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of one of the cells in the pair next above.

Epistomia, Flem. Brit. Anim. 541, 1828 ; Gray, List Brit. Rod.

82, 147.

Dynamena, sp. Lamx. 1816; Blainv. 1830.
Notamia, sp. Flem. 1828.
Gemicellaria, sp. Blainv. 1830.
Sertularia, sp. Gmelin.
Cellularia, sp. Pallas.

1. NOTAMIA BURSARIA. PI. XLV. figs. 1, 2, 3, 4.
The only species.

Shepherd's-purse Coralline, Ellis, CoralL4l.u. 8.t.22. f. a, A;

Johnst. Brit. Zooph. ed. 2. 294, pi. 51, f. 1, 2.
Sertularia bursaria, Linn. S. N. 1314 ; Berk. Syn. i. 219.
Cellularia bursaria, Pall. Elench. 65 ; Ellis, Phil. Trans. Ivii. 437

t. 19. f. 12.
Cellaria bursaria, Ellis fy Soland. Zooph. 25 ; Lamk. Hist. Anim.

s. Vert. ed. 2. ii. 189.

Dynamena bursaria, Lamx. Cor. 179; Blainv. D. S. N. Ix. 448.
Notamia bursaria, Flem. Brit. Anim. 54 1 ; Busk, Trans. Micros.

Soc.ii. 110(1847).

Gemicellaria bursaria, Blainv. Diet. S. N. Ix. 425 ; Man. Act. 461 .
Sertularia bursa, Turt. Brit. Faun. 216.
Epistomia bursaria, Gray, List Brit. Had. 82.
Hab. Britain (south-east).

The true systematic position of this highly interesting species
seems to have been held, even as lately as 1847, in considerable
doubt ; for although Dr. Johnston, in the 2nd edition of Brit.


Zooph., places it doubtfully next to Gemellaria, he at the same
time says that he was more inclined then than formerly to arrange
it with Sertularia. He very shrewdly surmises the real nature
of the tobacco-pipe-like processes in comparing them with the
" bird's-head" processes in the Cellularia?, though wrong in sup-
posing that there is any analogy between them and the " some-
what similar organs" in Laomedea obliqua. In a paper in the
Transactions of the Microscopical Society (cited above), an en-
deavour is made to show the true nature of this Polyzoon and to
describe the somewhat complicated structure of the polyzoary.


Polyzoary dichotomously divided into ligulate, bi-multiserial
branches ; on the backs of which are vibracula, or avicularia, one
common to several cells ; avicularia sessile.

Cabereadae, Busk, Voy. of Rattlesn. i. 376.
Synopsis of Genera.

1. Caberea.

2. Amastigia.


Cells bi-multiserial, in the latter case quincuncial. Back of
branches covered with large vibracula, which are placed obliquely
in two rows, diverging in an upward direction from the middle
line, where the vibracula of either side decussate with those of the
other. Avicularia, when present, sessile on the front of the cell.

Caberea, Lamx. CoralL 128, 1816; Blainv. 1830; Gray, Cat.

Brit. Had. 147.

Selbia, Gray, Dieffenb. N. Z. ii. 292; Cat. Brit. Rad. 147.
Crisia (sp.), Audouin, Expl.
Cellaria (sp.), Lamb. Savigny, Egypt, pi. 12.
Cellularia (sp.), Fleming, Johnst.

a. Operculatye. With a pedunculate operculum in front of the


The remarkable feature of this genus resides in the vibracula,
which here appear to attain their utmost development. Each
vibraculum appears to belong, not to a single cell, as in Scrupo-
cellaria, but to be common or applied to the backs of seveinl.
They are more or less pyriform or long oval in shape, and the
two rows decussate with each other along the middle of the
branch, giving, in the narrower forms especially, much of the
aspect of an ear of barley, and in the wider of a straw plait. The
walls of the vibracula are usually thin and very transparent, so as


to allow the outlines of the cells to be seen imperfectly through
them. The upper extremity of the vibraculum is bifid, and to
the inner horn or tooth is articulated the " seta," and from the
notch between the two horns there is continued nearly, if not
quite to the inner or lower extremity of the organ, and along its
upper border, a shallow groove, in which is lodged the seta when
in a state of rest. In most species the seta is serrated on one
side with distant teeth.


Multiserial. Aperture oval, margin much thickened, with a
strong projecting upturned spine on each side, in the central
cells, and with three strong and long spines on the outer side,
and a smaller one on the inner side in the marginal cells. Oper-
culum spatulate, wide, entire. Each cell of the central rows with
two small avicularia in front immediately below the aperture.
Each marginal cell with a single large avicularium in front below
the aperture. Vibracula slender, very transparent. Setae short,
not serrated.

Caberea rudis, Busk, Voy. of Rattlesn. i. 377-
Hob. Bass' Strait.

Colour dirty white. Forms a broad frondose polyzoary 2
inches or more in height. The branches all disposed in the same
plane, are flat, thick, and about -^th inch wide, composed of 4-6
rows of comparatively small cells, which viewed behind appear
lozenge or diamond- shaped, and arranged quincuncially. It is
not always easy to observe with accuracy the outline of the vi-
bracula, owing to the extreme tenuity of their walls, but the
groove along the upper border is very distinct, and most usually
has the seta lying in it. The avicularia on the marginal cells are
very large, but not uniform in size. Along each border of the
branches runs a bundle of radical tubes, the number of which
diminishes as the branch ascends, owing to the circumstance that
each tube terminates in the base of a vibraculum.

2. CABEREA BORYI. (Cab. zelanica, PI. XVI. figs. 4, 5. Cab.

patagonica, PL XXXVIII.)

Cells biserial; aperture oval, pedunculate operculum expanded
principally downwards, and sometimes sending off a process to
the opposite side of the aperture ; a single spine on the inner
side springing from the peduncle of the operculum ; two marginal
spines on the outer side of the aperture. Ovicell large, arcuate.
Vibracula ovoid. Setae serrated.

Crisia Boryi, And. Expl. ; Savign. Egypt, pi. 12. f. 4.
Selbia zelanica, Gray, Dieffenb. N. Z. ii. 292.


Caberea zelanica, Busk, Voy. of Rattlesn. i. 378.

Hab. Cumberland Island. New Zealand, Hooker ; E. Falkland

Islands ; S. Patagonia, 49 S. ; Port St. Julian, Patagonia ;

Strait of Magellan, Darwin ; Coast of Devon, Miss Cutler.

Algoa Bay.

This appears to be one of the most generally diffused species,
and it varies also considerably in some respects, according to its
age and other circumstances, perhaps of depth or temperature,
&c. To observe the specific characters here assigned, it is ne-
cessary to examine the younger or more perfect cells at the
extremity of the branches, the older ones by continued depo-
sition of calcareous matter being considerably altered, and
also usually deprived of the spines. But the most remarkable
difference is in the conformation of the pedunculate operculum.
As shown in PL XVI. fig. 4, this process extends quite across the
aperture of the cell, forming a sort of bridge, from the lower
margin of which depends the expanded lamina, and this appears
to be the condition in which it was figured by Savigny ; whilst in
PL XXXVIII. figs. 2, 6, 7, it will be seen that the operculum is not
connected with the opposite side of the aperture, but of the more
usual form. Upon sufficient examination however it will be
found that both forms run insensibly into each other. The recent
discovery of this species on the coast of Devonshire is of great
interest. It there grows in minute tufts upon Eschar a foliacea,
and has probably hitherto been overlooked, owing to its resem-
blance to Canda reptans.

j3. Inoperculatee. A r o pedunculate operculum.


Bi-triserial. Marginal cells with two marginal spines above
and one on the inner side. Central cells with a marginal spine
on each side of the aperture above. Setae serrated.

Cellularia Hookeri, Flem. Brit.Anim. 539 (1828) ; Johnst. Hist.

Brit. Zooph. ed. 2. 338. t. 60. f. 1, 2.
Bicellaria Hookeri, Blainv. Diet. Sc. Nat. Ix. 424.
Hab. Torquay, Hooker ; Orkneys, E. F. Barlee.


Bi-multiserial ; marginal cells with a single subapical spine ;
central cells without marginal spines ; seta? serrated.

Caberea lata, Busk, op. cit. i. 378.

Hab. Australia ; New Zealand (an praeced. varietas ?).


Colour white or yellowish ; forms close rounded tufts 2 to 3
inches high and wide, composed of uniform dichotomously divided
branches about |th of an inch wide, and which become wider
towards their truncate extremities. The vibracula are very large,
and though distinctly denned, are yet sufficiently transparent to
allow a view of the lozenge-shaped cells. The central rows of
cells vary in number from two to five, and the cells composing
them are arranged with extreme regularity. The marginal rows
are placed in a plane posterior to the central, and the cells of
which they are composed are widely different from the central.

It is not easy to distinguish the narrower forms of this species
from Caberea hookeri, and they may not improbably really
belong to one and the same species, differing only in consequence
of the difference in the localities in which they are found. The
warmer latitudes of New Zealand and Australia may readily be
supposed to produce a more luxuriant growth, and consequently
wider and stronger branches of the polyzoary. But there are
other differences, which though less obvious, would better serve
to indicate a specific distinction between the two forms. In Cab.
hookeri there is a large tubular spine on each side of the mouth
in the lateral cells, and each of the central cells, or nearly so, are
furnished with an anterior avicularium, below the aperture and
to one side. The lateral avicularium also of the marginal cells
is much larger.

2. AMASTIGIA ( priv., /xao-ri).

An avicularium to about each three cells on the back of the
branches (no vibracula).

In this genus the vibracula on the back of the branches are re-
placed by avicularia ; but it is to be remarked that in these avi-
cularia, contrary to what usually obtains in those organs, the
moveable mandible, when closed, points downwards ; in this re-
spect resembling the seta of the vibraculum, with which it is in
fact strictly homologous.


Cells bi-quadriserial; posterior avicularia small, the mandible
pointing downwards. A lateral and anterior avicularium to each
lateral cell : an anterior one to each of those in the central rows.
Aperture oval, with a broad pedunculate operculum and two
spines on each side above.

Caberea nuda, Busk, MSS. t. 36.
Hab. Tierra del Fuego, Darwin.




Polyzoary dichotomously divided into narrow ligulate, bi- or
multiserial branches. No vibracula. Avicularia when present
pedunculate and articulated. Polyzoary erect ; phytoid.

Bicellariadae, Busk, Voy. of Rattlesn. i. 373.
Bugulidse, Gray, Cat. Brit. Rad. 110, 146.

Synopsis of Genera.

1. Bicellaria.

2. Halophila.

3. Bugula.


Cells turbinate, distant. Aperture directed more or less up-
wards. Several spines, marginal or dorsal.

Bicellaria, Blainv. D. S. N. 1830; Gray, Cat. Brit. Rad. 112.

Cellularia, Flem. Brit. Anim. 1828.

Cellularia, sp. Pallas.

Cellaria, sp. Soland.; Lamk. 1816.

Bugula a, sp. Oken, Lehrb. Nat. 89.


Aperture oval looking obliquely upwards and forwards. Five
to seven very long, slender, incurved marginal spines on the outer
edge of the aperture. One to two dorsal spines. A single, long,
slender, submarginal spine at the lower part of the aperture.
Ovicell subpedunculate, attached to the inner edge of the aper-
ture. Avicularia capitate, affixed to the lower and outer part of
the cell.

Ciliated Coralline, Ellis, Corall. 38. no. 5. pi. 20. d, D.
Sertularia ciliata, Linn. Syst. 1316; Berk. Syn. i. 230; jEsper,

Pflanz. Sert. t. 14. f. 1, 2.

Cellularia ciliata, Pall. Elench. 74 ; Flem. Brit. Anim. 540.
Cellaria ciliata, Ellis and Soland. Zooph. 24 ; Lamk. Anim. s.

Vert. ii. 139, ed. 2. ii. 186.
Bugula ciliata, Oken, Lehrb. Nat. 89.
Crisia ciliata, Lamour. Corall. 60 ; Templeton, Mag. Nat. Hist.

ix. 468 ; Van Beneden, Mem. 51. pi. 6. f. 9-11.
Bicellaria ciliata, Blainv. Act. 459; Gray, Cat. Brit. Rad. 112.
Cellularia ciliata, Johnst. Brit. 38. f. 1,2; Couch.

Zooph. Cornw. 56; Corn. Faun. iii. 126. pi. 23. f. 1 ; Johnst.

Hist. Brit. Zooph. ed. 2. 335. t. 58. f. 1, 2.
Hob. European Seas.



Cells much elongated, slender, aperture round or suboval,
looking obliquely forwards and upwards ; three marginal, and 2-3
subraarginal spines above and behind the aperture, and two much
longer ; curved, hair-like spines on the anterior and lower margin.
Ovicells globose, subpedunculate, attached to the upper and
inner part of the margin of the aperture. Avicularia small, capi-
tate, on the sides of the cells ; rare.

Bicellaria gracilis, Busk, Voy. of Rattlesn. i. 3?4.
Hob. Bass' Strait, 45 fathoms.

A delicate slender species, not unlike B. ciliata in habit, but
sufficiently distinguished from it by the number and arrangement
of the spines, and especially by the curious double spine on the
front of the cell.


Cells tubular below, much expanded above. Aperture oval,
the narrow end outwards, looking upwards and forwards ; 2-5
long curved submarginal spines; a single dorsal spine on the
outer side, about half way down the cell. Avicularia ? (pro-
bably deficient).

Bicellaria grandis, Busk, I. c. 374.
Hob. Bass' Strait, 46 fathoms.

Quite distinct from B. ciliata, not only in its size, which is
nearly three times as great, but also in the form of the cells and
of the aperture. The number of spines varies very much, and
two or three of them not unfrequently arise from a broad com-
mon projecting process or base.


Aperture round, looking nearly directly upwards ; a digitiform
hollow process below the outer border supporting 2-4 long in-
curved spines ; 2-3 other, long curved submarginal spines behind
or above the aperture, none below it in front. A solitary spine
on the back a short way down the cell. Avicularia very long,
trumpet-shaped, arising from the back of the cell.

Bicellaria tuba, Busk, Voy. of Rattlesn. i. 373.
Hab. Bass' Strait, 45 fathoms.

At once recognizable by the remarkable form and unusual
position of the avicularium, and also by the peculiar digitiform
spinigerous process on the outer side of the aperture.



Cells contiguous, attenuated downwards, much expanded up-
wards with a large plain aperture ; unarmed.

Halophila, Gray, Dieff. New Zealand, ii. 292, 1843 ; Cat. Brit.

Rad. 147.
Bicellaria (sp.), Busk, Voy. of Rattlesn. i. 375.


Cells obliquely truncated above with a short spine on the
outer angle ; aperture large, oval. Margin slightly thickened.

Halophila Johnstoniae, Gray, I. c.

Bicellaria flexilis, Busk, Voy. of Rattlesn. i. 375.

Hab. Bass' Strait; New Zealand.

Of a light grey or lead colour, growing in large loose tufts
3 or 4 inches in height, and composed of long forked ascending
branches. There appears to be very little calcareous matter in
the substance of the polyzoary, which is consequently soft and
flexible. Within some of the cells, in the lower or contracted
portion, is a curious little tridentate organ, the nature of which
is not obvious.


Cells elliptical (viewed behind), closely contiguous, bi-mul-
tiserial; aperture very large; margin simple, not thickened.
Avicularia, when present, pedunculate and articulated (frequently
coloured red or blue).

Bugula a, sp. Oken, Lehrb. Nat. 89, 1815 (type) ; Gray, Cat.

Brit. Rad. 114.
Bugula & Oken, I. c. 90.
Acamarchis, Lamx. 1816; Blainv. 1830.
Crisia, sp. Lamx. 1812.

Cellularia, sp. Pallas-, Johnst. Brit. Zooph. i. 340 (sp.).
Cellaria, sp. Soland.; Lamk. 1816.
Bugula, Gray, List Brit. Rad. 114.
Avicularia (sp.), T. V. Thompson, MSS.
Bugulina (sp.), Gray, Cat. Brit. Rad. 114.
Crisularia (sp.), Gray, Cat. Brit. Rad. 114, 117.

As the typical species of the genus, as here constituted, is B.
neritina, which was also taken by Oken as the type of his genus
Bugula, recurrence to his name appears to be unavoidable, not-
withstanding the more general use that has since been made of
Lamouroux's appellation, " Acamarchis." The necessary correc-
tion must be made in the Plates of this Catalogue.



Cells quadrangular, lengthened, with a truncated summit, the
angles projecting.

Remarkable Coralline, Ellis., Phil. Trans, dbridg. x. 345. pi. 8.

figs, a, A, G; Ellis, Corall 35. pi. 19.
Sertularia neritina, Linn. Syst. 1315 ; D. Chiaje, Anim. s. Vert.

Nap. iv. 147 ; Esper, Sert. t. 13. fig. 1-3.
Cellularia neritina, Pall. Elench. 67; Flem. Brit. Anim. 539;

Johnst. Hist. Brit. Zooph. ed. 2. 340. t. 60. figs. 3, 4.
Cellaria neritina, Ellis and Soland. Zooph. 22 ; Lamk. Anim. s.

Vert. ed. 2. ii. 1.90 (ex var. B.), Esper, t. 13. figs. 1, 2, 3.
Bugula neritina, Oken, Lehrb. Nat. 89.
Acamarchis neritina, Lamx. Cor. Flex. 58. pi. 3. fig. 2 ; Zooph. 6 ;

Risso, UEurop. Merid. v. 318; Blainv. Diet. Sc. Nat. Ix.

423 ; Man. Act. 459. pi. 77- fig. 3 ; Busk, Ann. Nat. Hist.

2nd ser. vii. pi. 8. figs. 5, 6, 7-

Crisia neritina, Lamx. Bull. Soc. Phil. 1812, iii. 183.
Bugula neritina, Gray, List of Brit. Had. 114.
Hab. Britain (Scarborough, Bean). New Zealand ! Hooker, Dar-
win, Lyall. Auckland Islands ! Hooker. Australia (ubique) !

Rio de Janeiro ! Lyall. America (North?), Ellis. Red Sea.

Bay of Honduras.

Although very generally distributed throughout the globe, and
perhaps more so than most of the Polyzoa, it appears extremely
doubtful whether this species really belongs to the British Fauna.
The only British specimen I have seen or been able to hear of, is
that in Dr. Johnston's collection now in the British Museum,
and found by Mr. Bean at Scarborough. The other forms in-
cluded under the same name by Dr. Johnston, as well as those
collected by Lieut. Thomas at Copinstra and off Tynemouth, all
belong to Cellularia peachii : so that, unless the specimen men-
tioned by Dr. Fleming, as collected by Miss Blackburne on the coast
of Cheshire, should really belong to A. neritina. it might be con-
cluded that Mr. Bean's specimen was one accidentally introduced
by some vessel from abroad.


Cells multiserial, oblong, truncate above with one or two spines
at each upper angle. Aperture extending to the bottom. Avi-
cularia on the sides of the cell capitate ; surface smooth. Ovicells
cucullate with a very wide opening.

Corallina cum appendiculis lateralibus avium capitum forma,

Ellis, Corall. pi. 38. fig. 7.
Cellularia Avicularia )3, Pallas, Elench. 68.
Flustra avicularis, Sow. Brit. Misc. ii. 21. pi. 71 ; Flem. Brit.

4nim, 506 ; Johnst. Trans. Newc. Soc. ii, 265 ; Blainv, Diet.


Sci. Nat. Ix. 416; Man. Act. 451 ; Couch. Zooph. Cornw. 54 ;

Corn. Faun. iii. 122; Johnst. Hist. Brit. Zooph. ed. 2. 346.

t. 63. figs. 3, 4.

? Flustra angustiloba, Lamk. Hist. Anim. s, Vert. ed. 2. ii. 222.
Flustra capitata, Hogg's Stock. 36.
Crisia flustroides, Lamour. Corall. Flex. 141 ?
Avicularia flabellata, J. V. Thompson, MSS. Brit. Mus. ; Gray,

List of Brit. Rad. 106.
Hab. Britain. Seas of Europe.


Cells biserial, elongate, contracted below. Aperture not reach-
ing quite to the bottom, obovate ; above with two spines on the
outer side and one on the inner. Avicularia on the side of the
cell, capitate, surface granular or areolated. Ovicells superior,
subglobular, opening small.

Bird's-head Coralline, Ellis, Corall. 36. no. 2. pi. 20. fig. a, A.
Cellularia avicularia, Pall. Elench. 68 ; Johnst. Brit. Zooph. 292.

pi. 36. figs. 7, 8 ; Couch, Zooph. Cornw. 58 ; Corn. Faun. iii.

128 ; Van Beneden, Recherch. 41 & 48. pi. 6. figs. 1-8 ; Johnst .

Hist. Brit. Zooph. ed. 2. 338. t. 63. figs. 7, 8.
Sertularia avicularia, Linn. Syst. 1315; Berk. Syn. i. 220.
Cellaria avicularia, Ellis and Soland. Zooph. 22 ; Lamk. Anim.

s. Vert. ed. 2. ii. 191 ; Johnst. Trans. Newc. Soc. ii. 26.
Bugula avicularia, Oken, Lehrb. Nat. 90.
Crisia avicularia, Lamx. Bull. Soc. Phil. 1812, iii. 183; Cor.

Flex. 141 ; Templeton, Mag. Nat. Hist ix. 468.
Cellularia avicularis, Reid, Ann. fy Mag. Nat. Hist. xvi. 389.
Hab. Seas of Europe.


Cells elongated, much attenuated below. Aperture as wide as
the cell above, elliptical below, with a short conical spine at the
upper and outer angle. Avicularia capitate, affixed close to the
outer margin of the aperture. Ovicell superior, globular.

Corallina pumila erecta ramosior, Rail Syn. i. 37. no. 20. t. 2.

fig. 1 ; Ellis, Phil. Trans, abridg. x. 346. pi. 8. fig. b, B, D.
Soft-feathered Coralline, Ellis, Corall. 33. no. 1. pi. 18. fig. a, A.
Sertularia fastigiata, Linn. Syst. 1314 ; Fabr. Faun. Groznl. 445 ;

Berk. Syn. i. 219.
Cellularia plumosa, Pall. Elench. 66; Couch, Corn. Faun. iii. 128.

pi. 23. fig. 4; Johnst. Hist. Brit. Zooph. ed. 2. 341. t. 61. figs. 1-5.
Cellularia fastigiata, Blumenb. Man. 273 ; Flem. Brit. Anim. 539.
Cellaria plumosa, Ellis and Soland. Zooph. 21 ; Lamk. Anim. s.

Vert. ed. 2. ii. 190.


Crisia plumosa> Lamour. Butt. Soc. Phil. 1812, iii. 185 ; Corall.


Crisia fastigiata, Templeton, Ann. fy Mag. Nat. Hist. ix. 468.
Bicellaria plumosa, Blainv. Diet. So. Nat. Ix. 424 ; Act. 459.
Crisularia plumosa,, Gray, Brit. Rad. p. 111.
Hab. Britain.


Cells biserial, oblong, rounded at each end. Aperture oval ;
three marginal spines on the outer side and one on the inner.
Avicularia lateral, capitate. Ovicell superior, cucullate (colour

Acamarchis tridentata, Krauss, Zooph. d. Sudsee, p. 31. fig. 2.
Acamarchis dentata, Lamx. Exp. Meth. p. 6. tab. 5. fig. 1-3;

Hist. Pol. Flex. p. 135. pi. 3. fig. 3.
Cellaria neritina, var. B., Lamk. ii. 191 .
Hab. Australia. New Zealand, Hooker, Lyall. Tasmania,

Hooker. South Africa.

Notwithstanding the difference in the number of spines on the
outer edge of the aperture assigned to this species by Lamouroux
and by Krauss, there can be little doubt but that they intend one
and the same species. The statement made by Lamouroux, that
his A. dentata is " d'une couleur plombee," is strongly confirma-
tory of this supposition.


Cells multiserial, elongated, contracted about the middle and
downwards. Aperture oval, with two, three or four, incurved
marginal spines on the outer edge and one on the inner. A
strong, hollow, spinous process on each side of the top of the
cell, and a capitate articulated avicularium on the front of some
of the cells below the aperture.

Flustra Murrayana, Bean, MSS. ; Johnst. Hist. Brit. Zooph,

ed. 2. 347. t. 63. figs. 5, 6.

? Sertularia spiralis, Olivi, Zool Adriat. 291. t. 6. f. 2.
Flabellaria spiralis, Gray, List of Brit. Rad. 106.
Hab. Britain (north and east).


Polyzoary flexible, expanded, foliaceous, erect, sometimes de-
cumbent and loosely attached. Cells multiserial, quincuncial or

Flustra, Linn. ; Johnst. Brit. Zooph. ed. 2. 342.
Flustradae, Gray, Cat. Brit. Rad. B. M. 145, 1848 (part.).


Escharidae (part.), Johnst. Brit. Zooph. ed. I. 248, ed. 2. 263 ;

Gray, Syn. Brit. Mus. 1842, 135.
Polypiers a reseau, Lamk. 2 ed. ii. 210 (part.).
Flustrees, Lamx. Exp. Meth. 2 (part.).

The principal distinctive character between the Flustradae, as
here intended, and the very closely allied group of the Mem-
braniporidae, consists in the more or less erect and free con-
dition of the former. Since however, on the one hand, a Flustra,
as is often the case in Flustra foliacea, may be decurrent at
the base and spread to a considerable extent in the adnate form ;
and on the other, a Membranipora, as in the case of the so-
called Flustra membranacea (Membranipora fiustroides, mihi), is
occasionally, as when spreading over Flustra foliacea for instance,
nearly free, it would seem that this distinction is hardly suffi-
cient to allow of their being regarded as belonging to two distinct
families : the relationship, in other words, between the Flustradse,
as here constituted, and the genus Membranipora, is more that of
family and subfamily. The latter genus might therefore almost
be considered as the type of a subfamily, the Membraniporana.
The distinction again between the Flustradae and the Escharadae
on the one hand, and between Membranipora and Lepralia on

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