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Hab. Britain : common on shells, stones and fuci. Ayrshire, Dr.

Landsborough. Ireland, W. Thompson.

A very curious and interesting form, and one subject to great
variety according to age and depth. It is remarkable for the
number of avicularia with which the polyzoary is furnished.
Besides the avicularium at the summit of each cell, or nearly so,
or at that of the ovicell when it exists, the interspaces between
the cells are studded with innumerable minute organs of the same


kind, as will be apparent in fig. 1. PI. LXXXI. There is often a
prominent process beneath the mouth and projecting over it, as
shown in fig. 5, which represents the form I believe described by
Dr. Hassall under the name of L. assimilis. Another peculiarity
of this species is the extraordinary difference of dimensions ex-
hibited in the cells of different specimens. The cells in Plate
LXXXI. are all drawn to the same scale.

** Avicularium inferior, or below the mouth.


Cells ovate, coalescent, separated by raised lines ; surface gra-
nular ; mouth raised, circular, with a large and wide spout-like
sinus below, within which is an avicularium ?

Lepralia Landsborovii, Johnst. Hist. Brit. Zooph. ed. 2. p. 310.

t. 54. fig. 9 ; Gray, List Brit. Had. p. 119.
Hob. Coast of Ayrshire, Landsborough. On Pecten opercularis.

The only specimen I have seen, or of which I can hear, is the
one in the British Museum Collection. This gives the idea of
an old or imperfect condition, and consequently the characters
above assigned, and perhaps the species itself, may be regarded
as only provisionally retained.

3. LEPRALIA GALEATA, n. s. PL XCIV. figs. 1, 2.

Cells ovato-ventricose, punctured all over ; mouth orbicular,
entire, unarmed ; an avicularium immediately below the mouth ;
mandible oval. Ovicell globose, punctured.

Hab. Falkland Islands, T. del Fuego, Darwin. On fucus and


figs. 1, 2. PI. GIL fig. 1.

Cells ovate-elongated ; interspaces punctured ; mouth raised,
with a thin margin and a channelled sinus in the lower lip, two
to three spines on the upper margin ; a central avicularium im-
mediately below the mouth ; mandible acute. Ovicell globular,
punctured, its opening bounded below by the meeting of its sides
above the avicularium.

Lepralia reticulata, J. Macgillivray , Ann. fy Mag. Nat. Hist. ix.
467 ; Johnst. Hist. Brit. Zooph. ed. 2. p. 317. t. 55. fig. 10 ;
Gray, List Brit. Rad. p. 120.


?Flustra Montferrandii, Audouin, Expl. i. 240; Savigny, pi. 9.

fig. 14.
Hab. Britain (south coast ?) : abundant on Eschara foliacea.

Budleigh Salterton, Devon, Miss Cutler. Coast of Norfolk,

Lieut. Thomas. Jersey, Mrs. Gatty. Egean Sea, E. Forbes.

Copeland Islands, Bay of Belfast, deep water, W. Thompson.

New Zealand, Dr. Lyall. (PL CII. fig. 1.)

The drawing in Plate XC. was made from a bad specimen and
does not show the spines, which usually appear to exist only on
the marginal cells.

5. LEPRALIA MARIONENSIS, n. s. PI. XCVI. figs. 1, 2.

Cells ovate, distinct, punctured ; mouth orbicular, a little raised
above ; in front of the lower lip a large avicularium, with a spoon-
shaped mandible. Ovicell globose ; surface granular ; sides of
the opening of the ovicell prolonged so as to enclose the avicu-

Hab. Marion Islands, 80 fathoms, Dr. Hooker.


Cells subovate or rhomboidal, usually quite immersed, and
disposed in linear series, frequently punctured, especially round
the margin ; separated from each other by raised lines ; mouth
orbicular, with a shallow sinus below ; two to three oral spines ;
a minute avicularium on an eminence immediately below the
sinus of the lower lip ; mandible crescentic. Ovicell subglobose,
depressed, usually immersed, punctured.

Lepralia auriculata, Hassall, Ann. fy Mag. Nat. Hist. ix. 412;

Johnst. Hist. Brit. Zooph. ed. 2. p. 310. t. 54. fig. 8 ; Gray,

List Brit. Bad. p. 119.
Hab. Orkney, Lieut. Thomas, R.N. Belfast Bay, W. Thompson.

Coast of Suffolk, G. B. Isle of Wight, id. Egean Sea,

E. Forbes (var.). ? E. Falkland Islands, 4-10 fathoms, Darwin.

Bray, Burnham, Norfolk, Hassall. Scilly, M' Andrew. On


Attention to the position and form of the avicularia will at
once suffice to distinguish L. linearis, auriculata and trispinosa ;
species, as Dr. Johnston observes, very closely allied in general


Cells oval, rounded, or rhomboid in outline when deeply im-


mersed ; mouth rounded, immersed or level (never raised) ; a
minute avicularium with semicircular or rounded mandible on or
within the middle of the lower lip, which sometimes projects into
a rostrum. Ovicell small, deeply immersed, inconspicuous, not

Hab. Copeland Islands, Belfast Bay, deep water, on shell and
stone, W. Thompson. Belfast Bay, 20-25 fathoms, on shell, id.

Forms an elegant close covering to stones and shells. The
species appears to have been hitherto undistinguished, having
apparently been confounded wtihL.immersa or trispinosa, Johnst.,
L. variolosa, &c., but it is clearly distinct and readily charac-
terized by the mouth, which is never raised, and usually, in the
older portions of the patch, deeply immersed ; its form is wide
above and contracted below, but without the sinus of L. reticu-
lata and trispinosa ; nor is it furnished with any spines ; and the
central avicularium on the lower lip is within, or at all events
immediately on, or forming part of the margin of the mouth, and
not a little below it as in L. reticulata, in which species, moreover
the mandible is acute. From L. auriculata also it differs in the
absence of oral spines.


fig. 6.

Cells immersed at the base, ventricose, front rising into a strong
pyramidal rostrum or umbo, from which ridges radiate towards
the sides and bottom ; surface usually verrucose ; mouth orbi-
cular, upper margin deeply immersed, sometimes rising on each
side into a blunt tooth-like process, and sinuous in front, some-
times quite plain ; an avicularium with semicircular mandibles
on the upper side of the rostrum or umbo. Ovicells ?

? Cellepora verrucosa, Esper, Cellep. t. 2, figs. 1, 2; not Disco-
pora verrucosa, Lamk. Hist. ii. 164, ed. 2. ii. 248.

? Lepralia Johnstoni, Bean, MSS.

Lepralia verrucosa, W. Thompson, Ann. Nat. Hist. xiii. 441 ;
Johnst. Hist. Brit. Zooph. ed. 2. p. 316. t. 56. fig. 3.

Lepralia reticulata, Couch, Corn. Faun. iii. 117. pi. 22. fig. 9.

Discopora verrucosa, Gray, List Brit. Had. p. 126.

Hab. Scarborough, Bean. Scotland (Ayrshire?), Dr. Lands-

The avicularium on the upper side of the projecting rostrum
or umbo is to a great degree concealed by that process in front,
but will be observed if the specimen be turned in such a direction
that a view of the upper side of the projection is obtained.


fig. 1 (var. cruentd).

Cells ovate or pyriform, surface uneven ; mouth suborbicular ;
an avicularium immediately below the middle of the lower lip,
with an acute mandible pointing upwards, and in the centre of
the front of the cell a perforation ? or depression.

Lepralia violacea, Johnst. Hist. Brit. Zooph. ed. 2. p. 325. t. 57.

fig. 9.

Escharella violacea, Gray, List Brit. Rad. p. 125.
Hab. Isle of Man, E. Forbes. Cornwall, C. W. Peach. Bay of

Gibraltar, M* Andrew, Dr. Landsborough. Orkney?, Dr.


Colour blue or purple, sometimes very deep : like many other
Lepralia it is liable to be much overgrown or thickened, but in
any state it may be recognized by the depressions left by, or the
vestiges of the suboral avicularium and the central hollow. Spe-
cimens in this condition I have received from Dr. Greville, col-
lected in the Orkneys, remarkable for the great thickening of the
cell-wall and their deep purple or rather crimson colour.

. Avicularia either double, or if single, on one side of the cell ;
on every cell, or irregularly distributed on the polyzoary.

figs. 4, 5, 6, 7. PL LXXXI. figs. 6, 7. PL XCI. figs. 1, 2.

Cells ovate, ventricose, surface punctate or granular; usually
a central umbo in front, upon which is occasionally articulated a
long spine ; often a raised avicularium on each side at the top of
the cell close to the mouth ; mouth with a narrow sinus in the lower
lip, and three to eight marginal spines (often wanting). Ovicell
globose, with grooves radiating from the centre.

?Eschara spongites, Moll, Seerinde, p. 37. pi. 1. fig. 3.
Lepralia ciliata, Hassall, Ann. fy Mag. Nat. Hist. vi. 171, &

vii. 367. pi. 9. fig. 2.
Lepralia spinifera, Johnst. Hist. Brit. Zooph. i. 324. pi. 57. fig. 6 ;

Gray, List Brit. Rad. p. 122.

Lepralia unicornis, Johnst. (op. cit. p. 320. pi. 57- fig. 1.)
Berenicea coccinea, Johnst. Trans. Newc. Soc. ii. 267. pi. 12.

fig. 5.
Lepralia coccinea, Johnst. Brit. Zooph. 278. pi. 34. figs. 1-3;

Hassall, Ann. fy Mag. Nat. Hist. vii. 367 ; Couch, Corn. Faun.

iii. 115 ; W. Thompson, Ann. Nat. Hist. v. 253.


Escharina unicornis, Gray, 1. c. p. 124.

Hab. Isle of Wight, G. B. Coast of Devon, Miss Cutler. Bay

of Gibraltar, Landsborough, M' Andrew. ? Port Natal, W.

Stanger. On fuci and shells.

From the comparison of numerous specimens in all forms and
stages, I feel satisfied of the identity of L. spinifera (Hassall) and
L. unicornis (Johnston). The peculiar sculpture of the ovicell,
conjoined with the sinus in the lower lip and the lateral avicularia,
are sufficiently characteristic, without the often-wanting central
umbo and articulated spine.

XCVIII. PI. CII. fig. 2.

Cells ovate, usually punctured round the edge ; mouth raised,
with a thin border, lower lip forming a sinuous spout, two or three
spines above ; occasionally an avicularium on the side of the cell ;
mandible acute, pointing upwards and outwards.

Discopora trispinosa, Johnst. Edinb. Phil. Journ. xiii. 322.
Berenicea trispinosa, Johnst. Trans. Newc. Soc. ii. 268.
Lepralia trispinosa, Johnst. Brit. Zooph. p. 280. pi. 34. fig. 5 ;

Couch t Corn. Faun. iii. 118; J. Macgillivray, Ann. 8f Mag.

Nat. Hist. ix. 467 ; Johnst. Hist. B. Z. ed. 2. p. 324. t. 57.

fig. 7 ; Gray, List Brit. Rad. p. 122.
Lepralia variolosa, var. a, Johnst. Brit. Zooph. ii. 317. pi. 55.

fig. 8.

Var. a. With a rostrum below the mouth.
Hab. Coast of England, Scotland and Ireland, common. Cape

Horn, 40 fathoms, Darwin.

Notwithstanding the great diversity in aspect of different spe-
cimens, the characters above given will in most cases be recog-
nized in one part or another of the polyzoary, and will suffice to
distinguish the species from those with which it has apparently
been confounded, viz. L. variolosa, concinna, and L. Peachli
(L. immersa, Johnst.).


Cells oval or shortly cylindrical ; mouth with a central mucro
on the lower lip and two lateral teeth ; several (six) spines above ;
an avicularium on each side close to the mouth. Ovicell glo-
bular, surface granular.

Cellepora coccinea, Abildgaard, Mull. Zool. Dan. iv. 30. t. 146.
figs. 1, 2; Lamk. Anim. s. Vert. ed. 2. ii. 259.


Berenicea coccinea, Flem. Brit. Anim. p. 533 ; Johnst. Edin.

Phil. Journ. xiii. 222.
Lepralia coccinea, Johnst. Hist. Brit.Zooph. ed. 2. p. 322. t. 57.

figs. 2, 3.

Lepralia tridentata, Couch, Corn. Faun. p. 115. pi. 22. fig. 5.
Var. /3. With a triangular slit or loop on each side of the aperture.
Lepralia appensa, Hassall, Ann. fy May. Nat. Hist. vii. 367 .

pi. 9. fig. 3.

Lepralia ansata, Johnst. His..Bn7.ZoopA.ed.2.p.307.t.54.fig. 12.
Lepralia Ballii, Johnst. Hist. Brit. Zooph. ed.2. p. 321.t.56.fig. 5.
Escharina coccinea, Ballii, ansata, Gray, List Brit. Rad. p. 124.
Hab. Portaferry, Ireland; Belfast Bay ; Isle of Wight, IV.Thomp-

son. Start Point, J. S. Bowerbank. Sidmouth, Mrs. Gatty.

Coast of Ayrshire, Landsborouyh. Isle of Man, E. Forbes.

Cornwall, C. Peach. St. Andrews, Prof. Reid. Falmouth,

Cocks. Off the Tees, Lieut. Thomas, R.N. On stones and

shells, &c.

Comparison of the various figures will suffice to show the iden-
tity of all these forms. This species is one of those which un-
dergoes a remarkable change in deep water, becoming very strong
and thick, and the spines are often worn off.

13. LEPRALIA LINEARIS. PI. LXXXIX. figs. 1, 2, 3.

Cells completely immersed, much depressed, rhomboidal or
subovate, disposed in linear series, and separated from each other
by a raised line ; mouth orbicular, with a sinus below ; two to
three oral spines ; a small avicularium on a rounded mamillary
eminence on either side of the cell in front, sometimes single
and central; mandible acute, triangular. Ovicell globose, pro-
minent, punctured.
Lepralia linearis, Hassall, Ann. fy Mag. Nat. Hist. vii. 368.

pi. 9. fig. 8; Johnst. Hist. Brit. Zooph. ed.2.p.3Q8.t.54.fig.U.
Herentia linearis, Gray, List Brit. Rad. p. 123.
Hab. Start Point, J. S. Bowerbank. Coast of Suffolk, G. B.

Orkney, Barlee. Beaufort Dyke, 110-147 fathoms, Captain

Beechey, R.N. Roundstone, W. Thompson. Carrickfergus,

id. Strangford Loch, id. Belfast Bay, 20 to 25 fathoms, id.

Mediterranean, M ( Andrew. East of Kingstown Harbour, and

Giant's Causeway, Hassall. On shell.

14. LEPRALIA ALATA, n. s. PI. LXXIX. fig. 3.

Cells immersed ; outline oval or subrotund ; front with grooves
radiating to a central eminence or umbo ; mouth suborbicular,
with two to three spines above ; a small avicularium on each side
of the body about or below the middle, directed horizontally
Hab. Cape Horn, 40 fathoms, on pebble, Darwin.



Its nearest congener is Lepralia verrucosa ; it is, however,
much smaller, and distinguished by the lateral, alar avicularia.
In the older state the appearance of the polyzoary is very con-
fused, and the peculiar characters are only to be sought at the
growing edge, and in the younger or more recent cells.

15. LEPRALIA MONOCEROS, n. s. PI. XCIII. figs. 5, 6.

Cells immersed, outline more or less oval, broad above, pointed
below ; surface punctured ; mouth narrow, transverse, a strong
projecting rostrum on the lower margin ; a very strong and long-
articulated spine on one side only of the mouth. Ovicell pyra-
midal, hollowed inferiorly in front, and often crowned with a
small avicularium on the summit ; numerous scattered avicularia
of larger and smaller size on or between ? the cells, throughout
the polyzoary.

Hab. Straits of Magellan, 10 to 20 fathoms ; Tierra del Fuego ;
Patagonia, 48 56' S. L., 19 fathoms; Falkland Islands, 4 to
10 fathoms; Cape Horn, 40 fathoms, Darwin. On stone and

A very peculiar and remarkable form, readily distinguishable
by the enormous azygos spine on one side of the mouth, which
appears to be articulated to a short basal joint by a constricted
portion composed of cartilaginous or horny substance.

16. LEPRALIA BICRISTATA. PI. XCIV. figs. 3, 4, 5.

Cells ovate, ventricose, punctured round the margin, with a
central umbo perforated above ; occasionally a small avicularium
with a pointed mandible on one side of the cell near the top ;
mouth straight below, with four to six oral spines. Ovicell
globose, with two raised keels running across it from side to side,

Hab. Cape Horn, 40 fathoms, Darwin.


Cells deeply immersed, outline marked by punctures ; front
of cell raised into an elevated umbo ; mouth very large, nearly
round, with a thickened margin ; numerous larger and smaller
oval avicularia dispersed all over the polyzoarium, usually one on
the side of the mouth of each cell. Ovicell immersed, umbonate
in front.
F. margaritifera, Quoy fy Gaimard, Voy. de I'Uranie, pi. 92.

figs. 7, 8.
Hab. Tierra del Fuego, on shell, Darwin.


B. Species having vibracula.


figs. 3, 4, 5.

Cells ovate or subglobose, surface granular, an elongated
acuminate vibraculum on one side of the body ; a semilunar
pore frequently on an eminence in the middle of the front of the
cell, above the centre; mouth with numerous (five to seven) spines;
lower lip straight, entire. Ovicell globose, surface granular.

Eschara ciliata, var. ft Pall. Elench. 38.

Eschara vulgaris, var. ft Moll, Seerinde, p. 62. pi. 3. fig. 11.

Cellepora ciliata, Linn. Syst. 1286; Fabr. Faun. Grcenl. 434.

no. 441.

Berenicea utriculata, Flem. Brit. Anim. 533.
Lepralia ciliata, Johnst. Brit. Zooph. 27$. pi. 34. fig. 6 ; Couch,

Corn. Faun. iii. 118. pi. 22. fig. 10 ; W. Thompson, Ann. Nat.

Hist. v. 253 ; J. Macgillivray, Ann. fy May. Nat. Hist. ix.

467 ; Johnst. Hist. Brit. Zooph. ed. 2. p. 323. pi. 57- figs. 4, 5 ;

Gray, List Brit. Rad. p. 121.
Lepralia insignis, Hassall, Ann. fy Mag. Nat. Hist. vii. 368.

t. 9. fig. 5 ; Couch, Corn. Faun. t. 22. fig. 1 1 ; J. Macgillivray,

Ann. fy Mag. Nat. Hist. ix. 46?.

Lepralia ciliata, var. ft Johnst. Brit. Zooph. ed. 2. p. 323.
Flustra Genisii, Aud. Expl. p. 239, from Savig. Egypt. Rept.

t. 9. fig. 5.
Escharina vulgaris, part., M.-Edw. Lamk. Hist. ed. 2. 231 ?;

Gray, List Brit. Rad. p. 123.

Hob. Britain (South Coast?); Mediterranean? Savigny. Bel-
fast Bay, W. T. America, Pallas, non vidi. Beaufort Dyke,

110 to 145 fathoms, Capt. Beechey.

The spines are frequently wanting in old and worn, or per-
haps deep water specimens. On careful inspection, however,
the stumps of them may usually be observed, but the existence
of the opening for the vibraculum on the side of the body, and
the crescentic opening in the middle, will, together, always suf-
fice, in every state, to distinguish the present from any other
British form.


Cells ovate, pointed inferiorly, raised in front or umbonate,
punctate, with shallow radiating grooves ; mouth rounded above,
lower lip straight ; five oral spines, the base of which is black ;
a slender vibraculum on each side at the top of the cell ; a semi-
lunar pore in front above the centre. Ovicells globose, punc-



? F. coronata, And. i. 239. pi. 9. f. 6.

Lepralia Gattyse, Landsborough, Hist. Brit. Zooph. pi. 18 fig. 71-
Hab. Sidmouth, Mrs. Gatty. On Phyllophora rubens, Jersey,
J. Alder.

This very pretty species, to which my attention was first drawn
by Mrs. Gatty, appears hitherto to have escaped recognition, and
as the British Fauna is indebted to that acute observer for this
addition, her name has been assigned to it. In some respects it
bears a very close resemblance to the figures of F. coronata,
Audouin, Savign. Egypt, pi. 9. f. 6, but I am inclined to think
that it is distinct from that species, and in fact it seems to me that
F. coronata and F. umbracula of the same work are identical ;
if so, the ovicells of F. umbracula are so peculiar as at once to
remove any suspicion of the former species being one and the
same with L. Gatty & ; but besides this, F. coronata appears to
want the central umbo w r hich exists in all specimens of L.
Gatty (B ; and the cells, if correctly drawn, are much wider below
than those of the latter species, which terminate inferiorly in an
acute point. The resemblance, however, between the two is very
close, and should F. coronata and F. umbracula really not be
identical, a very strong suspicion would arise of the identity of
the former with L. Gatty ce.

20. LEPRALIA HYNDMANNI. PL LXXXVII. figs. 5, 6, 7, 8.

Cells subglobose, raised in front ; mouth orbicular, with a
sinus in the middle of the lower lip ; a long slender setose vibra-
culum on one side of the body. Ovicell small, arcuate.

Lepralia Hyndmanni, JoJinst. Hist. Brit. Zooph. ed. 2. p. 306.

t. 54. fig." 6.

Herentia Hyndmanni, Gray, List Brit. Rad. p. 122.
Hab. Sana Island, Hyndman. Belfast Bay, W. Thompson.

Beaufort Dyke, off the west coast of Scotland, dredged by

Capt, Beechey in 110-145 fathoms.

21. LEPRALIA PERSONATA, n. s. PL XC. figs. 2, 3, 4.

Cells oval, surface granular ; mouth with a straight lower lip
and five to seven spines above ; a long vibracular process on one
side of the body, and a central semilunar pore. Ovicell promi-
nent, subglobose, with the lower lip very much produced and

Hab. East Falkland Islands, 4-10 fathoms, Darwin. On stones
and fucus.

Except in the much larger size of the cells and the greater
comparative length of the vibraculum, this form closely ap-


preaches Lep. ciliata ; the difference in the form of the ovicell,
however, a striking and peculiar feature in the present species,
appears amply sufficient to justify their separation. The form
of the ovicell in F. (L.) umbracula (And. Expl. i. p. 239 ; Savign.
Egypt, pi. 9. fig. 3) is very similar apparently to that of L. per-
sonata, as is also in some degree that of the ovicells of L. galeata
mihi, PI. XCIV. figs. 1, 2) and of L. reticulata (PL XCIII.
figs. 1, 2).

22. LEPRALIA DEPRESSA, n. s. PI. XCI. figs. 3, 4.

Cells quite immersed, depressed, the upper margin only being
slightly raised ; outline suborbicular or suboval ; mouth con-
tracted in the middle, the lower half being filled in by a horny
membrane, lip slightly thickened ; a semicircular penthouse-like
projection a short distance above the mouth ; a vibraculum on
the side of the cell nearly on a level with the mouth.

Hab. Egean Sea, on fucus, loosely attached, E. Forbes.

23. LEPRALIA LYALLII, n. s. PI. CI1I. fig. 6.

Cells oval, walls thin, verrucose or rugose ; mouth raised,
margin thickened, with a spout-like sinus in front, and five to
six spines on the sides and above ; a small vibraculum on many
of the cells, on one side near the top.

Hab. New Zealand, on fucus, Dr. Lyall, R.N.

2. Inarmatse.
Without either avicularia or vibracula.

a. With oral spines.

24. LEPRALIA VARIOLOSA. PI. LXXIV. figs. 3, 4, 5.

Cells oval, immersed or subimmersed, usually disposed in
linear series ; punctured or areolated round the margin, granular
(sometimes punctured) in front ; mouth rounded or subquadran-
gular, with two to four close-set spines quite at the summit ;
lower lip with a projecting mucro and an internal bifid denticle.
Ovicells deeply immersed, also areolated round the margin.

Lepralia variolosa, Johnst. Brit. Zooph. 2/8. pi. 34. fig. 4; Has-
sall, Ann. fy Mag. Nat. Hist. vii. 367 ; Couch, Zooph. Cornw.
50 ; Corn. Faun. iii. 116. pi. 22. fig. 6 ; W. Thompson, Ann.
Nat. Hist. v. 253; Johnst. Hist. Brit. Zooph. ed. 2. p. 317.
t. 55. figs. 8, 9.


Var. j3. Lip with a denticle on the proximal margin, Johnst.

Brit. Zooph. ed. 2. 317. t. 55. fig. 9.
Escharella variolosa, Gray, List Brit. Rad. p. 125.
Lepralia ovalis, Hassall, Ann. Nat. Hist. ix. 413 ; Johnst. Brit.

Zooph. ed. 2. p. 307. pi. 56. fig. 1.

Mr. Peach appears to have noticed two marginal spines in this
species, although the absence of spines enters into the characters
given to it by the learned author of British Zoophytes ; which is
the more to be wondered at, since he quotes Mr. Couch's figure
(pi. 22. fig. 6), in which three spines are represented. But as
the next figure of what Mr. Couch terms L. vinca does not ex-
hibit the smallest difference from that of his L. variolosa, I find
it difficult to determine to what either of his forms really belongs.
This synonym, therefore, must be admitted with great dubiety.
This is one of the species which, when overgrown, is difficult of
immediate recognition.


Cells ovate, raised in front ; wall composed of four to nine
ribs on each side, the spaces between which are filled up by a
diaphanous membrane; mouth with four to six oral spines.
Ovicell subglobose, surface granular. (Occasionally an avicu-
larium on a small eminence at the lower point of the cell, or irre-
gularly scattered in the interstices between the cells.)

Cellepora nitida, Fabr. Faun. 435. no. 443.

Cellepora (Escharoide) nitida, M.-Edw. Lamk. Anim. s. Vert.
ed. 2. ii. 259.

Berenicea nitida, Flem. Brit. Anim. 533.

Lepralia nitida, Johnst. Brit. Zooph. 277- pi- 34. fig. 7 > Hassall,
Ann. fy Mag. Nat. Hist. vii. 367 ; W. Thompson, Ann. Nat.
Hist. v. 253 ; Couch, Corn. Faun. hi. 114. pL 22. fig. 3 ; Gray,
List Brit. Rad. p. 120.

Hob. Coast of Devon, Miss Cutler. Start Point, J. S. Bower-

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