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Catalogue of marine Polyzoa in the collection of the British museum (Volume 2) online

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the other, seems, in the former case at least, to be, if not
wholly, at least in great part, artificial. The distinction drawn
between the flexibility of the Flustradae and the rigidity of
the Escharadae may perhaps be looked upon as artificial, but
beyond this, the Escharadae exhibit characters, principally in con-
nexion with the avicularia, which would indicate a more natural
distinction between the two groups. The distinction between
Membranipora and Lepralia is in some respects greater and
more natural, as will be indicated in speaking of those genera.

Synopsis of Genera.

1. Flustra.

2. Carbasea.

3. Diachoris.

1. FLUSTRA.

Cells contiguous ; on both sides of the frond.

Flustra, sp. Linn.

Flustra, Lamk. Syst. 1801 ; Gray, Cat. Brit. Rad. 145.

1. FLUSTRA FOLIACEA. PL LV. figs. 4, 5. PL LVI. fig. 5.

Cells arched and expanded above with two marginal spines on
each side, contracted and truncate below. Avicularium and man-
dible semicircular.



48 MARINE POLYZOA.

Fucus marinus scruposus albidus telam sericeam textura sua

aemulans, Morris, Aist. Plant, iii. 646. t. 8. f. 16 (bona).
Fucus telam lineam sericeam ve textura sua semulans, Raii Syn.

42. no. 9 ; Jussieu, Mem. Acad. Roy. des Sc. 1/42, 298. pi. 10.

t. 3.
Broad-leaved Homwrack, Ellis, CoralL 70. no. 2. pi. 29. f. a, A,

B,&.

Curious Sea-weed, Hoolce, Microg. 140. pi. 9. f. 2, pi. 14. f. 1.
Eschara foliacea, Linn. Syst. ed. 10, 804 ; Pall. Elench. 52.
Flustra foliacea, Linn. Syst. 1300 ; Mull Zool. Dan. Prod. 253 ;

Ellis and Soland. Zooph. 12. pi. 2. f. 8 ; Esper, Pflanz. Flust.

t. 1. fs. 1, 2; Van Beneden, Recherck. 56. pi. 7. fs. 11, 17;

Berk. Syn. i. 214 ; Lamk. Anim. s. Vert. ed. 2. ii. 219 ; Grant,

Edin. New Phil. Journ. iii. Ill, 337 ; Flem. Brit. Anim. 535 ;

Johnst. Trans. Newc. Soc. ii. 263; Mag. Nat. Hist. iii. 483.

f. 120; Templeton, ibid. ix. 469; Risso, L'Europ. Merid.v.

333; Blainv. Actinol. 450. pi. 75. f. 1 ; Couch, Zooph. Cornw.

53; Corn. Faun. iii. 121. pi. 21. f . 1 ; Johnst. Hist. Brit.

Zooph. ed. 2. 342. t. 62. fs. 1, 2; Gray, List Brit. Rad. 103.
Hab. Seas of Europe (universal). Society Islands, E. Forbes.

2. FLUSTRA PAPYRACEA. PI. LV. figs. 6, 7-

Cells oblong, slightly enlarged upwards ; a short marginal spine
at each upper angle. Avicularia ?

Eschara papyracea utrinque cellifera, summitatibus securis aciei
instar truncatis, Ellis, CoralL pi. 38. f. 8.

Flustra papyracea, Ellis and Soland. Zooph. 13; Flem. Brit.
Anim. 535 ; Lister, Phil. Trans. 1834, 384. pi. 12. f. 3 ; Milne-
Edwards, Lam. Anim. s. Vert. ed. 2. ii. 220 (note 2) ; Blainv.
Diet. Sci. Nat. Ix. 451 ; Lister, Phil. Trans. 1834, pi. 12. f. 3.

F. chartacea, Turt. Gmel. iv. 663 ; Turt. Brit. Faun. 209 ; Stew.
Elem. ii. 436 ; Couch, Corn. Faun. iii. 121 ; Johnst. Hist. Brit.
Zooph. ed. 2. 343. t. 60. f. 5, 6 ; Lamx. Pol. Flex. 104 ; Risso,
Hist. Nat. de I'Europ. Mer. v. 533.

Chartella papyracea, Gray, List. Brit. Rad. 104.

Hab. Britain (south ?).

3. FLUSTRA TRUNCATA. PI. LVIII. figs. 1, 2; & PI. LVI.

figs. 1, 2.

Cells linear, oblong, with an unarmed border. Avicularium
elliptical, mandible semicircular.
Fucus marinus scruposus, Raii Syn. 42. no. 10 ; Morris, Hist.

Plant. Oxon. iii. 546. t. 1. fig. 17 (opt.).
Narrow-leaved Horn wrack, Ellis, CoralL 69. no. 1. 1. 28. fig. 1. a,

A, B.



MARINE POLYZOA. 49

Porus cervinus minor, Marsiali, Hist. Phys. de la Mer, pi. 63.

pi. 6. figs. 23, 24.
Eschara foliacea /3, Linn. Syst. ed. 10. 804.

E. securifrons, Pall. Elench. 56.

Flustra truncata, Linn. Syst. 1300 ; Mull. Zool. Dan. Prod. 253;

Ellis and Soland. Zooph. 1 1 ; Berk. Syn. i. 214 ; ESper,

Pflanz. Flust. t. 3. figs. 1,2; Oliv. Zool. Adriat. 274 ; Lamk.

Anim. s. Vert. ed. 2. ii. 219 ; Grant, loc. cit. Ill ; Flem. Brit.

Ani.n. 535 ; Johnst. Trans. Newc. Soc. ii. 264. pi. 12. fig. 1 ;

Templeton, Mag. Nat. Hist. ix. 469; Johnst. Hist. Brit.

Zooph. ed. 2. 344. t. 62. figs. 3, 4 ; Blainv. Diet. Sci. Nat.

Ix. 415.

Chartella securifrons, Gray, List of Brit. Rad. 104.
Hab. Britain (north and east chieliy). Australia!

4. FLUSTRA OCTODON. PI. LVIII. fig. 5; & PL LVI. fig. 4.

Cells slender, pyriform, elongated, with three or four strong,
hollow, pointed, incumbent, marginal denticles on each side, in
the upper half of the cell. Avicularium oblong, mandible semi-
circular.
Hab. Coast of Spain, M' Andrew.

5. FLUSTRA DENTICULATA. PL LVI. fig. 7. & PL LVII.

Cells much elongated, nearly linear ; a thick, hollow, upturned
spine on each upper angle. Margin beset throughout the en-
tire length of the cell with numerous thick, hollow, simple and
blunt or bifurcate dentate processes, which arise from the front
edge of the margin ; sides of the cell immediately within the edge
denticulate, with numerous minute, pointed denticles. Avicu-
laria conical ; mandible placed with its base oblique, point pro-
duced, acute.
Hab. Australia, B. M.

Var. a. (inermis). PL XLIX. figs. 3, 4.
Without the larger anterior teeth, or with but very few.

F. denticulata, Busk, op. c. i. 380.
Hab. Bass' Strait.

The very curious dentate processes on the edges of the cells
render this species very conspicuous, but the total absence, or
nearly so, of these external appendages in some instances ren-
ders the aspect of various specimens so different, that it requires
some attention to perceive their identity. The peculiar form and
position of the avicularium, and the presence of the internal or
submarginal denticles, are the characteristic diagnostic marks.

D



50 MARINE POLYZOA.

2. CARBASEA.
Cells contiguous ; on one side only of the frond.

Flustra, sp. Linn. ; Johnst. Brit. Zooph. 345.
Carbasea, Gray, Cat. Brit. Rad. 103, 117, 1848.

a. Aperture occupying the entire front of the cell or very nearly so,

1. CARBASEA PAPYREA. PL L. fig. 1, 2, 3.

Cells oblong, narrowed and truncate below, convex, unarmed,
Avicularia ? Ovicell ?

Porus cervinus, Marsigl. Hist. Phys. de la Mer, 64. pi. 6. figs,

25, 26.

Eschara papyrea, Pall. Zooph. 56.
Flustra Carbasea, Ellis and Soland. Zooph. 14. pi. 3. figs. 6, 7;

Turt . Gmel. iv. 663 ; Jameson, Wern. Mem. i. 563 ; Turt. Brit.

Faun. 209 ; Stew. Elem. ii. 436 ; LamJc. Anim. s. Vert. ed. 2.

ii. 221; Flem. Brit. Anim. 535; Grant, Edin. New Phil.

Journ. iii. Ill ; Johnst. Trans. Newc. Soc. ii. 264. pi. 9. fig. 4;

Templeton, ut sup. cit. 469; Roget, Bridgw. Treat, i. 165.

figs. 63, 64; & 172. figs. 69, 70; Daly ell, Edin. New Phil.

Journ. xvii. 413 ; Rep. Brit. Assoc. 1834, 603; Blainv. Diet.

Sci. Nat. Ix. 415 ; Johnst. Hist. Brit. Zooph. ed. 2. p. 345.

t. 63. figs. 1, 2.

Flustra papyracea, Esper, Pflanz. Flust. t. 2. figs. 1-3.
Carbasea papyracea, Gray, List of Brit. Rad. 103.
Hab. Britain (north and east).

2. CARBASEA PISCIFORMIS. PL LV. figs. 1,2; & Pl.LVI.fig.6.

Cells, viewed behind, elongated, truncated at both ends, con-
tracted at the waist ; in front, pyriform, much expanded in the
middle, contracted at top and tapering downwards, slightly ex-
panding again at the end. Ovicells immersed, marked with
radiating lines.

Hab. Tasmania, JB. M.

3. CARBASEA ARMATA. PL XLIX. figs. 1, 2.

Cells, viewed behind, oblong, narrowed and truncate below ; in
front oval, with a projecting angle on each side about the middle.
Marginal cells each with a large sessile avicularium on the outer

side. Ovicell ?

Hab. South Africa.

The peculiar character of this species, and by which it is readily
distinguished from all others, consists in the presence upon each



MARINE POLYZOA. 51

of the marginal cells of a large sessile, well-formed avicularium.
The frond attains a height of several inches, having linear trun-
cate segments, slightly dilated towards the end, of a red-brown
colour, generally with one or two dark spots. It appears to be
very abundant in Algoa Bay.

In Krauss' ' Zooph. d. Siids.' p. 35, a new species of Flustra,
or rather of Carbasea, is described under the name of Flustra
marginata, of which figures are also given, minutely and highly
finished. In general habit, and in the front view of the cells,
there is not the slightest resemblance between this form and Car-
basea armata ; but what is given as the back view of the cell, in
Krauss' figure very curiously, bears a striking resemblance to
the front view in C. armata ; and although, in the description of
his species, Krauss takes no notice of the lateral avicularia, they
are very clearly represented in this figure. It might therefore be
supposed that Krauss has confounded two distinct species under
his F. marginata.

4. CARBASEA CRIBRIFORMIS. PL LXVIII. fig. 1.

Cells oval, irregularly disposed. Frond reticulated. Ovicells
cucullate, immersed.

Retepora cornea, Busk, Voy. of Rattlesn. i. 380.
Hab. Off Cumberland Island, 27 fathoms.

The peculiar reticulated frond of this species is so different
from that of any other of its congeners, as at once to distinguish
it. This form shows very strikingly how artificial some of the
generic distinctions in this class of Polyzoa are ; for, except in the
flexible, horny consistence of the frond, there is no distinction
between C. reticulata and a Retepore.

/3. Aperture occupying only part of the front of the cell.

5. CARBASEA DISSIMILIS. PI. L. figs. 4, 5, 6, 7-

Cells pyriform, much attenuated below. Aperture oval,
anterior. Marginal cells with an acute, short, spinous process
above on the outer side. A sessile projecting avicularium in front
of each cell below the aperture.

F. carbasea, var. /3., Lamk. Ann. s. V. ii. 221. ii. 2d ed.
Hab. Tasmania, Hooker.

This species indicates the transition between the Flustradse
and Cellulariadae. In the form especially of the outer cells, and
in the presence of anterior avicularia upon most of them, it re-
sembles Menipea. The continuous polyzoary however, and the
frondose habit, are sufficient to indicate its true position.

D 2



52 MARINE POLYZOA.

6. CARBASEA EPISCOPALIS. PI. XLVIII. figs. 1, 2 ; & PL LV,

fig. 3.

Cells pyriform, cylindrical or barrel- shaped, back marked with
transverse rugse. Aperture circular superior. Ovicells lofty,
keeled. Avicularia 0.

F. pyriformis? Lamx. Pol. Flex. 103. pi. 1. fig. 4; Blainville,
Man. d'Act. 451 ; Lamk. An. s. Vert. ii. 221 ; Busk, Voy. of
Rattlesn. i. 379.

Hob. Bass' Strait, 45 fathoms.

Sometimes small and parasitic, upon Sertularians and Polyzoa ;
sometimes independent, then of large growth, forming dichoto-
mously divided fronds, with strap-shaped, truncate, unequal seg-
ments. From its general resemblance to Lamouroux's figure, it
is not improbable that this may be his F. pyriformis; but as it is
impossible to determine this with certainty, either from his figure
or description, (which are equally applicable to several other spe-
cies,) it has been thought better to give it a new designation.
The one employed is suggested by the form of the ovicells, which
bear a close resemblance to a bishop's mitre.

7. CARBASEA BOMBYCINA. PI. XLVIII. figs. 4, 5, 6, 7.

Cells pyriform, cylindrical, smooth. Aperture small, circular,
superior; a lunate pore in the front of the cell a short distance
below the aperture ; one to four perforations, in a series on either
side of the cell, above and in front. Ovicell marked with radiating
lines. Avicularia 0.

? F. bombycina, Ellis and Soland. Zooph. 14. pi. 4. fig. B ; Linn.

Syst. Nat. ed. 13. 3828, no. 9; Bosc. Vers, 117 ; Lamx. Hist.

Pol Flex. 103. no. 196; Exp. Meth. 3. t. 4. fig. B; Lamk.

Ann. s. V. ii. 220. 2nd ed. ; Krauss, Z. d. Siidsee, 35.
Hob. Algoa Bay, Mossel Bay, South Africa.

The figure of F. bombycina, given by Ellis and Solander, bears
a sufficiently near general resemblance to the species here desig-
nated C. bombycina, to render it probable that they may be iden-
tical, though this is by no means certain. Considering the locality
whence the present species is derived, it may not perhaps be un-
likely that it represents that intended by Ellis, when he says
(speaking of his F. bombycina, which came from the Bahama
Islands), " I have some elegant specimens from the East Indies
that approach very near to this kind."

8. CARBASEA OVOIDEA. PL XL1X. figs. 5, 6, ?

Cells elongated, slightly contracted below. Aperture oval, two-



MARINE POLYZOA. 53

thirds the length of the cell, velum very convex. Ovicell ?

Avicularium 0.

Hab. S. Patagonia, Darwin.

Margin of frond divided by shallow notches into small rounded
lobes. The specific name is derived from the regularly oval form
of the aperture, which is filled in by a very convex transparent
velum.

9. CARBASEA ELEGANS. PI. LIV. figs. 6, 7; & PI. LVI. fig. 3.

Cells oblong. Aperture nearly as long as the cell, truncate or
square below. Surface behind smooth. Ovicell ? Avicula-
rium 0.
Hab. Tasmania.

The cells in this species most nearly resemble those of Flustra
papyracea : they are however less linear and more rounded at
the top, and not so long in proportion to their width. The little
filling-ill of the aperture at bottom affords a distinctive character,
as does the absence of avicularia, were the generic difference be
tween the two overlooked.

10. CARBASEA INDIVISA. PI. LVIII. figs. 3, 4.

Frond semicircular, undivided, subplicated ; cells oblong, sur-
face behind granulated. Ovicells ? Avicularia 0.

Hab. New Zealand, Hooker.

3. DIACHORIS.

Cells disjunct, each connected with six others by tubular pro-
cesses ; frond sometimes partially adnate and decumbent.

Diachoris, Busk. Voy. of Rattlesn. 382.

The mode of arrangement and interconnexion of the cells in
this genus is remarkable and highly interesting. It represents,
in fact, a dissected Flustra. The cells are disposed in linear
parallel series, and those of two contiguous series are alternate
with respect to each other. Each cell is connected with one at
either end in the same linear series by a rather wide, short tubu-
lar prolongation, and with two on each side in the contiguous
series by narrower tubes ; so that each cell, except in the mar-
ginal rows, is connected with six others. The species, though
stated to be loosely adnate, are also capable of rising into inde-
pendent erect fronds, like the other Flustradse, and in the other
form would be more correctly described as decumbent than ad-
nate, as they are very loosely connected to the foreign base upon
which they lie.



54 MARINE POLYZOA.

1. DlACHORIS CROTALI. PI. LXVI. figs. 1, 2.

Cells erect, open in front, with straight sides ; perforated on
the sides and bottom ; a lanceolate appendage articulated to each
upper angle. Ovicell small, conical, superior.

Diachoris crotali, Busk, Voy. of Rattlesn. 382. tab. i. figs. 10, 12.
Hab. Bass' Stijait.

The frond, although, as explained above, not strictly adnate,
as it seems to have no attachments, is usually spread loosely over
other Polyzoa. There is no appearance of a moveable mandible
in the lanceolate appendages, which nevertheless most probably
represent avicularia. These organs are of a lanceolate form, with
an elevated ridge or keel along the back, and slightly concave
beneath : they project in front, slightly depending, and at the
base of each is a rounded eminence.

2. DIACHORIS MAGELLANICA. PL LXVII.

Cells semi-erect, open in front, oval ; mouth circular with a
thickened and raised margin. A pedunculate and articulated, capi-
tate avicularium attached to the margin of the cell near the top
on each side. Ovicell ?. (Frondose, with cells on both sides,
and also loosely adnate.)

Hab. Straits of Magellan, Darwin ; New Zealand, Lyall.

3. DIACHORIS INERMIS. PI. LXXII.

Cells decumbent, boat- shaped, entirely open; two short mar-
ginal spines on each side near the top. Ovicell ? Avi-
cularium ?

Hab. New Zealand, Lyall. Straits of Magellan, Darwin.

This species approaches very nearly to a Membranipora, and
from the total absence of any moveable appendages, might per-
haps be regarded as a type of a distinct genus : as, however, it is
a solitary instance of the form, and agrees in the structure of the
polyzoary with the above two species, it has been associated with
them and not with the Membraniporidse.



DESCRIPTION OF PLATES.



PLATE

I. Fig. 1, Catenicella lorica, p. 6, natural size; fig. 2,
front ; fig. 3. back.

II. Fig. 1. Catenicella ventricosa, p. 7,front; fig. 2, back.
Fig. 3. Catenicella hastata, p. 7, front; fig. 4, back.

III. Fig. 1. Catenicella ventricosa, p. 7, (var.) front;

fig. 2, back ; fig. 3, ovicell.

Fig. 4. Catenicella ventricosa, p. 7, (flfl/*. maculata)
front ; fig. 5, back.

IV. Fig. 1 . Catenicella aurita, p. 8, front ; fig. 2,

fig. 3, ovicell.
Fig. 4. Catenicella amphora, p. 8, front ; fig. 5,

V. Fig. 1. Catenicella plagiostoma, p. 8, front; fig. 2,

6ac&.
Fig. 3. Catenicella cribraria, /ro/i# ; fig. 4, &ac.

VI. Fig. 1. Catenicella margaritacea, p. 9, front; fig. 2,

side view? ; fig. 3, 5ac&.

Fig. 4. Catenicella carinata, p. 12, front ; fig. 5,
ovicell; fig. 6, sicfe view.

VII. Fig. 1. Catenicella formosa, p. 9, front ; fig. 2, back.
Fig. 3. Catenicella gibbosa, p. 12, front ; fig. 4, back.

VIII. Fig. 1. Catenicella perforata, p. 10, front; fig. 2,

back and side views.
Fig. 3. Catenicella ringens, p. 10, front ; fig. 4, back.



DESCRIPTION OF PLATES.

PLATE

IX. Fig. 1. Catenicella elegans, p. 10 (var. South Africa),
front ; fig. 2, back ; fig. 3 (var. Australia),
front ; fig. 4, back.

X. Fig. 1. Catenicella cornuta, p. 11, front; fig. 2, back;

fig. 3, side view.

Fig. 4. Catenicella umbonata, p. 11, front-, fig. 5,
back.

XI. Fig. 1. Catenicella taurina, p. 12, front-, fig. 2, lack-,
fig. 3, with ovicells ; fig, 4, spines replaced
by avicularia.

XII. Fig. 1. Calpidium ornatum, p. 15, natural size ;
fig. 2, front.

XIII. Fig. 1. Calpidium ornatum, p. 15, front view of bi-

furcation ; fig. 2, back of cell.

XIV. Fig, 1. Alysidium lafontii, p. 14, front of cell-, fig. 2,

side view, showing the avicularium; fig. 3,
back -, fig. 4. back, at a bifurcation ; fig. 5,
natural size.

Fig. 6. Alysidium parasiticum, p. 14, front, with an
ovicell; fig. 7, back; fig. 8, side view;
fig. 9, natural size.

XV. Fig. 1. jEtea anguina, p. 31.
Fig. 2. ^Etea dilatata, p. 31.

XVI. Fig. 1. Beania australis, p. 32; fig. 2, portion of cell
to show the lateral processes ; fig. 3, a more
highly magnified view of the costce.
Fig. 4. Caberea boryi, p. 38, front; fig. 5, back.

XVII. Fig. 1. Hippothoa patagonica, p. 30.
Fig. 2. Scruparia chelata, p. 29.

XVIIL Fig. 1, 2. Hippothoa catenularia, p. 29.
Fig. 3, 4. Hippothoa divaricata, p. 30.

XIX. Fig. 1 . Menipea fuegensis, p. 2] , front view ; fig. 2,
back view ; fig. 3, larger view of mouth of
cell with the avicularium.

XX. Fig. 1. Menipea cirrata, p. 21, front; fig. 2, back.
Fig. 3, 5. Menipea ternata, p. 21, front; fig. 4, back.



DESCRIPTION OF PLATES. Ill

PLATE
XXI. Fig. 1. Scrupocellaria scrupea, p. 24, front; fig. 2,

back.
Fig. 3. Canda reptans, p. 26, front; fig. 4, back.

XXII. Fig. 1. Scrupocellaria ferox, p. 25, front; fig. 2,

back; fig. 5, ovicell.

Fig. 3. Scrupocellaria scruposa, p. 25, &ac&; fig. 4,
/rortf.

XXIII. Fig. 1. Menipea patagonica, p. 22, mode of origin.
Fig. 2. Menipea triseriata, p. 22, front ; fig. 3, back ;

fig. 4, ovicells.

XXIV. Fig. 1. Scrupocellaria macandrei, p. 24, front; fig. 2,

back ; fig. 3, radical tube.

Fig. 4. Beania mirabilis, p. 32, side view of cell ;
fig. 5, enlarged view of costa.

XXV. Fig. 1. Menipea patagonica, p. 22, front; fig. 2, 3,
back.

XXVI. Fig. 1, 2. Menipea patagonica, p. 22, variety.
Fig. 3. Cellularia ornata, p. 20, front; fig. 4,

XXVII. Fig. 1. Cellularia cuspidata, p. 19, front; fig. 2,
Fig. 3. Cellularia peachii, p. 20, front ; fig. 4,
fig. 5, ovicell.

XXVIII. Fig. 1. Scrupocellaria diadema, p. 24, front; fig. 2,

back ; fig. 3, ovicell.
Fig. 4. Scrupocellaria cyclostoma, p. 21, front ; fig. 5,



XXIX. Fig. 1. Dimetopia spicata, p. 35.

Fig. 2. Dimetopia cornuta, p. 35 ; fig. 3, ovicell.

XXX. Fig. 1. Halophila jolmstonia?, p. 43, natural size;
fig. 2, back; fig. 3, front.

XXXI. Fig. 1. Bicellaria tuba, p. 42, front; fig. 2, back,
with avicularium; fig. 3, occasional mode
of connexion of cells ; fig. 4, ovicell.

XXXII. Fig. 1. Bicellaria gracilis, p. 42, natural size;
figs. 2,4, front; figs. 3, 5, back.

XXXIII. Fig. 1. Canda arachnoides, p. 26, natural size;
figs. 2, 4, front ; fig. 3, ZwcA; ; fig. 5, avicu-
laria at the lower part of a branch.



V DESCRIPTION OF PLATES.

PLATE

XXXIV. Fig. 1. Bicellaria ciliata, p. 41, natural size:, fig. 2,
front ; fig. 3, back ; fig. 4, ovicells ; fig. 5,
avicularia.

XXXV. Fig. 1. Bugula dentata, p. 46, natural size- fig. 2,
front; fig. 3, back; fig. 4, side; fig. 5,



XXXVI. Fig. 1. Amastigia nuda, p. 40, natural size ; figs. 2, 3,
front; fig. 4, 6ac; fig. 5, dorsal avicu-
larium.

XXXVII. Fig. 1. Caberea hookeri, p. 39, natural size; fig. 2,
front; fig. 3, 6ac&.

XXXVIII. Fig. 1. Caberea boryi, p. 38, natural size; fig. 2,
/rora ; fig. 3, back ; figs. 4, 5, side ; figs. 6, 7,
younger cells.

XXXIX. Fig. 1. Didymia simplex, p. 35, natural size; fig. 2,
front ; fig. 3, front with ovicelL

XL. Fig. 1. Emma crystallina, p. 28, natural size; fig. 2,
front ; fig. 3, 6acAr.

XLI. Fig. 1. Emma tricellata, p. 28, front; fig. 2, ac.
XLII. ^Etea ligulata, p. 31.

XLIII. Fig. 1. Bugula neritina, p. 43, natural size; fig. 2,
front; figs. 3, 4, 6ac&; figs. 5, 6, ovicells.

XLIV. Fig. 1. Bicellaria grandis, p. 42, natural size; fig. 2,
front ; fig. 3, back.

XLV. Fig. 1. Notamia bursaria, p. 36, natural size ; fig. 2,

front; fig. 3, back; fig. 4, Diagram to re-

present the mode of connexion of the cells.

Fig. 5. Gemellaria loricata, p. 34, natural size ; fig. 6,

back and side.

XLVI. Fig. 1. Caberea rudis, p. 38, natural size; fig. 2,
front; fig. 3, back.

XLVII. Fig. 1. Caberea lata, p. 39, natural size; fig. 2,
front ; fig. 3, ac&.

XLVHI. Fig. 1. Carbasea episcopalis, p. 52, natural size; fig. 2,
front; fig. 3, back.



DESCRIPTION OF PLATES. V

PLATE

XLVIII. Fig. 4. Carbasea bombycina, p. 52, natural size ;
fig. 5, front ; fig. 6, back ; fig. 1, ovicells.

XLIX. Fig. 1. Carbasea armata, p. 50, natural size; fig. 2,

front.
Fig. 3. Flustra denticulata (var. inermis), p. 49, natu-

ral size ; fig. 4, magnified.
Fig. 5. Carbasea ovoidea, p. 52, natural size-, fig. 6,

front-, fig. 7, &ac&.

L. Fig. 1. Carbasea papyrea, p. 52, natural size; fig. 2,
/roraf; fig. 3, back.



Fig. 4. Carbasea dissimilis, p. 51, natural size ; fig. 5,
; fig. 6, back ; fig. 7? avicularium.



LI. Fig. 1. Bugula flabellata, p. 44, natural size ; fig. 2,
f ; fig. 3, avicularium (more magnified).



LII. Bugula flabellata, p. 44, back.

LIII. Fig. 1. Bugula avicularia, p. 45, natural size; fig. 2,
front ; fig. 3, back ; fig. 4, avicularium.

LIV. Fig. 1. Bugula plumosa, p. 45, natural size; fig. 2,
; fig. 3, back ; fig. 4, ovicell ; fig. 5,
'



Fig. 6. Carbasea elegans, p. 53, front; fig. 7,

LV. Fig. 1. Carbasea pisciformis, p. 50, front; fig. 2,

Fig. 3. Carbasea episcopalis, p. 52, front (without

ovicells).

Figs. 4, 5. Flustra foliacea, p. 47.
Figs. 6, 7. Flustra papyracea, p. 48.

L.VI. Figs. 1, 2. Flustra truncata, p. 48.
Fig. 3. Carbasea elegans, p. 53.
Fig. 4. Flustra octodon, p. 49.
Fig, 5. Flustra foliacea, p. 47.
Fig. 6. Carbasea pisciformis, p. 50.
Fig. 7- Flustra denticulata, p. 49.

LVII. Fig. 1. Flustra denticulata, p. 49, portion of frond ;
fig. 2, a single cell with avicularium more
highly magnified.

LVIU. Figs. 1, 2. Flustra, truncata, p. 48.

Fig. 3. Carbasea indivisa, p. 53, front; fig. 4, back.

Fig. 5. Flustra octodon, p. 48.

Fig. 6. Membranipora telacea. Vid. Part IL



1 DESCRIPTION OF PLATES,

PLATE
LIX. Fig. 1. Bugula murrayana, p. 46, front ; fig. 2, back.

XX. Fig. 1. Menipea multiseriata, p. 22, front; fig. 2,
back.

LXI. Fig. 1. Membranipora lineata,. Vid. Part II.

Fig. 2. Membranipora membranacea. Vid. Part II.

LXII. Fig. 1. Scrupocellaria cervicornis, p. 24, front ; fig. 2,
back- f fig. 3, pedunculate operculum; fig. 4,
marginal spines.

LXIII. Figs. 1, 2. Salicornaria malvinensis, p. 18.
Fig. 3. Salicornaria gracilis, p. 17-
Fig. 4. Salicornaria tenuirostris, p. 17-
Fig. 5. Salicornaria teuuirostris, var. a, p. 17-

LXIV. Fig. 1-3. Salicornaria farciminoides, p. 16.
Fig. 2. Var. (sinuosa).
Figs. 4, 5. Farciminaria aculeata, p. 33.
Fig. 6. Nellia oculata, p. 18.

LXV. Fig. 1. Nellia simplex, p. 19.

Fig. 2. Vincularia ornata. -^

Fig. 3. Membranipora cy clops.

Fig. 4. Membranipora grandis. >Vid. Part II.

Fig. 5. Membranipora galeata.


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Online LibraryBritish Museum (Natural History). Dept. of ZoologyCatalogue of marine Polyzoa in the collection of the British museum (Volume 2) → online text (page 11 of 12)