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Catalogue of marine Polyzoa in the collection of the British museum (Volume 2) online

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THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY
OF CALIFORNIA

PRESENTED BY

PROF. CHARLES A. KOFOID AND
MRS. PRUDENCE W. KOFOID

PALEONTOLOGY LIBRARY



.



CATALOGUE



OF



MARINE POLYZOA



THE COLLECTION



BRITISH MUSEUM.



PART II.
CHEILOSTOMATA (PART.).



LONDON:

PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE TRUSTEES.
1854.



-\



Gift of C. A. Kofoid






PRINTED BY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS,
RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET.



,5

>
v.2



NOTICE.

EARTH

SCIENCES



IN the present Catalogue it is intended to comprise
figures and descriptions of all the species of Marine Polyzoa
in the Collection of the British Museum, and from typical
specimens therein contained.

This Collection, already valuable, especially in the pos-
session of Dr. Johnston's specimens, has recently been
materially augmented by the addition of numerous Austra-
lian and other forms, many of them new, procured by
Mr. J. Macgillivray, on the voyage of H.M.S. Rattlesnake.
It has also been much enriched by the liberality of Charles
Darwin, Esq., F.R.S., Dr. J. Hooker, F.R.S., Dr. Lyall,
R.N., R. M f Andrew, Esq., F.R.S., J. S. Bowerbank, Esq.,
F.R.S., The Rev. David Landsborough, Mrs. Gatty, Miss
Cutler, Professor Edward Forbes, F.R.S., Dr. Greville,
J. Hyndman, Esq., Joshua Alder, Esq., Dr. W. Stanger, the
late W. Thompson, Esq., of Belfast, and others, who have



IV

placed their collections at Mr. Busk's disposal, for the
purposes of this Catalogue, and for the selection of the
specimens required for the Museum Collection.

The Catalogue has been prepared, and the drawings
made, by Mr. GEORGE BUSK, F.R.S., who has also super-
intended the execution of the lithography. The magnified
figures have in all cases been taken from nature, and for
the most part from specimens preserved in fluid, in order
to ensure a more natural aspect than that afforded by dried
specimens. As they have been drawn with the aid of the
camera hicida, and to a scale which is given with each plate
or figure, the absolute and relative proportions of the
different objects will be at once obvious.

JOHN EDWARD GRAY.

1 Dec. 1853.



LIST OF SPECIES.



Page

Family 10. MEMBRANIPORID^E 55

Gen. 1 . Membranipora 56

1. M. membranacea 56

2. M. pilosa 56

3. M. coriacea 57

4. M. umbonata 57

5. M. lineata 58

6. M. Flemingii 58

7. M. Rozieri 59

8. M. Rosselii 59

9. M. calpensis 60

10. M. stenostoma 60

11. M. cervicornis 60

12. M. Lacroixii 60

13. M. cyclops 61

14. M. monostachys 61

15. M. magnilabris 62

16. M. galeata 62

Gen. 2. Lepralia 63

* Armatae.

1. L. Brongniartii 65

2. L. Landsborovii 66

3. L. galeata 66

4. L. reticulata 66

5. L. marionensis 6/



LIST OF SPECIES.

Page

6. Lepralia auriculata 67

7. L. concinna 67

8. L. verrucosa 68

9. L. violacea 69

10. L. spinifera 69

11. L. trispinosa 70

12. L. coccinea 70

13. L. linearis 71

14. L. alata 71

15. L. monoceros 72

16. L. bicristata 72

17. L. margaritifera 72

18. L. ciliata 73

19. L. Gattyse 73

20. L. Hyndmanni 74

21. L. personata 74

22. L. depressa 75

23. L. Lyallii 75

** Inarmatae.

24. L. variolosa 75

25. L. nitida 76

26. L. annulata 76

27. L. bispinosa 77

28. L. Peachii 77

29. L. ventricosa 78

30. L. melolontha 78

31. L. innominata 79

32. L. punctata 79

33. L. figularis 80

34. L. pertusa 80

35. L. pallasiana 81

36. L. cucullata . . 81

37. L.labiosa 82

38. L. labrosa 82

39. L. simplex 62

40. L. areolata 82

41. L. adpressa 82

42. L. Malusii 83

43. L. granifera 83

44. L. hyalina 84

45. L. discreta 85

46. L. annularis 85



LIST OF SPECIES. Vll

Page

Fam. 11. CELLEPORID^E 85

Gen. 1 . Cellepora 85

* Adnate.

1. C. pumicosa 86

2. C. Hassallii 86

3. C. vitrina 87

4. C. bispinata 87

5. C. mamillata 87

** Erect.

6. C. ramulosa 87

7. C. Skenei 88

8. C. fusca . 88



Fam. 12. ESCHARID.E 88

Gen. 1. Eschara 89

1. E. foliacea 89

2. E. contorta 89

3. E. urceolata 90

4. E. platalea 90

5. E. lichenoides 90

6. E. fuegensis 90

7. E. decussata 91

8. E. flabellaris 91

9. E. gracilis 91

10. E. gigantea 91

11. E. cervicornis 92

Gen. 2, Retepora 93

1. R. cellulosa 93

2. R. beaniana 94

3. R. phoeriicea 94



Fam. 13. VINCULARIAD^S 95

Gen. 1 . Vincularia 96

1. V. ornata.. 96



Vlll LIST OF SPECIES.

Page

Fam. 14. SELENARIAD.E 97

Gen. 1. Cupularia 97

1. C. guineensis 98

2. C. Owenii 99

3. C. Lowei 99

4. C. stellata 99

5. C. pyriformis 100

Gen. 2. Lunulites 100

1. L. gibbosa 100

2. L. capulus 100

3. L. philippinensis 101

4. L. cancellata 101

Gen. 3. Selenaria 101

1. S. maculata 101



CATALOGUE



OP



MARINE POLYZOA.



Fam. 10. MEMBRANIPORID^E.

Char. Polyzoary membranaceo-calcareous or calcareous, ex-
panded, encrusting, sometimes foliaceous, contorted and sub-
erect. Cells horizontal, quincuncial or serial.

Flustra, Linn.

Flustradse, Gray, Cat. B. M. 145, 1848.

Celleporidae (part.), Johnston, Brit. Zooph. ed. 2. p. 263.



SYNOPSIS OF GENERA.

* Cells more or less open in front, with raised margins.
1. MEMBRANIPORA.

** Cells disposed in a radiate manner ; closed in front.
2. LEPRALIA.



56 MARINE POLYZOA.

1. MEMBRANIPORA.

Polyzoary encrusting or suberect, foliaceous and contorted,
spreading irregularly. Cells more or less irregularly disposed
or quincuncial, with raised margins ; a greater or less extent of
the front membranaceous and flexible.

Eschara (part.), Pallas, Blench.

Flustra, Linn., Muller, Esper, Berkeley, Lamarck (part.), Grant,
Fleming (part.), Risso, Johnston, Transact. Newc. Soc. ii.

Lamouroux, Hist. d. Pol. p. 96 (part.).
Membranipora, Johnston, B. Z. ; W. Thompson; Hassall.
Discopora (part.), Lamarck, An. s. V. ii. 248, 1836.
Annulipora, Gray, App. B. R.
Conopeum, Gray, App. B. R.
Callopora, Gray, App. B. R.
Amphiblestrum, Gray, App. B. R.
Micropora, Gray, App. B. R.

1. MEMBRANIPORA MEMBRANACEA. PL LXVIII. fig. 2.
Cells oblong, with a short blunt spine at each upper angle.

Flustra membranacea, Linn. Syst. 1301 ; Fabric. Faun. Gr&nl,

437 ; Muller, Zool. Dan. Prod. 253; Ellis fy Soland. Zooph.

18 ; Fleming, Brit. Anim. 536 ; Johnston in Trans. Newc. Soc.

ii. 265 ; Blainville, Actinol. 450 ; Couch, Zooph. Cornw. 55 ;

Corn. Faun. iii. pi. 21. fig. 2 ; 0. Fabr. Faun. Graml. p. 437-

n. 446.
Flustra telacea, Lam. Anim. s. Vert. ed. 2. ii. 223 (not F. memb.

p. 225).

Membranipora membranacea, Blainv. Actin. 447.
Hab. European Seas : common, spreading on fucus, sometimes

suberect or free.

2. MEMBRANIPORA PILOSA. PI. LXXI.

Cell prolonged below. A movable spine or vibraculum below
the lower margin of the aperture, sometimes aborted ; an irre-
gular number of marginal spines. Wall of cell cribriform.

Irregular spongy foliaceous Coralline, Ellis, Corall. 73. no. 4.

pi. 31.
Eschara pilosa, Pallas, Elench. 50; Moll, Seerinde, p. 41. pi. 1

& 2. figs. 5 & 6.
Flustra pilosa, Linn. Syst. 1301 ; Mull. Zool. Dan. Prod. 253 ;

Ellis and Soland. Zooph. 13; Esper, Pflanz. Flust. t. 4. figs.

1, 2 ; Berk. Syn. i. 214 ; Lamk. Anim. s. Vert. ii. 159, ed. 2. ii.

224 ; Blainv. Diet. Sc. Nat. Ix. 415 ; Grant, Edin. New Phil.

Journ. iii. Ill; Flem. Brit. Anim. 537 ; Risso, L'Europ. Merid.



MARINE POLYZOA. 57

v. 335 ; Johnst. Trans. Newc. Soc. ii. 265. pi. 9. fig. 5 ; Lister,

Phil. Trans. 1834, 384. pi. 12. fig. 2 ; Templeton, Mag. Nat.

Hist. ix. 469.
Membranipora pilosa, Johnst. Brit. Zooph. 280. pi. 34. figs. 10-12;

Couch, Corn. Faun. iii. 119; Van Beneden, Recherch.53.figs.

1-10; Johnst. Hist. Brit. Zooph. ed. 2. 327. t. 56. fig. 6.
Flustra dentata, Ellis and Soland. Zooph. 15 ; Turt. Brit. Faun.

209 ; Lamk. Hist. Anim. s. Vert. ii. 158, ed. 2. ii. 224 ; Tern-

pleton, Mag. Nat. Hist. ix. 469.
Flustra lineata, Esper, Pflanz. Flust. t. 6 (? not good).
Membranipora pilosa, Farre, Phil. Trans. 1837, 412. t. 27. figs.

15.

Membranipora pilosa var. /3, Johnst. Brit. Zooph. 327.
Eschara miUepora, Ellis, Corall. t. 29. fig. D ; Ellis, Phil. Trans.

abridg. x. 492. t. 12. fig. 4 D.
Membranipora stellata, W. Thompson, Ann. Nat. Hist. v. 101 ;

Hassall, Ann. Nat. Hist. vii. 369.
Annulipora pilosa, Gray, List Brit. Rad. p. 107.
Annulipora dentata, Gray, List Brit. Rad. p. 107.
Hab. European Seas ; on Laminariae and many other sea-weeds,

very common.

When encrusting very slender fuci, it much resembles the
Electra verticillata of Lamouroux, H. d. Polypes, p. 120; and
is F. pilosa, var. y. reaumuriana of Moll. (I. c. p. 46. fig. 6 A-H).

3. MEMBRANIPORA CORIACEA. PI. LXXIII. figs. 4, 5.

Front of cells broadly elliptical ; margin elevated into a small
tuberosity on each side of the base of the mouth. Anterior sur-
face punctate. Ovicells with a projection in front.

Flustra coriacea, Esper, Pflanz. Flust. t. 7. fig. 2 ; Johnst. Hist.

Brit. Zooph. ed. 2. p. 349. t. 56. fig. 8.
Discopora coriacea, Lamk. Hist. ed. 2. ii. 251 ; Lamx. Encyc.

255; Blainv. Diet. Sc. Nat. Ix. 411 ; Man. Act. 446.
Micropora coriacea, Gray, List Brit. Rad. p. 115.
Hab, European Seas; encrusting shells.

4. MEMBRANIPORA UMBONATA. PI. LXXIII. figs. 6, 7-

Front of cell broadly elliptical; margin scarcely raised. A
spine on each side of the mouth. A projecting avicularium on
the front of the cell.

Hab. Van Diemen's Land ; on fucus. Mrs. Smith, from W.
Thompson.

The very prominent umbonate avicularium on the front of the
cell suffices to distinguish this species of Membranipora. The



5S MARINE POLYZOA.

figure in Plate LXXIII. is not good, as it is drawn from a spe-
cimen apparently without the oral spines, which usually exist in
and are in fact a prominent characteristic of the species. The
margin of the cells is scarcely raised, except in the older ones
in the centre of a patch, and the disposition towards a radiating
arrangement of the cells approximates this species, perhaps too
closely, to Lepralia.

5. MEMBRANIPORA LINEATA. PI. LXI. fig. 1.

Cells oval, separate, the margin armed with numerous slender
spines, erect or bent inwards.
Flustra lineata, Linn. Syst. 1301 ; Mull. Zool Dan. Prod. 253 ;

Fabr. Faun. Grcenl. 437 ; Jameson, Wern. Mem. i. 563 ; Couch,

Zooph. Cornw. 55; Corn. Faun. hi. 124 ; W. Thompson, Ann.

Nat. Hist. v. 253; Johnst. Hist. Brit. Zooph. ed. 2. p. 349.

t. 66. fig. 4, & p. 350.

Flustra spinifera, Johnst. Trans. Newc. Soc. ii. 266. pi. 9. fig. 6.
Flustra hirta, Lamour. Corall. Ill ; Bosc, Vers, iii. 119 ; Risso,

UEurop. Merid. v. 334.

Callopora lineata, Gray, List Brit. Rad. p. 109.
Hab. European Seas; common; and according to Lamouroux

it also occurs in Greenland, on stones, shells and fuel.

Although some forms of Lep. nitida occasionally present a
considerable resemblance to this species, there can be no doubt
of their being perfectly distinct.

6. MEMBRANIPORA FLEMINGII. PL LXI. fig. 2. PL

LXXXIV. figs. 4, 5, 6. PL CIV. figs. 2, 3, 4.

Front of cell ovate, very broad below ; margin thick, granular ;
front of cell partially filled in by a calcareous, granular expansion.
A projecting avicularium on each side below the margin of the
aperture, or sometimes one, in the centre ; 0-2-7 spines on the
upper margin of aperture. Ovicell galeate.

Flustra meinbranacea, Mull. Zool. Dan. Prod. 253. no. 3054 ;

Zool. Dan. iii. 63. t. 117- figs. 1,2; Fabr. Faun. Granl. 437 ;

Lamour. Corall. 47 ; M.-Edw. Lamk. Hist. ed. 2. ii. 225 ;

Blainv. Man. Act. 450.
Membranipora membranacea, Johnst. Hist. Brit. Zooph. ed. 2.

p. 328. t. 56. fig. 7, & p. 478 ; not Blainv. Diet. Sc. Nat. 412.
Flustra unicornis, Flem, Edin. Phil. Journ. ii. 87 ; Flem. Brit.

Anim. 236 ; Blainv. Act. 450 ; Johnst. Tr. Newc. Soc. ii.266.
Membranipora unicornis, Blainv. D. S. N. Ix. 412; Man. Act.

447.
Flustra tuberculata, Johnst. Br. Zooph. 289; Bosc, Vers, iii. 143.



MARINE POLYZOA. 5V

Flustra Peachii, Couch, Rep. Cornw. Polytechnic Soc. 81 (see

Johnst. Brit. Zooph. 478).

Amphiblestrum membranaceum, Gray, List B. R. 110.
Hab. European Seas ; Australia ? : on stones and shells.

The above synonyms are assigned to this species chiefly on
the authority of Dr. Johnston, but several of them are probably
erroneous. No species presents greater diversities of form than
the present ; and specimens will occasionally be met with, espe-
cially from deep water, in which, from the almost entire absence
of the spines and avicularia, great difficulty will be experienced
in the determination; careful inspection, however, of various
parts of the patch, especially at the growing edge, if it be in the
growing state, will usually suffice to trace its relationship to the
form assumed as the type of the species. The figures given in
the different plates referred to, afford but a faint notion of the
endless varieties induced by age, wear and situation, particularly
as to depth, of this protean form. I have ventured to assign a
new term to it, because the specific name * membranacea ' belongs,
as I think, of priority, to another species; and Dr. Fleming's
name, * unicornis,' is so inapplicable that its retention seems
scarcely justifiable.

7. MEMBRANIPORA ROZIERI. PI. LXV. fig. 6.

Front of cell elliptical ; mouth orbicular, with a raised margin
and small tuberosity on each side ; an oval or elongated opening
on each side of the front of the cell immediately below the mouth.
Ovicell globose, carinate in front.

Flustra Rozieri, Audouin, Savigny, Egypt, pi. 8. fig. 9.
Hab. Rio de Janeiro, Darwin. On fucus.

Notwithstanding the above habitat, from which only have I
seen a specimen, collected by Mr. Darwin, there can be no doubt
of the identity of the form with that so beautifully figured by
Savigny.

8. MEMBRANIPORA ROSSELII. PI. C. fig. 2.

Front of cells oval, wide, or elongated ; the lower half of the
area filled in by a calcareous granulated expansion ; margin finely
beaded. Ovicell flattened in front.

Flustra Rosselii, Audouin, Expl. 240; Savigny, Egypt, pi. 10.

fig. 11.
Hab. Orkney. Coast of Devon (Start) ?, Eowerbank. Bay of

Gibraltar, M' Andrew, Landsborough.



60 MARINE POLYZOA.

9. MEMBRANIPORA CALPENSIS, n. sp.? PI. CIV. figs. 5, 6.
Front of cell oval, elongated ; margins elevated, smooth ; an-
terior surface of cell punctate.

Hab. Bay of Gibraltar, M ( Andrew, Landsborough. Egean Sea,
E. Forbes. On fuci, shells and stones, and sometimes scarcely
attached to anything.

A fine and, apparently, abundant species which I am unable
positively to reconcile with any published description, and there-
fore venture to assign a name to. It seems at present to be con-
fined to the Mediterranean, but no figure at all approaching it
occurs among those of Savigny, unless it be that of Flustra La-
treillei, pi. 14. fig. 8.

10. MEMBRANIPORA STENOSTOMA, n. s. PL C. fig. 1.

Front of cell pyriform ; margins elevated, smooth, not grooved;
surface of cell smooth, or subgranular, a long spine on each side
of the mouth, which is very narrow. Avicularia scattered over
the polyzoary ; mandible triangular acute.
Hab. Tasmania, Mrs. Smith (W. Thompson). East Falkland

Islands, 4 to 10 fathoms, Darwin.

11. MEMBRANIPORA CERVICORNIS, n. s. PI. C. fig. 3.

Front of cell oblong or oval ; a strong and much-projecting
process arising from each upper angle of the aperture, branching
like a stag's horn and bending over the front of the cell, usually
meeting and inosculating ; several other simple or forked, mar-
ginal spines. Ovicell galeate, crowned with a small avicularium ?

Hab. ?

This very curious species is at once distinguishable by the pro-
cesses on each side of the upper part of the cell, which, project-
ing at a right angle, branch out in the manner of the antlers of a
stag, and usually uniting in front by one or more of the branches,
cover and protect the open front of the cell in a very effectual
manner. The colour of the polyzoary is purplish.

12. MEMBRANIPORA LACROIXII. PL LXIX. PL CIV. fig. 1.

Front of cell oval, either entirely occupied by a membrane, or
partially filled in by a calcareous, granulated expansion all round
the circumference, but wider inferiorly; margin granulated;
usually an avicularium on either side below the aperture, and oc-
casionally a marginal spine (usually obsolete or worn off) on each
side above.



MARINE POLYZOA. (>i

Flustra distans, Hassall, Ann. Nat. Hist. vii. 369 ; Johnst. Brit.

Zooph. 350. pi. 57. figs. 11, 12.
? Flustra hibernica, Hassall, Ann. 4* Ma#. Nfltf. ftarf. vi. 172. t. 7-

fig. 1 ; vii. 3/0.

? Lepralia pedilostoma, part., Johnst. Brit. Zooph. 315.
Membranipora merabranacea ?, Johnst. Brit. Zooph. 350.
Flustra Peachii, Couch, 9th Rep. Cornw. Polyt. Soc. 81.
Flustra Lacroixii, Savigny, Egypt, t. 10. fig. 9.
Flustra Savartii, And. Exp. i. 240; Savigny, Egypt. 1. 10. fig. 10.
Membranipora Peachii, Couch, Corn. Faun. iii. 120. t. 22. fig. 13.
Conopeum reticulum, Gray, List Brit. Rad. p. 108.
Hab. European Seas, common, spreading like a network over

stones and dead shells. It occurs (?) also in Australia.

This species, the identity of which with the Millepora reticulum
of Esper may be doubted, and which is certainly distinct from
what is described as Discopora reticulum in Lamarck (Hist. ii.
250. ed. 2), and probably therefore from the Membranipora reti-
culum of Blainville (Man. d'Actinol. 447), is indubitably the same
with Flustra Lacroixii, Audouin, and apparently also with the
succeeding figure of F. Savartii ; and I have therefore, in the un-
certainty of the older appellation of Esper, and at the same time
to avoid confusion with those of Lamarck and Blainville, adopted
that of Audouin, as the next in order of time, to the exclusion of
Dr. Hassall's name of F. distans, and Mr. Couch's of F. Peachii,
both of which doubtless refer to one and the same species.

13. MEMBRANIPORA CYCLOPS, n. s. PL LXV. fig. 3.

Front of cells oval ; margin very much raised, beaded ; a single
avicularium below the aperture.

Hab. New Zealand. On fucus.

Very much like the preceding, but differing in the single in-
stead of two avicularia below the aperture.

14. MEMBRANIPORA MONOSTACHYS, n. s. PI. LXX.

Cells distant in the younger portions of the polyzoary, attenu-
ated downwards, and disposed more or less in linear series.
Aperture oval ; margin thin, beaded or granular, a single acumi-
nate submarginal spine below the aperture. Scattered avicularia
over the polyzoary.

Hab. Britain (east coast?). In the mouths of rivers and estua-
ries, or in brackish water, spreading upon shells and stones,
sometimes erect, free, foliaceous and contorted.

This species, which has probably been confounded with M.



()2 MARINE POLYZOA.

Lacroixii, to which, in the older state especially, it bears an ex-
tremely close resemblance, seems nevertheless to me to be quite
distinct. It usually forms a delicate gauze-like coat upon shells
and stones, and is then quite calcareous, though very delicate
and thin ; but it also occurs in a more membranaceous condition
and growing in an irregular foliaceous form of a greenish colour
(dry). The only specimen of this sort that has come under my
notice was kindly furnished by Dr. Landsborough ; it was found
by Mr. Higham of Norwich in brackish water and in considerably
sized masses. It can hardly, perhaps, be regarded as purely a
marine form, and will be found I imagine more abundantly in
rivers near the sea, or in shallow estuaries, than in the sea itself.
It occurs in great plenty on shells and stones on the muddy
bottom of the river Deben in Suffolk. I have also a specimen
very like this species from St. Vincent, one of the Cape de Verde
Islands.

15. MEMBRANIPORA MAGNILABRIS, n. s. PI. LXV. fig. 4.

Front of cell oval ; upper margin semicircular, much raised ;
moveable lip very large, occupying the entire semicircular upper
third of the front of the cell , remainder of the front of cell de-
pressed, membranous or semicalcareous, punctured.

Hab. Abrolhos Islet (Atlantic), Darwin. Algoa Bay, BowerbanJc.
On shell.

Very remarkable for the large size of the cells and the very
great dimensions of the moveable lip ; this part, as usual, is com-
posed of a semicircular rim of horny matter ; but besides this,
the membrane stretching across the semicircle is further supported
by two slender bars of horny substance, which extend from the
side of the base to the centre of the bow, where they meet. This
species might be regarded as the type of the cheilostomatous
Polyzoa, and from its comparatively large size would probably be
an interesting subject for examination in the living state.

16. MEMBRANIPORA GALEATA, n. s. PI. LXV. fig. 5.

Front of cell oval ; two pointed marginal spines on each side,
towards the top. Ovicell galeate, widely open beneath, crowned
with a large oblong avicularium.

Hab. East Falkland Islands, 4 to 10 fathoms, Darwin. OnLa-
minaria.

Colour dark purple.



MARINE POLYZOA. 63

2. LEPRALIA.

Polyzoarium adnate, crustaceous, spreading from a centre in a
more or less circular form ; composed of contiguous or connected,
calcareous, decumbent cells, the walls of which are complete in
front.

Eschara (sp.), Moll, Seerinde ; Pallas, Elench.

Lepralia, Johnst. Brit. Zooph. ed. 2. p. 300 ; Gray, List Brit.

Rad. p. 148 (part.).
Berenicea, Flem. Brit. An. 533, 1828 ; not Lamx. Exp. 80, 1821 ;

nor Per on.
Escharina, sp., M.-Edw. Lamk. Hist. ed. 2. ii. 230; Gray, App.

p. 148.

Escharoide, sp., M.-Edw. Lamk. Hist. ed. 2. ii. 259 ?
Cellepora, sp., Oken, Lehrb. Nat. 86, 1815 ; Audouin, Expl.

Savigny, Egypt, (part.); Lamouroux (part.) ; Hayenow (part.).
Flustra, id. ib. ; Lamouroux (part.).
Discopora, Lamarck, Hist, (part.) ; Gray, App. p. 148 (part.);

Lamouroux, Exp. Meth. (part.)
Cribrillina, Herentia, Escharella, Porella, Celleporella (all spec.),

Gray, App. List Brit. Rad. pp. 147, 148, 149.

The very great number of species included under the above
generic definition renders some subdivision of them indispensably
requisite for the convenient determination of any particular form.
In the absence of more precise knowledge respecting the living
animals, we are not, I conceive, at present in a condition to pro-
pose a satisfactory natural arrangement, and the following dispo-
sition of the species therefore must only be regarded as artificial
and contrived solely for the purpose of convenient reference.

SYNOPSIS of the Species of LEPRALIA.

1. ArmatcK. Species provided with either avicularia or vibra-
cula.

A. Species having avicularia.
a. Median and single.

* Superior (above the mouth).

1. L. Brongniartii 65

** Inferior (below the mouth).

2. L. Landsborovii 66

3. L. galeata 66

4. L. reticulata 6(

5. L. marionensis 67



64 MARINE POLYZOA.

Page

6. L. auriculata 67

7. L. concinna 67

8. L. verrucosa 68

9. L. violacea 69

. Avicularia double, or azygous and lateral ;
on each cell, or irregularly distributed
throughout the polyzoary.

10. L. spinifera 69

11. L. trispinosa 7^

12. L. coccinea 70

13. L. linearis 71

14. L. alata 71

15. L. monoceros 72

16. L. bicristata 72

17. L. margaritifera 72

(L. punctata (subinde)).

B. Species having vibracula.

18. L. ciliata 73

19. L. Gattyse 73

20. L. Hyndmanni 74

21. L. personata 74

22. L. depressa 75

23. L. Lyallii 75

2. Inarmatce. Species without either avicularia or vibra-
cula.

a. With oral spines.

24. L. variolosa 75

25. L. nitida 76

26. L. annulata 76

27- L. bispinosa 77

28. L. Peachii 77

29. L. ventricosa 78

30. L. melolontha 78

31. L. innominata 79

32. L. punctata 79

(L. Malusii (subinde)).

$. With the mouth unarmed.

33. L. figularis 80

34. L. pertusa 80

35. L. pallasiana 81

36. L. cucullata 81



MARINE POLYZOA. 65

Page

37. L. labiosa 82

38. L. labrosa 82

39. L. simplex 82

40. L. areolata 82

41. L. adpressa 82

42. L. Malusii 83

43. L. granifera 83

44. L. hyalina 84

45. L. discreta 85

46. L. annularis 85



1. Annatae.
A. With avicularia.
a. Median and single.

* Superior.

1. LEPRALIA BRONGNIARTII. PL LXXXI. figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

Cells ovate, smooth, or transversely ringed, distinct, or sepa-
rated by reticulated spaces ; mouth circular ; each cell with an
avicularium at the summit above the mouth. Ovicell pyramidal,
carinate in front, crowned by an avicularium.

Cellepora Brongniartii, And. Expl. i. 240,/rom Savig. Egypt.

Polyp, t. 10. fig. 6.
Lepralia tenuis, Hassall, Ann. fy Mag. Nat. Hist. vii. 412 ; Johnst.

Hist. Brit. Zooph. ed. 2. p. 303. t. 54. fig. 2.
Lepralia catenata, Peach, MSS.
Lepralia assimilis, Johnst. Hist. Brit. Zooph. ed. 2. p. 304 ; Gray,

List Brit. Rad. p. 117.

Lepralia Jacotini, Gray, List Brit. Rad. p. 117.


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