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Catalogue of marine Polyzoa in the collection of the British museum (Volume 2) online

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bank. Coast of Ayrshire, Landsborouah. Isle of Man, E.
Forbes. Scarborough, Bean. Berwick Bay, Johnston. Coast
of Cornwall, Peach. Strangford Loch, W. Thompson. On
shell and stone.

26. LEPRALIA ANNULATA. PL LXXVII. fig, 1.

Cells ovate, distinct ; front slightly keeled, with five to seven
shallow grooves on each side, each groove with a series of per-
forations ; mouth suborbicular, margin thickened in the fertile
cells, projecting into a mucro above and below ; three distant



MARINE POLYZOA. //

oral spines (wholly wanting in the fertile cell). Ovicell very

small, inconspicuous, deeply immersed.

Cellepora annulata, Fabr. Faun. Gr&nl. 436. no. 444; Turt.

Gmel.iv. 641.
Lepralia annulata, Johnst. Hist. Brit. Zooph. ed. 2. p. 313.

t. 55. figs. 2, 3 ; Gray, List Brit. Rad. p. 122.
Cellepora (Escharoide) bimucronata, Lamx. Cor all. 41 ; Lamk.

Anim. s. Vert. ed. 2. ii. 260.

Eschara bimucronata, Moll, Eschara, 65. t. 3. fig. 18.
Hab. Coast of Ayrshire, Landsborouyh. Shetland, Barlee.

The distinctness and usually larger size of the cells in this
species, their having only three to four distant (the two lateral
of which are much stronger than the others) oral spines, which are
almost always, if not always, totally obsolete in the fertile cells,
the peculiar arrangement of the pores, and, above all, the inva-
riable absence of avicularia on each side of the mouth, will suffice
to distinguish it from the deep-sea, thickened, or overgrown form
of L. punctata, figured in PL XC. figs. 5, 6, to the mouth of
which that of the fertile cells of L. annulata bears a very close
resemblance.

27. LEPRALIA BISPINOSA. PL LXXX. figs. 1, 2, 3, 4.

Cells ovate, elongated, sometimes shorter and ventricose ;
mouth rotund or subquadrangular, with two long spines on the
upper margin, and a strongly projecting mucro in front of the
lower lip.

Lepralia bispinosa, Johnst. Hist. Brit. Zooph. ed. 2. p. 326. t. 57-

fig. 10.

Discopora bispinosa, Gray, List Brit. Rad. p. 126.
Hab. Coast of Devon, Miss Cutler. Berwick Bay, Johnston.

On shell.

28. LEPRALIA PEACHII. PL LXXXII. fig. 4. PL XCVII.

Cells globose, subimmersed, often punctured round the margin ;
surface granular or smooth ; mouth suborbicular, with a thick-
ened, slightly raised border, and six spines ; a simple or bifid den-
ticle on the lower lip, and usually a rostrum in front of the
mouth. Ovicells immersed, with two spines in front of it on
each side.

Lepralia Peachii, Johnst. Hist. Brit. Zooph. ed. 2. p. 315. t. 54.

figs. 5, 6; Gray, List Brit. Rad. p. 118.
Lepralia immersa, Johnst. Hist. Brit. Zooph. ed. 2. p. 325. pi. 57.

fig. 8.
Escharella immersa, Gray, List Brit. Rad. p. 125.



78 MARINE POLYZOA.

Berenicea immersa, Flem. Brit. Anim. 533.

? Berenicea flava, Johnst. Trans. Newc. Soc. ii. 268.

Hab. Start Point, J. S. Bowerbank. Orkney, Lieut. Thomas.
Coast of Devon, Miss Cutler. Belfast Bay, 20 to 35 fathoms,
W. Thompson. Compton Bay, Isle of Wight, id. Dalkey,
id. Beaufort Dyke, 110 to 147 fathoms, Captain Eeechey.

Notwithstanding the apparently marked distinction between
the typical forms of L. variolosa, L. ventricosa, and L. Peachii,
some difficulty wdll be found in distinguishing them under cer-
tain conditions of age and overgrowth, or when much worn. In
L. variolosa the ovicell is always deeply immersed, and has in
front of it a single spine, or the stump of a single spine only, on
each side ; the normal number of oral spines in this species ap-
pearing to be two to three (in the former case it constitutes, as
I imagine, L. ovalis, Hassall). In L. Peachii the ovicell is also
immersed, but not so deeply, and always has two, or the remains
of two, oral spines on each side in front of it, the normal number
of these spines being, in this species, six ; w 7 hilst in L. ventricosa,
besides the more erect position, generally, of the upper part of
the cell, the greater elevation of the mouth, &c., the ovicell is,
comparatively speaking, free or much raised, shows, I believe,
no spine in front of it, or one only, and the number of oral
spines is invariably, or nearly so, four. With respect to the asso-
ciation of L. Peachii and immersa, Johnst., there can, I think,
upon inspection of the figures in Brit. Zooph., be no doubt of
its propriety.

29. LEPRALIA VENTRICOSA. PL LXXXII. figs. 5, 6. PL
LXXXIII. fig. 5. PL XCI. figs. 5, 6.

Cells distinct above, or raised, immersed at the base, ventri-
cose, ovate or subglobose; mouth orbicular, with a thickened
raised margin ; a bifid denticle on the lower lip, and four (rarely
more) marginal spines ; surface granular or irregularly striated ;
usually a pointed or broad mucro in front of the mouth. Ovicells
globular, prominent.

Lepralia ventricosa, Hassall, Ann. fy Mag. Nat. Hist. vii. 412;

Johnst. Hist. Brit. Zooph. ed. 2. p. 305. t. 54. fig. 5 ; Gray,

List Brit. Rad. p. 118.
Hab. Start Point, J. S. Bowerbank. Belfast Bay, W. Thompson.

Strangford Loch, id. Beaufort Dyke, 110 to 147 fathoms,

Captain Beechey.

30. LEPRALIA MELOLONTHA. PL LXXXV. fig. 3.

Cells distant, in linear series, obovate ; a pointed conical



MARINE POLYZOA. 79

ascending process at the lower end ; wall composed of six to
eight contiguous ribs on each side ; mouth suborbicular, with a
projecting tubular process on each side, and two slender oral
spines above. Ovicell ?

Lepralia melolontha, Landsborouyh's Pop. Brit. Zooph. p. 18.

pi. .fig. 70.
Hab. Estuary of the Thames, Lieut. Thomas, on shell. East

Coast ! Mrs. Gatty ; Busk.

A very peculiar species, though in the costate structure of the
cell approaching L. nitida, and to which it seems, perhaps, too
closely allied. It grows in linear series, which branch out in an
arborescent manner, closely adhering to the surface of dead
shells. These branches, in process of growth, become more and
more crowded, and finally coalesce into a continuous expansion.
I first noticed this form in the year 1852, on some shells dredged
at the mouth of the Thames by Lieut. Thomas, R.N., and
afterwards found it on the coast of Suffolk, near the mouth of
the Orwell ; and about the same time it was found and its pecu-
liarities observed by Mrs. Gatty.

31. LEPRALIA INNOMINATA. PI. LXXXVI. figs. 2, 3.

Cells subglobose or ovate, rising in front into an umbo or
short keel ; furrowed, the grooves radiating from the central line ;
mouth suborbicular, with the lower lip straight ; four to six mar-
ginal spines ; a perforation a little below the mouth and above
the umbo.

Lepralia innominata, Couch, Corn. Faun. iii. 114. pi. 22. fig. 4 ;

Johnst. Hist. Brit. Zooph. ed. 2. p. 320. t. 55. fig. 12; Gray,

List Brit. Rad. p. 121.
Lepralia pectiuata, Peach, MS.
Hab. Start Point, J. S. Bowerbank. Coast of Cornwall, Peach.

Off Sana Island, G. C. Hyndman. On shell.

32. LEPRALIA PUNCTATA. PI. XC. figs. 5, 6. PL XCII.
fig. 4. PI. XCVI. fig. 3.

Cells subcylindrical, irregular, frequently wholly immersed,
foraminiferous, the punctures obscurely rowed transversely;
mouth oblong, transverse, occasionally very narrow, lower lip
projecting, mucronate ; four to six spines above, often wanting.
Ovicell pyramidal, obscurely keeled in front, and sometimes
crowned with a small avicularium at the apex ; occasionally a
small avicularium on one or both sides at the upper part of the
body close to the mouth.

Lepralia arenacea, Bean, MS.

BO



80 MARINE POLYZOA.

Lepralia punctata !, Hassall, Ann. fy Mag. Nat. Hist. vii. 368.
pi. 9. fig. 7; Johnst. Hist. Brit. Zooph. ed. 2. p. 312. t. 55.
fig. 1.478.

Cribrilina punctata, Gray, List Brit. Had. p. 117.

Hab. Britain, not uncommon. Bangor, Co. Down, W. Thomp-
son. Macgilligan, id. Ayrshire, Dr. Landsborough. Start
Point, Devon, J. S. Bowerbank.

Notwithstanding the high authority of Mr. Bean and of
Mr. Peach, there is no doubt that Dr. Hassall is quite right in
assigning spines to the margin of the mouth. It is a very pro-
tean species, and in the old and deep-water condition requires
some discrimination to distinguish it.

j3. With an unarmed mouth.

33. LEPRALIA FIGULARIS. PI. LXXIII. figs. 1, 2, 3.

Cells deeply immersed, confluent ; central and upper portion
of the front raised into an oval area, marked with five to six
rows of punctures in shallow grooves radiating from the centre,
and around the border of the raised area a series of eminences,
either perforate at the apex or prolonged into short tubular pro-
cesses ; mouth orbicular, unarmed. Ovicell globose, lofty, with
a central keel and a pyriform or lunate fossa on each side.

Lepralia figularis, Johnst. Hist. Brit. Zooph. ed. 2. p. 314. t. 56.

fig. 2; Gray, List. Brit. Rad. p. 119.
Hab. Cornwall, Peach. Jersey, J. Alder.

34. LEPRALIA PERTUSA. Pl.LXXVIII. PI. LXXIX. figs. 1,2.

Cells ovate-ventricose, distinct or rhomboid, depressed, im-
mersed, separated by a raised line, punctured ; mouth orbicular,
even, or slightly sinuated below ; margin thickened, unarmed,
usually an irregular tubercle below the mouth. Ovicells globose,
punctured.

Cellepora pertusa, Esper, Pflanz. Cellep. p. 149. t. 10. fig. 2.
Lepralia pertusa, Johnst. Hist. Brit. Zooph. ed. 2. p. 311. t. 54,

fig. 10; Gray, List Brit. Rad. p. 119.
Escharina pertusa, M.-Edwards, Lamk. Anim. s. Vert. ed. 2.

ii. 232.

Cellepora perlacea, W. Thompson, Ann fyMag. Nat. Hist. x. 20.
Escharina perlacea, M.-Edwards, Lamk. Anim. s. Vert. ed. 2.

ii. 234.
Hab. Orkney, Lieut. Thomas, R.N. Dartmouth, E. Forbes.

Isle of Man, id. Cornwall, Peach. Off Sana Island, G. C.

Hyndman. On shells and stone. ? Australia, Macgillivray.



MARINE POLYZOA. 81

The figures given in this Catalogue will convey some idea of
the multiplicity of forms assumed by this protean species.

35. LEPRALIA PALLASIANA. PL LXXXIIL figs. 1, 2.

Cells ovato-ventricose, surface verrucose, reticulate ; mouth
contracted below the middle, raised, with a plain thickened
margin ; lower lip straight.

Eschara pallasiana, Moll, Seerinde, p. 64. pi. 3. fig. 13.

Flustra hibernica, Hassall, Ann. fy Mag. Nat. Hist. vi. 172. pi. 7-
fig. 1, & vii. 370. (The figure quoted " represents a posterior
view of the cells, the wall of each cell posteriorly being
absent.")

Lepralia pedilostoma, Hassall, Ann. fy Mag. Nat. Hist.vii. 368.
pi. 9. fig. 4.

Lepralia pediostoma, Johnst. Hist. Brit. Zooph. ed. 2. p. 315.
t. 54. fig. 7; Couch, Corn. Faun. p. 113. pi. 22. fig. 14.

Cellepora pallasiana, Lamx. Polyp. Flex. p. 95. no. 190; Ency-
clop. p. 184. no. 22.

Hab. Jersey, Alder. Off Copeland Islands, Bay of Belfast,
deep water, W. Thompson. Dublin Bay ; Plymouth Sound,
Hassall. Cornish coast, very plentiful, Peach. Coast of
Ayrshire, Landsborough. Berwick Bay (very rare), G. John-
ston. Coast of Devon, Miss Cutler.



36. LEPRALIA CUCULLATA, n. s.? PL XCVI. figs. 4, 5.

Cells ovate, black, surface granular ; mouth looking forwards,
orbicular, upper margin usually arching over like a hood. Ovi-
cell ?

? Cellepora Mangnevillana, Audouin, Expl. i. 239 ; Savigny,

Egypt, pi. 8. fig. 6 (non Lamouroux).
Hab. Egean Sea, E. Forbes.

In the absence of ovicells in the specimens in my possession,
it is impossible to determine whether or no the present is identical
with the species figured by Savigny, to which however, in other
respects, it bears a very close resemblance. This form, although
named by Audouin Mangnevillana, is clearly not the one in-
tended by Lamouroux under that appellation (vid. Polyp. Flex.
p. 890. pi. 1. fig. 3. a. B). A species of the same black colour,
and in all respects resembling the present except in the less
obliquity of the mouth and the absence of the raised upper
border, occurs in Gibraltar Bay (Dr. Landsborough). The latter
form is verv like L. reticulata.



oZ MARINE POLYZOA.

37. LEPRALIA LABIOSA, n. s. PL LXXXV. figs. 4, 5.

Cells pyriform or elongated and narrow at bottom, wide above,
surface verrucose ; mouth horizontal, rounded, with a deep sinus
in front and an enormously thick, rounded projecting lip. Ovicell
small, globose or subpyramidal ; surface granular or verrucose.

Hab. Falkland Islands, Darwin. Completely incrustinga fucus,
but readily detached.

Cells rounded and apparently unattached behind ; they are of
large size and very strongly constricted, of a deep brown colour.

38. LEPRALIA LABROSA, n. s. PI. XCII. figs. 1, 2, 3.

Cells ovate, punctured, disposed in linear series, branching from
a common centre ; mouth orbicular, with a much-raised, thick-
ened and expanded lip, which is usually deficient above. Ovi-
cell globose, smooth, recumbent.

Hab. Off Copeland Islands, Belfast Bay, deep water, W. Thomp-
son. On the inside of a dead shell.

Perhaps a variety of L. ventricosa.

39. LEPRALIA SIMPLEX. PI. LXXXIV. figs. 1, 2.

Cells ovate, ventricose, erect superiorly and free; walls smooth,
dense ; mouth raised, suborbicular, or slightly sinuated below,
with a thickened margin, usually an umbo on the front of the
cell.

Lepralia simplex, Johnst. Hist. Brit. Zooph. ed. 2. p. 305. t. 54.

fig. 4; Gray, List Brit. Rad. p. 118.
Hab. Belfast Bay, 20-35 fathoms, W. Thompson. Off Sana

Island, G. C. Hyndman.

40. LEPRALIA AREOLATA, n. s. PL LXXXIII. figs. 3, 4.

Cells subovate or diamond-shaped, depressed, quite immersed,
quincuncial, outlines marked by raised lines ; surface granular ;
mouth suborbicular, with a sinus below and a raised and thick-
ened margin.

Hab. Straits of Magellan, 10-20 fathoms, Darwin. On stone.

41. LEPRALIA ADPRESSA, n. s. PL GIL figs. 3, 4.

Cells quincuncial, oval, depressed, surface marked with grooves
radiating from the lower border of the mouth ; surface smooth ;
mouth rounded above, contracted below the middle, and with a
straight lip below ; margin slightly raised and thickened.

Hab. Chiloe, 96 fathoms, on shell, Darwin.



MARINE POLYZOA. 83

Forms a very closely adpressed crust on the outside of a small
univalve shell.

42. LEPRALIA MALUSII. PL CIII. figs. 1, 2, 3, 4.

Cells ovate, frequently truncate at each end ; front, especially
round the margin, punctured with numerous stelliform pores ; a
central lunate pore ; mouth rounded above, straight below, some-
times armed with three to four oral spines, sometimes forked.
Ovicell smooth, sometimes porcellanous, grooved around the
upper border, adnate to the front of the cell above.

Eschara Malusii, Audouin, Expl. i. 239 ; Savigny, Egypt, pi. 8.

fig. 8.
Cellepora Macry, W. Thompson, Ann. fy Mag. Nat. Hist. x. 20

(not Chiajel, nor M.- Edwards).

Lepralia biforis, Johnst. Hist. Brit. Zooph. ed. 2. p. 314.
Herentia biforis, Gray, List Brit. Rad. p. 123.
Hab. Start Point, J. S. Bowerbank. Killinchy, Co. Down, W.

Thompson. Roundstone, id. S. Patagonia, 48 fathoms ; T.

del Fuego; Falkland Islands, Darwin. New Zealand, Dr.

Lyall, R.N. On shells, stones and fuci.

As there can be no doubt of the identity of this species with
that figured by Savigny, I have thought it right to apply Au-
douin's name. The species is so peculiar as to require no addi-
tional observations, unless it were to draw attention to the un-
certain occurrence and form of the oral spines in it. The ovi-
cell in the South American forms is of a brownish hue ; and in
all the specimens from that region the cells appear to be much
larger than in the more common European form. The cells ad-
here to the object upon which the Lepralia is placed by means
of a central flattened disc, and not by the entire surface (PI. CIII.
fig. 3).

43. LEPRALIA GRANIFERA. PI. LXXVII. fig. 2. PI. XCV.

figs. 6, 7.

Cells ovate or elongated, walls usually thin and vitreous, with
rare punctures, particularly round the margin ; an umbo a short
distance below the mouth, sometimes wanting, and above that a
minute round pore ; mouth crescentic above, straight below, un-
armed. Ovicell globose, raised, punctured.

Var. a. cornuta. A conical ascending process on each side
of the mouth.
Lepralia granifera, Johnst. Hist. Brit. Zooph. ed. 2. p. 309. t. 54.

fig. 7 ; Gray, List Brit. Rad. p. 118.



84 MARINE POLYZOA.

? Flustra impressa, Audouin, Expl. i. 240 ; Savigny, Egypt, pi. 10.
fig. 7; (non Lamarck, ii. 222; nor Moll, Esch. p. 51. no. 1 .
pi. 2. fig. 9).

Hab. Coast of Ayrshire, Landsborough. Sidmouth, Mrs. Gatty.
Holy Island and Berwick Bay, G. Johnston. Isle of Man,
E.Forbes. Coast of Cornwall, Peach. Var. a. Lambay Island,
W. Thompson. Portram, Ireland, Mrs. Gatty. On shells,
stones and fuci.

44. LEPRALIA HYALINA. PI. LXXXII. figs. 1, 2, 3. Pl.XCV.

figs. 3, 4, 5. PL CI. figs. 1, 2.

Cells subcylindrical, elongated or compressed and raised in
front, suberect, the wall thin, transparent and smooth ; mouth
circular, frequently with a contracted, often subtubular sinus
below, the upper or posterior margin much raised, sharp. Ovi-
cell globular, erect, free, punctured.

Var. j8. cornuta. With a thick short tubular process on each
side of the mouth.

Var. y. depressa. Cells flattened, adpressed, contiguous.

Cellepora hyalina, Linn. Syst. 1286; Fabric. Faun. Gr&nl. 435.

no. 442; Esper, Cellep. t. 1. figs. 1,2; Lamx. Corall. 38;

Bosc, Vers, iii. 148 ; Oken, Lehrb. Nat. 86 (non Cavolini nee

Chiaje).

Berenicea hyalina, Hassall, Ann. fy Mag. Nat. Hist. vii. 367.
Cellepora personata, Chiaje, Mem. iii. 39. t. 34. figs. 17, 18, ova-
rian cell.

Escharina personata, Lamk. An. s. V. ii. 236. no. 24.
Lepralia hyalina, W. Thompson, Ann. Nat. Hist. v. 253 ; Johnst.

Hist. Brit. Zooph. ed. 2. p. 301. t. 54. fig. 1.
Var. |8. Wall of the cells thicker, calcareous and opake.
Lepralia cylindrica, Hassall, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. vii. 368.

pi. 9. fig. 6.

Var. y. Cells heaped, usually opake and calcareous.
? Cellepora ovoidea, Lamx. Corall. 38. pi. 1. fig. 1 ; Blainv. Act.

444 ; Lamk. Anim. s. Vert. ed. 2. ii. 259 ; Lamx. Exp. Meth.

2. t. 64. figs. 4, 5 ; D. Chiaje, Anim. s. Vert. Nap. iii. 38. t. 34.

fig. 33.

Celleporella hyalina, Gray, List Brit. Rad. p. 128.
Hab. Britain, common, on Laminarice and other fuci. Ireland,

common, W. Thompson. Cornwall, Peach. Orkney, Lieut.

Thomas, R.N. California, Dr. Sinclair. Cape of Good

Hope, Harvey. W. Greenland, 73 20' N., 57 20' W. Var. /3.

California, Dr. Sinclair. Var. y. E. Falkland Island, 4-10

fathoms, Darwin (PI. CI. figs. 1, 2).



MARINE POLYZOA. 85

45. LEPRALIA DISCRETA. PL CI. figs. 3, 4.

Cells decumbent, cylindrical, ringed, widely distant and con-
nected to each other by tubular processes ; mouth contracted,
orbicular. Ovicell decumbent, slightly keeled in front, flattened,
and wider above, not punctured.
Hab. E. Falkland Islands, 4-10 fathoms. T. del Fuego, Darwin.

California, (from) Dr. Greville.

The three latter species, viz. L. hyalina, annularis and dis-
creta, form a very natural group, with which L, gram/era might
not improperly be conjoined, and perhaps also L. tennis.

46. LEPRALIA ANNULARIS. PL XCV. figs. 1, 2.

Cells decumbent, cylindrical, disposed side by side in concen-
tric circular rows ; mouth contracted, orbicular, with a strong
tubular process on each side. Ovicell decumbent, acuminate,
not punctured.

Eschara annularis, Moll, Seerinde, p. 39. pi. 1. fig. 4; Pallas,

Elench. Zooph. p. 48. sp. 13 (sed sp. 9 huj. gen.); Boddaert

in Pall. Belg. p. 59.
Escharina concentrica, Lamarck, ed. 2. ii. 237 ; Lamouroux,

Polyp. Flex. p. 108.
Hab. Cape of Good Hope, W. H. Harvey. Algoa Bay. On

fucus.

Fam. 11. CELLEPORIDJS.

Polyzoarium composed of cells more or less vertical to its axis
or plane, heaped together, or irregularly overlying each other.

1. CELLEPORA.

Polyzoarium calcareous, rigid, adnate or erect ; composed of
urceolate, suberect, contiguous cells, heaped together irregularly
or arranged quincuncially. An ascending rostrum on one or
both sides of the mouth, furnished with an avicularium.

Cellepora, sp., 0. Fabricius, Faun. Grcenl. ; Johnst. Brit. Zooph.
ed. 2. p. 295 ; Linn. System; Muller, Zool. Dan. Prod.; Berk.
Syn. ; Stewart, Elements; Lamarck, An. s. Vert, (part.); La-
mouroux, Hist. Polyp. Flex. p. 85 (part.) ; Fleming, Brit. An. ;
Olivi, Zool. Adr.

Spongites, Oken, Lehrb. Nat. 85, 1815.

Tubipora (part.), Linn. Syst. Nat.

Millepora, Pall. Elenchus ; Ellis 8f Solander (part.).

Eschara (part.), Pallas, Elench.



86 MARINE POLYZOA.

* Adnate, globose, or spreading.

1. CELLEPORA PUMICOSA. PI. CX. fig.

Glomerous, cells heaped, ovate or pyriform; mouth orbicular;
rostrum large, pointed ; avicularium, on the internal aspect, oval.
Ovicell small, recumbent.

Porous Eschara, Ellis, Corall. 75. no. 7. pi. 27. fig. /, F. & 72.

pi. 30. fig. d, D.

Tubipora verrucosa, Linn. Syst. ed. 10. 789.
Cellepora pumicosa, Linn. Syst. 1286 ; Mull. Zool. Dan. Prod.

253; Berk. Syn. 1. 212; Stew. Elem. ii. 428. pi. 12. figs. 16,

17, copied from Ellis:, Lamk. Anim. s. Vert. ii. 170, ed. 2. ii.

256 ; Lamx. Corall. 40 ; Flem. Brit. Anim. 532 ; Johnst.

Trans. Newc. Soc. ii. 267 ; Templeton, Mag. Nat. Hist. ix. 469;

Couch, Zooph. Cornw. 48 ; Corn. Faun. iii. 110. pi. 20. figs. 4,

5 ; Johnst. Hist. Brit. Zooph. ed. 2. p. 295. t. 52. figs. 1, 2, 3 ;

Gray, Hist. Brit. Ead. p. 129.
Cellepora verrucosa, Linn. Syst. 1286 ; Fabric. Faun. Grcenl.

434 ; Oliv. Zool. Adriat. 229.
Cellepora spinosa, Turt. Brit. Faun. 205.
Millepora pumicosa, Pall. Elench. 254 ; Ellis fy Soland. Zooph.

135 ; Jameson, Wern. Mem. i. 560 ; Stew. Elem. ii. 428.
Flustra bullata ?, Ellis fy Soland. Zooph. 16 ; Stew. Elem. ii. 436.
Madrepora verrucaria, Esper, Madrep. t. 17. figs, c, C & b, B.
Hab. Britain and Seas of Europe, common. California, Dr.

Sinclair. ? Bass's Strait, Macgillivray . ? Tasmania, ?

2. CELLEPORA HASSALLII. PL CIX. figs. 4, 5, 6.

Cells cylindrical ; mouth suborbicular or subquadrangular,
lower lip mucronate, an ascending avicularium overlooking the
mouth on each side. Ovicell punctured or striped, with a semi-
lunar mark in front.

Cellepora bimucronata, Hassall, Ann. fy Mag. Nat. Hist. vii. 367.

pi. 9. fig. 1 (non Lamouroux, Hist. Pol. Flex. p. 93).
? Eschara bimucronata, Moll, Eschar, p. 65. no. 15. pi. 3. fig. 18.
Lepralia Hassallii, Johnst. Brit. Zooph. i. 304. pi. 54. fig. 3.
Celleporina Hassallii, Gray, List Brit. Rad. p. 128.
Hab. Coast of Ayrshire, Landsborough. Dublin Bay ?, Hassall.

On fucus and shells.

In a very beautiful and perfect specimen of this species, grow-
ing apparently on Laminaria, for which I am indebted to the
kindness of Dr. Landsborough, the lower lip is produced into a
very distinct and curiously formed mucro, and the structure of
the lateral avicularia is remarkably well displayed. The cells
are smooth and hyaline, and scarcely, if at all, ventricose, and I



MARINE POLYZOA. 8?

am therefore very much in doubt, with Dr. Johnston, whether
this form is to be referred to the C. bimucronata of Lamouroux.

3. CELLEPORA VITRINA.

Cells ovate, ventricose ; mouth simple, orbicular ; rostrum
anterior, wanting in the marginal cells. Ovicell shallow, open
in front, recumbent.
Cellepora vitrina. Johnst. Brit. Zooph. i. 300; Couch, Corn.

Faun. pt. 3. p.' 109. pi. 22. fig. 1.
Hob. Coast of Cornwall, not rare, Couch. Portaferry, Ireland,

W. Thompson.

The figure of this species has been accidentally omitted, but will
be given, with others, in a supplementary part of this Catalogue.

4. CELLEPORA BISPINATA, n. s. PL CXX. figs. 1, 2.

Cells ovate, elongated, surface granular ; mouth orbicular or
sub quadrangular ; rostrum anterior, with a very minute avicula-
rium on one side ; two long oral spines on the opposite margin.

Hab. Tasmania, Mrs. Smith ; J. D. Hooker. On fucus.

5. CELLEPORA MAMILLATA, n. s. PI. CXX. figs. 3, 4, 5.
Cells ovate, ventricose, immersed, forming an incrusting poly-

zoarium, the surface of which is studded with mamillary pro-
jections ; mouth orbicular ; rostrum large, conical, with a large
avicularium on the internal face, sometimes a conical spine on
the opposite side of the mouth.
Hab. Coast of Patagonia, Darwin.

** Erect.

6. CELLEPORA RAMULOSA. PI. CIX. figs. 1, 2, 3.
Polyzoarium composed of dichotomous or irregularly dividing

cylindrical branches. Cells ovate, slender ; rostrum with a small
avicularium on one side. Ovicell subglobose.

Cellepora ramulosa, Linn. Syst. 1285 ; Mull. Zool. Dan. Prod.

253 ; Flem. Brit. Anim. 532 ; Johnst. Trans. Newc. Soc. ii.

267. pi. 12. figs. 3, 4 ; Lamk. Anim. s. Vert. ed. 2. ii. 258 ;

Thompson, Ann. fy Mag. Nat. Hist. vii. 481 ; Hassall, ibid.

vii. 367 ; Couch, Zooph. Cornw. 49 ; Corn. Faun. iii. 1 10. pi. 20.

fig. 2; Macgilliv. Ann. fy Mag. Nat. Hist. ix. 467; Johnst.

Hist. Brit. Zooph. ed. 2. p. 296. t. 52. figs. 4, 5 ; Gray, List

Brit. Rad. p. 129.
Cellepora pumicosa var., Pallas, Elench. 255 ; Ellis 4* Soland.


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