaricated, flexuous, rather reticulated, and very closely warty,
frequently anastomosed, articulations remote or deficient on the
twigs, very apparent on the branches, and close together on the stem.
Bark purple, or yellow with purple spots, or orange. Polype-cells
large, conical.

Isis aurantia, Esper, Suppl. ii. t. 9.

Isis coccinea, Esper, Suppl. ii. t. 10.

Melitsea retifera, Lamk. Mem. \. p. 412, Hist. ed. 2. ii. p. 473 ; Lamx.
Polyp. Flex. p. 463 ; Ehrenb. Corall p. 131 ; Gray, P. Z. S. 1857,
p. 284, 1859, p. 486; Dana, Exp. p. 683; Kolliker, Ic. Hist. p. 142,
1. 19. f. 38, 39.

Mopsella aurantia, Verritt, Mus. Comp. Zool. p. 38.

Melitea retifera, Warne, Corallina, p. 231.

Melithgea retifera, Milne-Edw. Corall. i. p. 200.

Hob. Indian Ocean; Australia (Garret).

77. Melitella textiformis. B.M.

"Stem short, knotty, dividing considerably into very slender,
warty, anastomosing twigs, leaving lengthened meshes." Lamx.

Melita3a textiformis, Lamk. Mem. Mus. \. p. 412 ; Lamx. Polyp. Flex.
p. 465, 1. 19. f. 1 ; Ehrenb. Corall. p. 131 ; Gray, P. Z. S. 1857, p. 285.
Melithaea textiformis, Milne-Edw. Corall. i. p. 201.
Melitea textiformis, Warne, Corallina, p. 231, 1. 19. f. 1.
Melitea retifera, var. ?, Dana, Zooph. p. 683.
Mopsella textiformis, Verrill, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. p. 38.

Hob. South Seas.

78. Melitella coccinea. B.M.

Small, variously branched; branches very slender, tortuous,
divaricated ; branches diverging and anastomosed together ; articu-
lations obsolete, contorted ; cells scattered, conical.

Isis coccinea, Ellis $ Solander, Zooph. p. 107, t. 12. f. 5 ; Gmel S. N.

p. 3794 ; Esper, i. t. 3A. f. 5 (cop. Ellis).
Melitaea coccinea, Lamk. Mem. Mus. i. p. 413, Hist. ii. n. 4 ; Ehrenb.

Corall. p. 131 ; Kolliker, Ic. Hist. p. 142, t. 15. f. 9, t. 16. f. 1, 2 ;

Dana, Exp. p. 683 ; Gray, P. Z. S. 1857, p. 284, 1859, p. 486.
MelitEea Rissoi, Lamx. Polyp. Flex. p. 463 ; Expos. Method. Polyp.

p. 38, 1. 12. f. 5 (from Ellis).
Melitea Rissoi, Warne, Corallina, p. 231.
Melithaea coccinea, Milne-Edw. Corall. i. p. 200.

Hob. India ; New Holland.

" Varies yellow, buff, rose-red, and scarlet colours." Dana.

79. Melitella japonica.

Coral low, spreading, dichotomous, branching, nearly on a plane ;


branches slender, diverging at an angle of about 45, obtuse at the
ends. Cells rounded, papilliform, rather large, crowded. Colour of
all observed vermilion red, with yellow polypes.
Mopsella japonica, Verrill, Proc. Essex Inst. 1865.

Hob. Japan (/Sameda).

Nearly allied to M. coccinea (Isis cocdnea, Ellis & Solander) ; but
the branchlets do not coalesce, as in those species, and spread much
less abruptly. The cells also are considerably larger.


The coral very slender, branched, dichotomous, expanded in a
plane ; branches and branchlets very slender, compressed ; with short,
swollen internodes, more prominent on the older stems. Bark thin,
hard, smooth. Cells short, broad, subcylindrical, truncated, in a
single series on each edge of the branches and branchlets, rather close
together. Axis calcareous, solid, red, longitudinally grooved ; inter-
nodes short, swollen, spongy.

Acabaria, Gray, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 484 j Ann. $ Mag. Nat. Hist. 1868,
ii. p. 444.

80. Acabaria divaricata. B.M.

Coral tree-like. Bark - ? Axis very slender, thread-like (not
| line thick) ; joints elongate, smooth, pale red. Articulations only
slightly swollen, spongy ; the branches divaricating, rather rounded
at origin.

Acabaria divaricata, Gray, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 484 ; Ann. $ Mag. Nat.

Hob. Australia (Jukes, no. 2787).

Fig. 1.

Acabaria divaricata.



Coral fan-like, dichotomously branched ; branches separate, diva-
ricating in the same plane, arising from the short rather sunken
joints. Bark thin, hard, smooth, longitudinally grooved. Cells
minute, subcylindridal, short, produced in a narrow alternating series
on each edge of the branches and branchlets. Axis calcareous,
solid, with longitudinal grooves ; internodes very short, contracted,

Anicella, Gray, Ann. fy Mag. Nat. Hist. 1868, ii. p. 445.

Hal. ?

Like Melithcea, but the polype-cells small, prominent, and in a
single lateral series.

It agrees with Mopsea in the joints being short and contracted ;
but they are cork-like, as in the younger branches of Melitella, and

81. Anicella australis. B.M.

Coral red, growing in one plane; the stem distinctly jointed; the
branchlets slender, with the joints very inconspicuous.

Anicella australis, Gray, Ann. $ Mag. Nat. Hist. 1868, ii. p. 445, f. 4.
Hob. Port Essington (Jukes}.

Fig. 2.

Anicella australis.

II. Coral erect, shrub-like, forked.

Coral tree-like, dichotomously branched ; branches diverging from
the swollen spongy joints. Axis articulated ; segments elongated,


stony, with short swollen hard and porous joints. Base of the axis
expanded, discoid, not stellate, lobed. Bark permanent, granular,
with scattered spicula. Cells prominent on all sides of the branch-
lets, and scattered on the branches.

Mopsella, Gray, P. Z. S. 1867, p. 284, 1859, p. 486.
" I am unable to find any generic difference between M. dichotoma,
which is the type of Mopsella, Gray, and those subsequently referred
by him to the genus Melitella ; and I have, therefore, united the two
genera." Verrill.

82. Mopsella dichotoma. B.M.

Coral branched, dichotomous, filiform, diffused, smooth, striated ;
internodes short, swollen, reddish.

Hippuris coralloides cornea, Petiver, Gaz. t. 3. f. 10 (with bark).
Isis dichotoma, Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 10, p. 799 ; Gmel. S. N. p. 3793 ;

Pallas, Zooph. p. 229; Esper, i. t. 5, 1. 11. f. 4, 5; Lamk. Hist. ed. 2. ii.

p. 475, n. 3, Mem. Mus. i. p. 418; Herm. Naturf. xv. p. 135, t. 5.

f. 1 (barked) ; Schweigger, Beob. no. 10, Handb. p. 434.
Mopsea dichotoma, Lamx. Polyp. Flex. 1816, p. 466 ; Dana, Exp. p. 678

(not Seba, t. 106. f. 4); Milne-Edw. $ Haime, Corall. i. p. 197;

Kolliker, Ic. Hist. p. 142, 1. 15. f. 8-10, 1. 19. f. 25.
Mopsella dichotoma, Gray, P. Z. S. 1857, p. 284, 1859, p. 486 ;

Ehrenb. Corall. p. 131 ; Verrill, Bull Mus. Comp. Zool. p. 38.

" Polype-cells mamilliform on the upper, tuberculose on the middle,
and superficial on the lower branches." Lamk., Lamx. 1. c. p. 468.

Hob. Cape of Good Hope. With uniform yellow bark (apices

83. Mopsella erythracea.

Shrub-like, forked; warts scattered. Axis reddish ; joints roundish,
longitudinally grooved ; knots slightly tumid.

Isis erythrus, Milne-Edw. in Lamk. Hist. ed. 2. ii. p. 477.
Mopsea erythraea, Ehrenb. Corall. p. 131 ; Dana, Exp. p. 679 ; Milne-
Edw. & Haime, Corall. i. p. 198.
Mopsea erythracea, Kolliker, Ic. Hist. p. 142, 1. 19. f. 43, 44, 1. 16. f. 7.

Hob. Red Sea.

" Very like J. gracilis, but branches much more slender. Bark
red ; polypes while." Milne- Edwards, I. c.

84. Mopsella tenella.

Fruticose, 3 inches high, deep scarlet, much branched; branches
and branchlets very slender, in no part a line thick, flexuous ; joints
3 to 8 lines long; cortex verrucose ; verruca small (| line broad),
not at all ascending. Polypes bright yellow. Axis calcareous,
nearly smooth.

Melitsea ? tenella, Dana, Exp. p. 683.
Melitella? tenella, Gray, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 486.
Melithsea tenella, Milne-Edw. Corall. i. p. 201.
Mopsella tenella, Verrill, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. p. 39.

Hob. Sandwich Islands.



"More slender than any of the preceding; branches not on a
plane, and rarely coalescing. Axis pale red." Dana.

85. Mopsella gracilis. B.M.

Coral very slender, thread-like ; joints elongate, slender, pale red ;
articulations only slightly swollen ; branches divaricating, the first
rather rounded at the base.

Mopsella gracilis, Gray, P. Z. 8. 1859, p. 486.

Hab. ?


Coral shrub-like ; branches cylindrical, erect, tortuous, interoscu-
lating, of nearly equal thickness ; branchlets, some free, blunt. Bark
thin, granular. Cells small, immersed, nearly equally scattered on all
sides of the branches ; buds and branches from the swollen joints ; joints
elongate, white, longitudinally striated ; internodes red, spongy.
Clathraria, Gray, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 486.

86. Clathraria rubrinodis.

Coral-branches cylindrical, nearly of equal thickness.
Clathraria rubrinodis, Gray, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 486.
Mopsea bicolor, Kott. Icones Hist. p. 142, t. 19. f. 42.

Hab. ?

Fig. 3.


Clathraria ruhnnodis.


87. Clathraria acuta. B.M.

Coral-branches tapering ; branchlets acute.
Hab. ?


Coral much branched, expanded, fan-like, on a plane. Bark thin,
with a very large number of small slender spicules. Bark and
polypes with rough minute diverging spicules. Polype-cells on all
sides of the branchlets, and scattered over the branches ; prominent,
broad, and depressed or elongate, and cylindrical. Axis calca-
reous. Joints hard, solid, longitudinally striated, with indistinct,
slightly contracted articulations, which are cork-like and pierced
with a number of tubular canals when deposited, but are soon
covered with a white, hard, solid coat like the joints ; branches from
the short stony joints.


Coral branched, fan -like; branches furcate; branchlets subpin-
nate, diverging ; terminal branchlets with a series of conical pro-
jections on each of the two edges, the last joint compressed, three-
lobed. The bark thin. Polype-cells on the terminal branchlets in
two lateral series, alternating with the central marginal projections,
scattered on the branches and main stem. Cells circular ; margin
slightly raised, covered with radiating spicules and a central de-
pression. Axis white, solid, hard, calcareous, with very indistinctly
marked, slightly contracted, short internodes ; internodes hard, with
small tubular canals.

88. Trinella Swinhoei. B.M.

Hob. Formosa (Swinhoe).

Fig. 4.

Trinella Swinhoei.



" Coral irregularly branching, nearly on a plane. The axis con-
sists alternately of calcareous and suberous segments, of uniform
thickness, traversed by numerous narrow sulcations. The branches
originate from the calcareous segments. Ccenenchyma [bark] per-
sistent, rather thin, somewhat membranous, with a rough surface.
Cells cylindrical, narrow, prominent, arranged irregularly on all sides
of the branchlets, but often absent on the median surfaces of the larger
branches." Verrill.

Parisis, Verrill, Bull Mm. Comp. Zool 1865, p. 36. Proc. Essex Inst.

89. Parisis fmticosa. B.M.

Large, flabelliform; the principal branches, arising irregularly
along the sides of the trunk, divide and subdivide rapidly into
smaller branches and branchlets, producing a densely ramulose
frond ; the branches ascend and diverge usually at an angle of about
50 ; the branchlets often spread at right angles, and do not coalesce.
Papillae numerous, crowded on the branchlets, conical. Colour greyish
yellow. Axis white ; internodes yellowish brown.

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