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Catalogue of marine Polyzoa in the collection of the British museum (Volume 2) online

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Zooph. 136.

Cellepora Isevis, Macgilliv. Ann. fy Mag. Nat. Hist. ix. 46?.
Hab. Britain, from Shetland to the South.



88 MARINE POLYZOA.

7. CELLEPORA SKENEI. PL CXXII.

Polyzoarium much compressed, lobes bifid or trifid; cells
ovate, subventricose, punctated, slightly raised ; mouth orbicular,
with a strong mucro in front, having an avicularium on its inner
aspect near the apex.

Millepora Skenei, Ellis fy Soland. ZoopJi. 135 ; Turt. Brit. Faun.
204 ; Stew. Elem. ii. 427.

Cellepora palmata, Flem. Brit. Anim. 532.

Cellepora Skenei, Johnst. Trans. Newc. Soc. ii. 267; Couch,
Zooph. Cornw. 4.9; Corn. Faun. iii. Ill; W. Thompson, Ann,
fy Mag. Nat. Hist. xv. 322 ; Johnst. Hist. Brit. Zooph. ed. 2.
p. 297. t. 52. figs. 6, 7, 8 ; Gray, List Brit. Rad. p. 130.

Hob. Aberdeen, Skene. Zetland, Fleming. Coasts of Northum-
berland and Berwickshire, not rare, G. J. Off the Deadman,
"rare," R. Q. Couch. Eastern coast of Ireland, Miss Ball
On shell.

8. CELLEPORA FUSCA, n. s. PI. CXIX. fig. 2. PL CXX. fig. 6.

Polyzoarium compressed, undulated. Cells ovate, ventricose,
subimmersed, very irregular; mouth orbicular, with a raised,
regular, or unevenly thickened margin ; usually a strong rostrum
on one side, with an avicularium on its inner aspect ; numerous
scattered avicularia, of various sizes and different forms, distri-
buted over the polyzoariuni. (Colour deep fuscous purple.)

Hob. Bass's Strait, Macgillivray .



Fam. 12. ESCHARID^E.

Polyzoarium erect, rigid, foliaceous and expanded, lobate or
reticulated. Cells disposed quincuncially in the same plane, on
one or both sides of the polyzoariuni.

Escharidae (part.), Johnst. Brit. Zooph. i. 329.
Lepraliana (part.), Gray, List Brit. Rad. p. 116, & Reteporana,
ib. p. 130.

SYNOPSIS OF GENERA.

* Cells on both sides.

1. ESCHARA.

** Cells on one side only.
2. RETEPORA.



MARINE POLYZOA.
1. ESCHARA.

Polyzoarium foliaceous and expanded, or branched and sub-
linear. Cells disposed on both surfaces, back to back, immersed,
coalescent, horizontal to the plane of the axis.

Eschara, Ray; Fleming, Brit. Anim. 531 ; Johnst. Brit. Zooph.

ed. 1. 297, ed.2.350; Lamk. Syst. 375; Hist. ii. 173, ed. 2.

265 ; Gray, List Brit. Rad. p. 126.
Eschara, sp., Pallas, Zooph. 40 ; Moll.
Nullipora, sp., Solander.
Cellepora, sp., Esper.



* Polyzoary more or less expanded, foliaceous.

1. ESCHARA FOLIAGE A. PL CVI. figs. 4, 5, 6, 7-

Cells ovate or rhomboidal, obscurely punctured or granular ;
mouth contracted about the middle, with a small avicularium on
the middle of the lower lip.

Eschara retiformis, Raii Syn. 1. 31 ; Flem. Brit. Anim. 531.

Stony foliaceous Coralline, Ellis, Cor all. 71. no. 3. pi. 30. fig. a,
A, B, c -, Borl. Cornw. 239. pi. 24. fig. 6.

Eschara fascialis, Pall. Elench. 42; Moll, Seerinde, p. 36. pi. 1.
fig. 2.

Millepora foliacea, Ellis fy Solander, Zooph. 133.

Millepora fascialis, Linn. Gm. p. 3785. sp. 14 ; Marsigli, Hist,
phys. de la Mer, p. 148. t. 33. fig. 160.

Celiepora lamellosa, Esper, Cettep. p. 146. t. 6. figs. 1-5.

Eschara foliacea, Lamk. Anim. s. Vert. ii. J 74, ed. 2. ii. 266 ;
Blainv. Actinol. 428. pi. 75. fig. 3 ; Milne- Edwards, Ann. des
Sc. Nat. vi. 36. pi. 3. fig. 1 ; Couch, Zooph. Cornw. 60 ; Corn.
Faun. iii. 131 ; Johnst. Hist. Brit. Zooph. ed. 2. p. 351. t. 67 ;
Gray, List Brit. Rad. p. 126.

Hob. Britain, common, especially on the south coast ; Mediter-
ranean, M ( Andrew.

2. ESCHARA CONTORTA, n. s. PL CVIII. figs. 1, 2, 3.

Cells ovato-ventricose, punctured; mouth orbicular, with a
small inucro in front, and an ascending, spathulate avicularium
on each side ; usually one or two smaller avicularia on the front
and sides of the body.

Hab. Algoa Bay.



90 MARINE POLYZOA.

** Polyzoary divided into branching lobes.

3. ESCHARA URCEOLATA, n. s. PI. CV. figs. 4, 5, 6.

Cells elongated, pitcher-shaped; surface granular; mouth
sub quadrangular ; lower margin produced into a long conical
rostrum, at the base of which, on the upper side, is a semicir-
cular avicularium.

Hob. Algoa Bay.

4. ESCHARA PLATALEA, n. s. PL CV. figs. 1, 2, 3.

PL CVIII. fig. 4.

Cells ovate, acute inferiorly, with a depressed area below the
mouth in front, at the bottom of which is a simple pore. Avi-
cularia irregularly scattered over the polyzoary, rare, with a
spoon- shaped mandible.

Hob. Bass's Strait; off Cape Capricorn, Australia, Macgilli-
vray.

5. ESCHARA LICHENOIDES. PL CV1. figs. 1, 2, 3.

Cells ovate, punctured in the centre by three to four stellate
pores, which soon coalesce into a single apparent opening ; mouth
suborbicular ; a small prominent avicularium on each side imme-
diately below the mouth, looking outwards.

Escharalichenoides, Mi/Tie- J^dwarcfc, sur les Eschares, p. 31. pi. 2.

fig. 3 ; Lamarck, ed. 2. ii. 268; Seba,Mus. 3. t. 100. fig. 10;

Lamouroux, Encyc. p. 375 ; Cuvier, Reg. Anim. ed. 2. t. 3.

p. 316 ; Blainville^ Man. d'Actinol. p. 428.
Hab. Bass's Strait ; off Cape Capricorn ; between Cumberland

Island and Point Slade (Australia), Macgillivray. Algoa Bay.

This appears so closely to accord with the description of E.
lichenoides, M.-Edw., that I have little doubt it is that species;
either this or the preceding certainly is, perhaps both.

6. ESCHARA FUEGENSIS, n. s. PL CVII. figs. 1, 2, 3.

Cells pyriform, arched above the mouth; a central pore in
front, and an avicularium pointing obliquely inwards and upwards
on each side ; mouth crescentic (in age the mouth becomes
perfectly circular and very small, the cells and the interstices
being covered and filled up with a perforated overgrowth).

Hab. Coast of S. Tierra del Fuego, 30 fathoms, Darwin.



MARINE POLYZOA. 91

7. ESCHARA DECUSSATA. PI. CVII. figS. 4, 5, 6.

Cells ovate, mostly separated by raised lines, between which
and the central ovate portion of the front is a shallow sulcus ; an
avicularium with an acute mandible pointing upwards on the
middle immediately below the subcrescentic mouth.

Eschara decussata, M.-Edw., Lamk. ed. 2. ii. p. 267 ; M.-Edw.,

sur les Eschares, p. 40. pi. 4. fig. 2.
Hab. Seas of Australia, Macaillivray.

Whatever obscurity may attach to E. lichenoides, M.-Edw.,
there can be no doubt about the present species being the one
intended by that author.

8. ESCHARA FLABELLARIS. PL CVII. figs. 7, 8, 9, 10.

Polyzoary flabellate, attached by a flexible stem composed of
horny tubes. Cells ovato-ventricose, punctured ; a crescentic
pore a little below the mouth, and an avicularium on the side
and upper part of the cell; mandible acute, pointing directly
outwards. Ovicells globose, prominent, subgranular or smooth.

Hab. Algoa Bay.

9. ESCHARA GRACILIS. PL CVIII. figs. 5, 6, 7-

Polyzoary composed of slender, slightly compressed, subcylin-
drical branches. Cells deeply immersed, pyriform, bulging
above ; an elongated central pore (? avicularium) ; in the quite
young cells a mamillary projection on each side a little below
the mouth ; mouth orbicular, with a minute denticle below.

Millepora tenella, Esp. SuppL i. t. 20.

Eschara gracilis, Lamouroux, Encyc. p. 375; Blainville, Man.

d'Actinol. p. 428 ; Lamarck, An. s. Vert. ii. 268. ed. 2 ; M.-

Edwards, sur les Eschares, p. 28. pi. 2. fig. 2.
Hab. Bass's Strait, parasitic on Catenicella elegans ; Macgilli-

vray.

The closed cells noticed by M. -Edwards are not improbably
ovicells.

10. ESCHARA GIGANTEA, n. s. PL CXIX. fig. 3.

Polyzoary very thick and solid, lobes wide, undulated. Cells
smooth, solid, ventricose, ovate or subhexagonal, immersed and
coalescent ; a deep penthouse-like projection above the mouth,
the lower lip of which projects.

Hab. South Patagonia, Darwin.



92 MARINE POLYZOA.

11. ESCHARA CERVICORNIS. PL CIX. fig. 7. PI. CXIX. fig. 1.

Polyzoary much branched, compressed. Cells at the growing
extremities ovate, elongated ; mouth orbicular, lower margin
sinuated and projecting, with a semicircular avicularium within
the sinus. In the older parts of the polyzoary the cells are
deeply immersed, the mouth often subtubular and projecting, or
immersed and sinuated below with the avicularium as above.

?Poro cervino, Imperato, Hist. Nat. p. 630 (1572); ? Bonanni,

Museum Kirch, p. 286. fig. 13 (1709).
? Porus cervinus minor, Marsiali, Hist, physique de la Mer,

(1525) p. 63. pi. 32. fig. 152.
Millepora cervicornis, Ellis fy Solander, (1786) p. 134; Pallas,

Elenchus Zoophyt. ; Stewart's El. ii. p. 427 ; Turton, Brit.

Fauna, 204.
Millepora compressa, Sow. Brit. Miscell. 83. pi. 41 ; Jameson,

in Wern. Mem. i. 560; OJcen, Lehrb. 86?
Eschara cervicornis, Lam. Hist. Nat. des An. s. V. ed. 2. ii. 267 ;

Lamouroux, Encycl. p. 374 ; Blainville, Diet. d. Sc. Nat. xv.

297, & Man. d' ' Actinologie, p. 428 ; M.-Edwards, Sur les

Eschares, p. 15. pi. 1, & pi. 2. fig. 1.
Cellepora cervicornis, Couch, Zooph. Cornw. 49 ; Cornish Fauna,

pt. 3. p. 111. pi. 20. fig. 1.

Porus cervinus, Borlase, Cornw. 240. t. 24. fig. 7 (not Marsiali).
Millepora alcicornis, Esp. Millep. t. 5, 6, 7.
Hab. Start Point? from J. S. Bowerbank.

From the figures of Cellepora cervicornis given (Brit. Zooph.
pi. 53), that species would appear to differ from the present, not
only in habit, but more particularly and importantly in the shape
of the oral apertures in the older or immersed portions of the
polyzoary. In the specimen from which the figures in this
Catalogue were taken, and the present description drawn up, the
characters so exactly accord with those assigned to it and figured
by M. Milne-Edwards, that I cannot entertain a doubt upon
the identity of the form 1 have had before me and the one he
has in view. The exact habitat of my specimen is unfortunately
not quite certain : I have it marked Britain, but am not sure
whether Mr. Bowerbank procured it, or had it from the coast of
Devon, or from the Orkneys or Shetland ; in any case, however,
it is a British species, and until further evidence is offered of
another much-resembling form, I must entertain grave doubts
as to the existence of a distinct one so nearly allied as that
figured in Hist, of Brit. Zoophytes ; and this notwithstanding
the opinion of M. Milne-Edwards to the contrary (/. c. p. 16).

It is to be remarked, that in the older parts of the polyzoary
of my specimen, the surface presents numerous protuberant



MARINE POLYZOA. 93

cells, scattered irregularly over it, and which if multiplied, as
under circumstances it is quite conceivable they might be, would
afford the heaped or confused aspect and structure of the genus
Cellepora, and make it accord with figs. 4 & 5 of Dr. Johnston's
plate. The genus requires further research.



2. RETEPORA.

Polyzoarium foliaceous, calcareous, reticulated. Cells im-
mersed, opening on one surface only.

Millepora, Linn, (part.) ; Ellis 8f Solander ; Esper ; Marsiali,

Hist. ; Cuvier, Regn. Animal (spec.).
Retepora, Imperato, Hist. Nat. ; Lamarck, ii. 274 ; Risso,

L' Europe Merid. ; Flem. Brit. An. ; Stark, Elem. ii. ; Elaine.

Actin. ; Couch, Corn. Faun. ; Johnst. Brit. Zooph. i. 353 ;

Goldfuss (part.) ; Hagenow (part.).
?Frondipora, Oken, Lehrb. 63, 1815; Blainville, M. d'Actino-

loaie.

1. RETEPORA CELLULOSA. PL CXXI. figs. 3-8. PL CXXIII.
figs. 5 } 6.

Polyzoarium turbinate or crateriform, undulated, curled, rising,
with a sort of peduncle. Cells subcylindrical ; a prominent ros-
trum in front of the mouth, having a minute avicularium on one
side at the base ; a marginal spine on each side of the mouth ;
scattered avicularia of various sizes and forms dispersed over the
polyzoarium.
* Stony Eschara ' of Imperatus ( full of holes like a net,' Ellis,

Corall. p. 72. pi. 25 d, D, F.
Retepora eschara marina, Imperato, Hist. Nat. p. 630 (cited by

sms).

? Millepora cellulosa, Jameson, Wern. Mem. i. 560 ; Turt. Brit.

Faun. 205 ; Stew. Elem. ii. 427 ; Cavolini, Pol. Mar. p. 64.

pi. 3. figs. 12 & 13.

Millepora foraminosa, Ellis fy Soland. Zooph. 138. pi. 26. fig. 2.
Frondipora cellulosa, Oken, Lehrb. Nat. 63.
Millepora Retepora, Borl. Cornw. 240. pi. 24. fig. 8; Pallas,

Elench. p. 243.
Retepora reticulata, Johnst. Hist. Brit. Zooph. ed. 2. p. 353 ;

Couch, Corn. Faun. iii. 130.

? Frondipora reticulata, Blainv. ibid. 406. pi. 69. fig. 1.
? Frondipora clathrata, Oken, Lehrb. Nat. 64.
Manchette de Neptune, Daubenton, Ic. t. 23.



94 MARINE POLYZOA.

Retepora cellulosa, Lamouroux, Exp. Meth. des Polyp, p. 41.
pi. 26. fig. 2 ; Deslong champs, Encyclop. Zooph. p. 669 ;
Cuvier,Regne Anim. ed.2. iii. 316 ; Schweigger, Handb. p. 431;
Blainv. Man. d'Actin. p. 433. pi. 76. fig. 1 ; ? Reuss, Fossil
Polyp, d. Wien. Tertiar-Beckens, p. 47. pi. 6. fig. 34.

? Retepora frustulata, Lamarck, 1. c. p. 279.

? Retepora vibicata, Goldfuss, Pet. Germ. i. 103. t. 36. fig. 16.

Hob. Mediterranean. Britain ? Cape Horn, 40 fathoms, Dar-
win. Australian Seas (a more slender variety?), Macgillivray .

2. RETEPORA BEANIANA. PL CXXIII. figs. 1-5.

Polyzoarium infundibuliform, wavy, on a short peduncle.
Cells sub cylindrical ; a prominent rostrum in front of the mouth,
on the point of which is a semicircular avicularium, and from
which a slightly raised keel descends upon the front of the cell,
which therefore appears to be hollowed on the sides ; a spine on
each side of the mouth.

Millepora cellulosa, Jameson in Wern. Mem. i. 560; Turton,

Brit. Fauna, 205 ; Stew. Elem. ii. 427.
Retepora cellulosa, Johnst. in Loud. Mag. Nat. Hist. vii. 638.

fig. 69; S. V. Wood, Ann. fy Mag. Nat. Hist. xiii. 16; W.

Thompson, ibid. xv. 322.
? Retepora beaniana, King in Ann. fy Mag. Nat. Hist, xviii. 237 ;

Landsborough, Pop. Hist. Brit. Zooph. p. . pi. . fig.
Hob. Shetland Islands and in the Island of Fulah, Jameson.

Scarborough, W. Bean. ? Cape Clear, Ireland, Prof. Allman.

Orkneys, E. Forbes, Barlee. Deep water off the coast of

Northumberland, W. King.

The very minute difference between the two foregoing species,
unless proved to be constant, is hardly sufficient to render them
distinct; and although I have here so arranged them, I am by no
means satisfied that it is correct. There is a considerable dif-
ference in the habit of the Australian form, but very close in-
vestigation has failed in my hands to establish any other definable
distinction. The figure, of the natural size, here given, is taken
from a magnificent specimen taken in Embleton Bay, Northum-
berland, and in the possession of Mr. Alder.

3. RETEPORA PHCENICEA, n. s. ? PL CXXI. figs. 1, 2.

Polyzoary foliaceous, expanded, much convoluted. Cells
ovate, ventricose ; mouth raised, circular, sometimes subtubular,
entire or irregularly serrated ; cells where immersed bordered by
a raised line ; many cells with an avicularium placed obliquely
on the front, just below the mouth ; mandible very wide at the



MARINE POLYZOA. .95

base and acuminate. Ovicells immersed (in the young state
covered in front by a concentrically marked operculum). (Colour
purple.)

Hab. Bass's Strait, Macgillivray .

This is doubtless one of the forms alluded to by Lamarck
(/. c. p. 277) as brought by Peron and Lesueur from the Indian
Seas, and as of a purple colour ; and may probably be the species
figured in Rumph. Amboin. 6. t. 87. fig. 5.

Fam. 13. VINCULARIAD^E.

Polyzoarium rigid, calcareous, unarticulated ; cells disposed
alternately around an imaginary axis, forming dichotomously
dividing branches. Surface of polyzoary not areolated. The
family includes (among many other fossil forms)

Vincularia, Def ranee, Diet. d. Sc. Nat. ; Blainville ; Hag enow,

Bryoz. d. Maest. Kreideb. p. 59.
Glauconoma, Goldfuss, Petrefact. Germ.
Siphonella, Haaenow (I. c.) p. 83.
Cellaria (part.), Reuss, Fossil Polyp, d. Wien. Tertiar-Beckens,

p. 58.

Three families of cheilostomatous Polyzoa, characterized by a
polyzoarium formed of cylindrical branches in which the cells are
disposed around an imaginary axis, are given in this Catalogue.
In the first of these (Part I. p. 15), the SALICORNARIAD^E, the
branches are articulated by flexible joints, and the ovicells are
deeply immersed. In the second, the FARCIMINARIAD^E (p. 32),
the polyzoarium is continuous throughout, and the ovicells are
prominent and globose; the structure moreover of the only
species referred to it is corneous and flexible. In the third,
termed the VINCULARIAD^E, and as here constituted, the poly-
zoarium is also continuous throughout, but the structure is cal-
careous and rigid, and the ovicells are inconspicuous or deeply
immersed.

Whether these distinctions are sufficient to constitute family
groups may be a matter of dispute, but, from analogy with other
groups of Polyzoa, I think that the articulation or non-articulation
of the polyzoary is an important (artificial) character ; and with
respect to the Farciminariada, the distinction between the soft
and flexible F. aculeata and the forms (fossil) included under
Vincularia and its allies, appears to be too marked to allow of
their association, independently of the different position of the
ovicells.

The genus Vincularia, to which I have referred the species

c



96 MARINE POLYZOA.

represented in PI. LXV. fig. 2, has hitherto been known only in
certain fossil forms, the composition of which, as is observed by
M. -Edwards (Lamarck, Hist. d. An. s. Vert. ed. 2. ii. 193), is
" essentially the same as that of the SalicornaricB of Cuvier : "
but he goes on to say, " as only very minute fragments of them
have been found, it is unknown whether the cylinders resulting
from the coalescence of a certain number of longitudinal rows of
cells are articulated or not ; in the latter case the proposed
generic division should be retained, whilst in the opposite there
would be no sufficient reason to separate them from Cellaria
(Salicornaria} properly so called.

The occurrence of a recent species clears up this point, if it
were not sufficiently evident before, and I am therefore so far
supported, in the distinction of the group from the Salicorna-
riadcB. The same value appears to be attached to this character
also by Hagenow (I. c. p. 59) ; and from a note in page 60 it
would appear that Prof. Philippi is now of the same opinion.

1. VlNCULARIA.

Branches of polyzoarium not tubular ; front of cells surrounded
by a raised border, arcuate above, nearly straight below. Ovi-
cells immersed, opening above the mouth of the cell upon which
they are placed.

).. VlNCULARIA ORNATA. PI. LXV. fig. 2.

Margin of cell much raised, granular ; lamina granular, irre-
gularly denticulate on its internal edge.

Hob. Patagonia, Darwin.

It would appear that the present species belongs more to the
type common in the cretaceous formation than to that met with
in the tertiary ; that is, to those Vincularice in which the cells
are surrounded with a border; whilst, according to Hagenow
(/. c. p. 60) and Reuss, the forms probably referable to the same
family group, though perhaps not to the same genus, the species
with ventricose, oval cells, e. g, (Cell, duplicata, labrosa, Miche-
lini, coronata, Schreibersi, fyc., Reuss, /. c.), are peculiar to tfye
tertiary rocks. This observation, however, will hardly hold good
with respect to such forms as Cell, macrostoma, Reuss, /. c. pi. 8.
figs. 5, 6; Cell. Haidingeri, pi. 7. fig. 30; Cell, cucullata, pi. 7.
fig. 31 ; Cell, escarata, pi. 7. fig. 32 ; all of which appear to me to
belong to the true Vincularia.

The proper comparison, however, not only of these, but of all
fossil forms of Polyzoa, with recent ones, yet remains to be made.



MARINE POLYZOA. 97

Fam. 14. SELEXARIAD^.

Polyzoary more or less regularly orbicular, convex on one side,
plane or concave on the other, probably free. Furnished with
large and powerful vibracula (probably locomotive) (often having
arenaceous particles affixed in the centre of the under surface).

SYNOPSIS OF GENERA.

1. Each cell with a ribraculum at its apex.

1. CUPULARIA.

2. The cells and ribracula in alternate rows radiating from the
centre.

LUNULITES.

3. Certain of the cells only, furnished with vibracula.
3. SELENARIA.



1. CUPULARIA.

Each cell throughout the polyzoarium with a vibracular ceil at

its apex.

Cupularia, Lamouroujc, Exposit. p. 44 (proposed).

Lunulites, id. ib. ipart.) ; Defrance, Diet, des Sc. Nat. (part.) ;
Deslongch. Encyclop. Zooph. B. (part.); Goldfuss, Petrefact.
Germ, (part.); Blainrille, Man. d'Actin. (part.); Gray, Spi-
cilegia Zoologica, pt. 1. p. 8; Cuvier et Brongniart, De-
it, geolog. des Environs de Paris (part.) ; Lonsdale. Mio-
cene Fossils from A\ America, Journal of Geol. Society, i.
503 (not Eocene Fossils, ib. p. 531) ; Michelin, Icon. Zoo-
phyt. (part.).

Fenestella, Lonsdale (Append. Geol. of Russia) (part.).

Besides the peculiar formation of the polyzoary, all the Sele-
nariada are distinguished by the circumstance that the cells of
which it is constituted are of two kinds, usually differing in size,
the one being smaller than the other. The distinction between
the different genera into which I have thought it convenient to
divide the family is derived solely from the different relative
position of these two kinds of cells to each other, or to the entire
polyzoarium. The propriety of the division of the Lunulite
sroup into two genera appears to have occurred to Lamouroux,

c 2



98 MARINE POLYZOA.

and as one of the subdivisions for which he proposed the name
Cupularia coincides with the one of those into which I believe
it naturally falls, that name has been retained. The same divi-
sion of the genus Lunulites, as originally constituted, is suggested
by Mr. Lonsdale's observations with respect to Lunulites denti-
culata (1. c. p. 503), and it is consequently sufficiently apparent
that the generic divisions here adopted will apply equally to fossil
and to recent forms. The examination of the former alone,
however, would never have led to the proper appreciation of the
characters here employed, because, from fossil specimens, it was
impossible to arrive at any satisfactory elucidation of the respect-
ive nature of the two kinds of cells. Mr. Lonsdale hints (/. c.
p. 504) that the secondary pores or small chambers in the quin-
cuncial species offer a perfect analogy with the chambers in
Eschara and Escharina, " supposed to be receptacles for matu-
ring gemmules ; " but in this, as I have fully ascertained from
the examination of numerous recent species, he is mistaken.
The secondary chambers are the cells of vibracula, and in the
living state contain probably nothing but the muscular apparatus
for the movement of a very long and strong vibracular organ.
Where the true ovicells are, if such organs exist in this family,
I have been unable to perceive ; but that the smaller cells in
question are of the nature I have mentioned will be sufficiently
obvious on inspection of almost any of the figures here given.
As the present part of this Catalogue is limited to recent species,
no mention is here made of fossil ones, of which a future op-
portunity will be taken to speak.

To facilitate the description of the species, it will be as well to
define certain terms, which it is convenient to employ.

1 . Area of cell means the space occupied by the front of each
cell, which is bounded by a raised line.

2. Lamina is the calcareous expansion which partially forms
the anterior wall of the cell, the rest being occupied by a mem-
branaceous or horny layer, as in Membranipora.

3. Aperture is the opening or space thus left unfilled by the
calcareous lamina, in the upper end of which, or that furthest
from the centre of the polyzoary, is the true mouth, with the
moveable lip, which is for the most part removed with the horny
layer.

4. Vibracular opening is the opening of the cell containing
the muscles for the movement of the vibraculum.



1. CUPULARIA GUINEENSIS, n. s. PI. CXIV.

Polyzoary orbicular, in section crescentic ; area of cell rhom-
boidal, aperture ovoid, lamina granular ; vibracular opening au-



MARINE POLYZOA. 99

riform, entire, with a slight elevation on one side. Under sur-
face of polyzoary divided into hexagonal areas, each correspond-
ing to a cell.

Hab. New Guinea. B.M. Collection.

2. CUPULARIA OWENII. PI. CXV.

Polyzoary orbicular, depressed ; area of cell rhomboidal, sub-
elongated ; lamina finely granular ; aperture irregular, margin
jagged; vibracular opening suboval, entire; under surface of
polyzoarium marked with bifurcating sulci, and each ridge with
a median line.

Lunulites Owenii, Gray, Spicllegia Zoologica, pt. 1. p. 8. t. 3.

fig. 15 (1828).
Hab. Coast of Africa.

This species appears to differ from Lunulites denticulata
(Conrad, Sillimari's Journal, Oct. 1841, xli.) mainly in the more


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Online LibraryBritish Museum (Natural History). Dept. of ZoologyCatalogue of marine Polyzoa in the collection of the British museum (Volume 2) → online text (page 4 of 12)