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Catalogue of marine Polyzoa in the collection of the British museum (Volume 2) online

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depressed form of the polyzoary. But 1 think this difference is
quite sufficient to render the identity of the two forms more than
problematical. The American species appears, in respect of its
conical form and other characters, entirely to correspond with
what has been termed L. Owenii of the Coralline Crag ; and
Notwithstanding a former opinion to the contrary, I am now in-
clined, for several reasons, to believe that the fossil must 'be
regarded as distinct from the recent form.


Polyzoarium irregular in outline; area of cell rhomboidal,
wide; no aperture; lamina cribriform or granular, or nearly
smooth, according to age ; vibracular opening auriform, entire,
with an elevation on one side ; mouth crescentic, with a straight
lip below, margin raised.

Lunulites Lowei, Gray, MSS.
Hab. Madeira, Lowe.


Polyzoarium orbicular, depressed, deeply serrated at the mar-
gin ; area of cell suboval or subrhomboidal ; lamina narrow and
smooth or wanting ; aperture oval or elliptical ; vibracular open-
ing small, with a prominent tooth on one side, below which is a

Hab. Philippine Islands.

The cells are deeper than they appear in the drawing, and the
inner lamina should be less decidedly expressed.




Polyzoary subconical or depressed, stellate ; cells pyriform ;
upper part raised, contracted ; margin of aperture thin, smooth ;
an internal lamina, the lower border of the opening in which is
straight ; under surface deeply grooved, ridges carinate, obscurely
punctate, with a single row of dots on either side.

Hab. St. Vincent. Collection B.M.

At first sight this species offers a close resemblance to the
preceding, from which, however, it differs in several respects.
Among which are 1 . the raised and free superior extremity of
the cell, the contracted neck between the vibracular opening and
the aperture of the cell ; 2. the thin overlapping margin of the
aperture; and 3. the punctation, though obscure, on the poste-
rior surface. Both species appear to grow upon arenaceous par-


Cells arranged in series radiating from the centre and bifur-
iting as they advance
with those of the cells.

eating as they advance ; vibracula in linear series alternating


Syn. as for Cupularia (part.).

The observations given under the preceding genus are equally
applicable here ; it is necessary in addition merely to remark,
that it is probable the vibraculum itself in this genus is distin-
guished by having a bifid or trifid extremity; and that it is
not unlikely, from the length, strength and disposition of these
organs, that they may be employed for the purpose of locomo-
tion as well as of defence.


Polyzoary very irregular in its form ; area of cell arched above*
straight below ; margin granular ; no lamina ; vibraculum bifid
or trifid at the extremity ; under side of polyzoary nearly even,
marked with faint lines, punctured, punctures in single or double
series on each ridge.

Hab. Off Cape Capricorn, Macgillivray.


Polyzoary conical, much raised; area of cell semilunar or
arched above, straight below, with a small bifid denticle within


the lower margin ; margin granular ; vibracula trifid at the ex-
tremity ; under surface of polyzoary grooved, ridges punctured
with a single row of openings.

Lunulites capulus, Busk, Voy. of Rattlesnake, i. pi. 1. figs. 13, 14.
Hab. Off Cape Capricorn, Macgillivray.

3. LUNULITES PHILIPPINENSIS, n. s. PI. CXIII. figs. 1, 2, 3.

Polyzoarium suhconical, serrate at the edge, flat beneath and
porous, pores umbilicate ; opening of cell pyriform, margin not
raised ; vibracular opening minute, circular.

Hab. Philippine Islands.

4. LUNULITES CANCELLATA, n. s. PI. CXIII. figs. 4,5, 6, 7.

Polyzoarium conical, raised, flat beneath and the centre perfo-
rated by numerous umbilicate openings ; internally cancellated ;
opening of cell circular, with a simple raised margin ; vibracular
openings minute, oval, oblique.

Hab. Philippine Islands.

This species and the one immediately preceding are very
curious forms and would appear to constitute a peculiar group,
characterized by the circumstance that the concave side of the
polyzoary is more or less filled up by a cancellated structure.

3. SELENARIA, n. g.

Only a certain number of cells dispersed throughout the
polyzoary furnished with vibracula. The front of each cell, so
furnished, covered by a cribriform calcareous expansion ; others
arched above, contracted below; under surface of polyzoary
marked with grooves.


Polyzoary orbicular, on section crescentic ; vibracula contorted,
finely ringed.

Lunulites maculata, Busk, Voy. of Rattlesnake, i. pi. 1. figs. 15,

Hab. Bass's Strait.






IN the characters of the species of cheilostomatous Polyzoa
contained in the foregoing two Parts of this Catalogue, consider-
able use has been made of the avicularian and vibracular organs,
the possession of which appears, so far as I know, to be peculiar
to that Suborder. I have therefore thought that it might be
useful to subjoin a few observations on the subject of these
organs, for the purpose of indicating how far our knowledge of
them at present extends, and of directing attention more parti-
cularly to their value as affording diagnostic or systematic cha-
racters. Much of the following observations is taken from a
paper recently published in the Transactions of the Micro-
scopical Society, with which figures are given illustrative of the

The organs in question are of two kinds, the one forming a
sort of pincers, and the other consisting of a long, slender, move-
able seta, and the muscles by which it is moved contained in a
special receptacle or cell.

To the former set of organs, of whatever form, the term am-
cularium is here understood to be applicable, and the latter are
designated as vibracula. With respect to the structure of these
organs of either class it is sufficient to remark, that, however di-
verse their appearance may be, they are all constructed upon the
same general type, that is to say, the organ consists of a hollow
cup, containing two sets of muscles for the movements of its



motile portion, the mandible, as I have termed it in the one case,
and the seta in the other.

The avicularium, besides the moveable mandible, which varies
extremely in form and length, always has a more or less well-
marked, corresponding fixed beak, the opponent as it w r ere of the
mandible and serving to constitute the organ an instrument of

This beak is necessarily absent in the vibraculum, which appears
to be merely a defensive organ, or perhaps in some cases (as in the
Selenariadce) having a locomotive function, and its absence in
cases where the moveable part of the organ is detached would
serve to distinguish the one kind of organ from the other. It is
to be regretted, however, that in the instance of fossil species,
where such a character would often be of extreme value, this
beak, which is, I believe, always constituted of a horny or chiti-
nous substance, is removed together with all other vestiges of the
animal tissues. The presence of a beak also serves to determine
in some cases the avicularian nature of the organ, when, as in
several species of Lepralia, the setose form of the mandible
might indicate that it would be more correctly referred to the
vibracular type.

1. As regards the avicularia.

These organs, which appear to have been first noticed by Ellis,
have been investigated and described by many subsequent
authors, among whom are particularly to be noticed Mr. Darwin,
Dr. Van Beneden, the late Professor John Reid, and especially
Nordmann and Krohn.

In some observations upon the structure of the polyzoary and
other points in the economy of Notamia bursaria, published in
the Transactions of the Microscopical Society for 1847, I de-
scribed more particularly the structure of the curious and unique
form presented by the avicularium in that Polyzoan, pointing
out I believe for the first time, that the muscles were divisible
into two distinct sets, one for the closure and the other for the
opening of the mandible ; I also indicated that the mandible and
beak were constituted of a different substance to the rest of the
organ, as above adverted to ; and that, besides the two sets of
muscles, the cup contained a "peculiar body of unknown na-

I have in addition only to remark that since then it has oc-
curred to me to notice a circumstance hitherto overlooked, and
which may eventually serve to throw some* light upon the " pecu-
liar body " contained in the cell to which I adverted in my ob-
servations on Notamia. It was in that species, also, that I first
noticed the fact that when the mandible is thrown back, or in
other words, when the avicularium is open, a slight prominence
comes into view, covered with delicate seta, which do not seem


to be of the nature of cilia, because they exhibit no motion.
These minute seta appear to be seated on the " peculiar body,"
or at all events to be moved with it, and the latter again seems
to be so connected with the muscles by which the mandible is
closed, or rather perhaps to a membrane by which the opening
of the cell is covered when the mandible is thrown back, as to be
protruded simply by the throwing back of that process. The
setae then project beyond the level of the cup, and are withdrawn
into it as the mandible closes. I have noticed this arrangement
at present only in three species of Polyzoa, viz. Notamia bur-
saria, Buaula plumosa, and jB. avicularia. In Scrupocellaria
scruposa, the only other species that I have had a sufficient op-
portunity of examining in the living state, I failed in detecting
it, and am therefore not prepared to assert that it obtains uni-
versally. The setcs might be supposed to constitute a tactile
organ, the object of which would be to apprise the occlusor
muscles of the contact of any minute floating object, upon which
the mandible is then suddenly closed.

With respect to the function of the avicularia, several circum-
stances, independent of their conformation, conspire I think to
show that they are probably organs of prehension.

Their structure so obviously indicates an aptitude for prehen-
sion, that the supposition of such being their function has long
been entertained. This prehension of objects may be either for
the purposes of defence, or more probably for the procuring of
food, for, as Dr. Johnston observes, "although they are too short
to hand the prey to the mouth, yet retained in a certain position,
and enfeebled or killed by the grasp, the currents set in motion
by the ciliated tentacula may then carry it within reach." The
prehension of living objects by these organs has been repeatedly
observed ; and on one occasion I witnessed the capture of a mi-
nute vermicule, by two of the avicularia, simultaneously, on op-
posite sides of a branch of Scrupocellaria scruposa, and its re-
tention by them for several days, notwithstanding the continued
and vigorous efforts of the victim to escape.

With respect to the vibracula, 1 would merely observe, that
they consist of a cup containing the muscular apparatus, and of
a moveable seta articulated to the cup, and which appears to be
moved in the same way as the mandible of the avicularia.
This seta is in most cases simple and terete ; whilst in others, as
for instance generally in the genus Caberea, it is toothed on one
side ; and in others, as in the family Selenariadce, the seta is very
variously and curiously formed ; in some being bifid or trifid at
the extremity ; and in one, Selenaria maculata (PL CXVIL), it
is spirally contorted and minutely annulated, so as very closely
to resemble the proboscis of a butterfly.


As to the function of the vibracula., it would appear in most
cases to be simply defensive. The seta may be observed in
almost continual motion, sweeping slowly and carefully over the
surface of the polyzoary, and removing what might be noxious
to the delicate inhabitants of the cells when their tentacula are

Another circumstance, however, often to be observed with re-
spect to these organs, is this, that each presents inferiorly a
perforation sometimes rounded, as in Scruppcellaria and Canda,
sometimes channelled as in Caberea, which indicates the point of.
attachment of a radical tube or fibre. But that this connexion
with a radical tube is not an essential attribute of the vibracular
organ, is sufficiently obvious from the circumstance that those
tubes are frequently found when no such organs exist ; whilst
on the other hand, where there are vibracula, the tubes invariably
enter them, and not the cell itself. This is especially evident in
the genus Canda.

In the case of the Selenariadce or Lunulites, I think it not
improbable, as above remarked, that the vibracula may be sub-
servient to locomotion. This point and others would form a
most interesting subject of observation to those who may be for-
tunate enough to obtain these remarkable creatures in the living

The avicularian and vibracular organs appear to be of very
considerable importance in a systematic point of view; and
although from our imperfect knowledge of them, and, in fact, of
many points in the economy and structure of the Polyzoa in
general, the supposition can only be regarded as highly problema-
tical, it seems not unlikely that their presence or absence, espe-
cially of the avicularium, may be connected more directly
with the intrinsic nature of the species upon which they are
found, than has hitherto been supposed. It may, for instance,
be the case that those furnished with these offensive weapons
live upon a kind of food different from that of the others, who do
not require such an aid in the capture or weakening of their prey.
The Polyzoa may, perhaps, thus be divided into vegetable and
animal feeders ; or into feeders upon dead, and those which sub-
sist upon living organisms. One thing, however, may be affirmed,
that these organs afford, in many cases, excellent and available
systematic characters, of which application of them the preceding
Catalogue will afford abundant evidence; with respect to this
part of the subject it will therefore be unnecessary here to add
more than a few words.

Of the two sets of organs, the avicularia are found by far
the most extensively; existing in fact in the majority of
genera constituting the cheilostomatous Polyzoa. In employing


these appendages for the purpose of classification it is necessary
to subdivide them into three classes : 1 . the pedunculate ; 2.
the sessile ; 3. the immersed, the two latter classes, however,
run insensibly into each other, whilst the pedunculate form is
obviously quite distinct, inasmuch as it presents an additional
member in the form of a basal joint. It is to this form of avicu-
larium that the term " bird's " or " vulture's heads " is more
properly applied. It occurs in Bugula avicularia, B. plumosa,
B.flabellata, B. dentata, and in Bicellaria ciliata; whilst it is
wanting altogether in Bugula neritina, Bicellaria grandis and.B.
gracilis, species therefore which it is very desirable should be
examined in the living or fresh state, for the purpose of deter-
mining whether the inhabitant of the cell does not afford cha-
racters sufficient to cause these species to be referred to genera
distinct from those to which, from consideration of their ske-
letons alone, they are now regarded as belonging. A modifica-
tion of pedunculate avicularium, where it assumes the form of a
long trumpet-shaped or infundibuliform organ, exists in Bicellaria
tuba. With the exception of this latter form, the pedunculate
avicularia are always placed on the anterior aspect of the cell,
on one side below the level of the aperture.

The sessile form of avicularium, distinguished from the im-
mersed) is pretty extensively met with, though it does not occur
so abundantly as the latter form. With a single exception
(Amastigia nuda, PL XXX VI.), this form of avicularium is almost
invariably placed upon the front of the cell below the aperture,
as in Alysidium Lafontii (PI. XIV.), most species of the genera
Menipea, Scrupocellaria and Canda, and in many of the genus
Caber ea ; in some, as in Scrupocellaria ferox (PI. XX11.), at-
taining gigantic dimensions. It is distinguished from the im-
mersed form of avicularia, not only by its greater projection, but
also, and perhaps more essentially, by its being composed of a
more or less flexible material ; whilst in the latter form, even
where it is somewhat prominent, the cup is always calcareous and

The immersed form of avicularium occurs in a great number
of genera and species, and in many instances, as in the genus
Lepralia, affords excellent specific characters. The variety of
appearances and position assumed by this form of avicularium
will be best appreciated upon inspection of the figures, especially
of the genera Catenicella, Scrupocellaria , Menipea, Caberea,
Lepralia, Cellepora, Eschara, Retepora, Emma, Salicornaria
and Flustra. In Diachoris crotali, Notamia bursaria and Bicel-
laria tuba, the avicularium presents such an aberrant conforma-
tion, that it can scarcely be arranged in either of the above
categories. That of Diachoris crotali and Bicellaria tuba, how-


ever, may I think be placed with the pedunculate form, and that
of Notamia with the sessile or immersed variety.

To show the extent in which organs either avicularian or
vibracular exist in the cheilostomatous Polyzoa, a list is subjoined
of those genera and species contained in the present Catalogue,
in which I have noticed the existence either of avicularia or vi-
bracula or of both :

1. Species possessing avicularia.
Those marked with an asterisk * also have vibracula.

1 . Alysidium 1 spec.

? *2. Amastigia 1

3. Bicellaria 2

4. Bugula 5

*5. Caberea 4

6. Calpidium 1

*7. Canda 2

8. Carbasea 2

9. Catenicella 17

10. Cellepora 8

11. Emma 2

12. Eschara 11

13. Flustra 5

14. Lepralia 24

15. Membranipora 10 ,

*16. Menipea 6 ,

1 7. Notamia 1

18. Retepora 3

19. Salicoraaria 4

*20. Scrupocellaria 7


2. Species having vibracula only.

1. Cupularia 5

2. Lunulites 4 ,,

3. Selenaria 1


from which it appears that of thirty-six genera, twenty include
species armed in the one way or other; and that of 191 species,
no less than 126 are furnished with avicularia or vibracula ; a
circumstance in itself sufficient to demonstrate the importance
of these organs in a systematic history of the Polyzoa.

G. B.



LXTX. Membranipora Lacroixii, p. 60.

LXX. Membranipora monostachys, p. 6] .
LXXI. Membranipora pilosa, p. 56.
LXXII. Diachoris inermis, p. 54.

LXXIII. Figs. 1, 2, 3. Lepralia figularis, p. 80.

Figs. 4, 5. Membrauipora coriacea, p. 57.
Figs. 6, 7. Membranipora umbonata, p. 57.

LXXIV. Figs. 1, 2. Lepralia ciliata, p. 73.

Figs. 3-5. Lepralia variolosa, p. 75.

LXXV. Lepralia variolosa, p. 75.

LXXVI. Fig. 1. Lepralia nitida, p. 76.

Figs. 2, 3. Lepralia spinifera, p. 69.

LXXVII. Fig. 1. Lepralia annulata, p. 76.
Fig. 2. Lepralia granifera, p. 83.
Figs. 3, 4, 5. Lepralia ciliata, p. 73.

LXXVIII. Lepralia pertusa, p. 80.

LXXIX. Figs. 1, 2. Lepralia pertusa, p. 80.
Fig. 3. Lepralia alata, p. 71.



LXXX. Figs. 1-4. Lepralia bispinosa, p. 77.
Figs. 4-7. Lepralia spinifera, p. 69.

LXXXI. Figs. 1-5. Lepralia Brongniartii, p. 65.
Figs. 6, 7- Lepralia spimfera, p. 69.

LXXXII. Figs. 1-3. Lepralia hyalina, p. 84.
Fig. 4. Lepralia Peachii, p. 77-
Figs. 5, 6. Lepralia ventricosa, p. 78.

LXXXIII. Figs. 1, 2. Lepralia pallasiana, p. 81.
Figs. 3, 4. Lepralia areolata, p. 82.
Fig. 5. Lepralia ventricosa, p. 78.
Fig. 6. Lepralia Gattyae, p. 73.

LXXXIV. Figs. 1, 2, 3. Lepralia simplex, p. 82.

Figs. 4, 5, 6. Membranipora Flemingii, p. 58.

LXXXV. Figs. 1, 2. Lepralia trispinosa, p. 70.
Fig. 3. Lepralia melolontha, p. 78.
Figs. 4, 5. Lepralia labiosa, p. 82.

LXXXVI. Fig. 1. Lepralia Landsborovii, p. 66.
Figs. 2, 3. Lepralia innominata, p. 79.

LXXXVII. Figs. 1, 2. Lepralia violacea, p. 69.
Figs, 3, 4. Lepralia verrucosa, p. 68.
Figs. 5, 6, 7, 8. Lepralia Hyndmanni, p. 74.

LXXX VIII. Lepralia coccinea, p. 70.

LXXXIX. Figs. 1-3. Lepralia linearis, p. 71.

Figs. 4, 5, 6. Lepralia auriculata, p. 67.

XC. Fig. 1 . Lepralia reticulata, p. 66.

Figs. 2-4. Lepralia personata, p. 74.
Figs. 5, 6. Lepralia punctata, p. 79.

XCI. Figs. 1, 2. Lepralia spinifera, p. 69.
Figs. 3, 4. Lepralia depressa, p. 75.
Figs. 5, 6. Lepralia ventricosa, p. 78.

XCII. Figs. 1-3. Lepralia labrosa, p. 82.
Fig. 4. Lepralia punctata, p. 79.

XCIII. Figs. 1, 2, 3, 4. Lepralia reticulata, p. 66.
Figs. 5, 6. Lepralia monoceros, p. 72.


XCIV. Figs. 1,2. Lepralia galeata, p. 66.

Figs. 3, 4, 5. Lepralia bicristata, p. 72.
Fig. 6. Lepralia verrucosa, p. 68.

XCV. Figs. 1, 2. Lepralia annularis, p. 85.
Figs. 3, 4, 5. Lepralia hyalina, p. 84.
Figs. 6, 7- Lepralia granifera, p. 83.

XCVI. Figs. 1, 2. Lepralia Marionensis, p. 67.
Fig. 3. Lepralia punctata, p. 79.
Figs. 4, 5. Lepralia cucullata, p. 81.

XCVII. Lepralia Peachii, p. 77.
XCVIII. Lepralia trispinosa, p. 70.
XCIX. Lepralia concinna, p. 67.

C. Fig. 1. Membranipora stenostoma, p. 60.
Fig. 2, Membranipora Rosselii, p. 59.
Fig. 3. Membranipora cervicorais, p. 60.

CI. Figs. 1, 2. Lepralia hyalina, p. 84.
Figs. 3, 4. Lepralia discreta, p. 85.
Figs. 5, 6. Lepralia margaritifera, p. 72.

CII. Fig. 1. Lepralia reticulata, p. 66.
Fig. 2. Lepralia trispinosa, p. 70.
Figs. 3, 4. Lepralia adpressa, p. 82.

GUI. Figs. 1-5. Lepralia Malusii, p. 83.
Fig. 6. Lepralia Lyallii, p. 75.

CIV. Fig. 1. Membranipora Lacroixii, p. 60.

Figs. 2,3,4. Membranipora Flemingii, p. 58.
Figs. 5, 6. Membranipora calpensis, p. 60.

CV. Figs. 1-3. Eschara platalea, p. 90.
Figs. 4-6. Eschara urceolata, p. 90.

CVI. Figs. 1-3. Eschara lichenoides, p. 90.
Figs. 4-7. Eschara foliacea, p. 89.

CVII. Figs. 1-3. Eschara fuegensis, p. 90.
Figs. 4-6. Eschara decnssata, p. 91.
Figs. 7~10. Eschara flabellaris, p. 91.

CVIII. Figs. 1-3. Eschara contorta, p. 89.
Fig. 4. Eschara platalea, p. 90.
Figs. 5-7- Eschara gracilis, p. 91.



CIX. Figs. 1-3. Cellepora ramulosa, p. 87.
Figs. 4-6. Cellepora Hassallii, p. 86.
Fig. 7- Eschara cervicornis, p. 92.

CX. Fig. 1 . Lepralia violacea, /3. cruenta, p. 69.
Fig. 2. Cellepora pumicosa, p. 86.

CXI. Lunulites gibbosa, p. 100.
CXII. Lunulites capulus, p. 100.

CXIII. Figs. 1-3. Lunulites philippinensis, p. 101.
Figs. 4-/. Lunulites cancellata, p. 101.

CXIV. Fig. 1. Cupularia guineensis, p. 98.
CXV. Cupularia Owenii, p. 99.
CXVI. Cupularia Lowei, p. 99.
CXVII. Selenaria maculata, p. 101.
CXVIII. Cupularia stellata, p. 99.

CXIX. Fig. 1. Eschara cervicornis,, p. 92.
Fig. 2. Cellepora fusca, p. 88.
Fig. 3. Eschara gigantea, p. 91.

CXX. Figs. 1, 2. Cellepora bispinata, p. 87.
Figs. 3, 4. Cellepora mamillata, p. 87.
Fig. 6. Cellepora fusca, p. 88.

CXXI. Figs. 1,2. Retepora phoenicea, p. 94.
Figs. 3-8. Retepora cellulosa, p. 93.

CXXII. Cellepora Skenei, p. !

CXXIII. Figs. 1-5. Retepora I
Figs. 5, 6. Retepora

CXXIV. Cupularia pyriformis, p. 100.

CXXIII. Figs. 1-5. Retepora beaniana, p. 94.
Figs. 5, 6. Retepora cellulosa, p. 93.


The following Figures, contained in Plates given in PART I.,
relate to species described in the present PART.


LXI. Fig. 1. Membranipora lineata, p. 58.
Fig. 2. Membranipora Flemingii, p. 58.

LXV. Fig. 2. Vincularia ornata, p. 96.

Fig. 3. Membranipora cyclops, p. 61.
Fig. 4. Membranipora magnilabris, p. (52.
Fig. 5. Membranipora galeata, p. 62.
Fig. 6. Membranipora Rozieri, p. 59.

LXVIII. Fig. 2. Membranipora membranacea, p. 56.


Acamarchis, 24, 26.
aculeata (Fare.), 33.
adpressa (Lepr.), 82.
^Etea, 30.
alata (Lepr.), 71.
alcicornis (MilJep.), 92.
Alysidiutn, 33.
Amastigia, 40.
Amphiblestrum, 56.
amphora (Catenic.), 8.
Anguina (Cell.), 31.

(Cellul.), 31.

^Falc.), 31.

(Sert.), 31.

Anguinaria, 30.
angustiloba (Flustra), 45.
annularis (Eschara), 84.

(Lepr.), 84.

annulata (Cellep.), 77.

1 2 3 5 7 8 9 10 11 12

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