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lian seas, will make the various species of Catenicella the subject
of assiduous study. Considerable light will thence be derived as
to the nature and relations of the Polyzoa, thus studied in their
simplest, but at the same time perhaps most perfect form.

The genus may be regarded as characteristic of the Australian
seas; for although it occurs elsewhere in the southern hemisphere,
it does so but rarely, and it is almost unknown in the northern
hemisphere. Of the seventeen species enumerated below, thir-
teen were collected on the coasts of Australia and New Guinea,
on the voyage of H.M.S. Rattlesnake. Several of these, and
some other species which do not occur in the Rattlesnake col-
lection, are found in New Zealand and Campbell's Island. Two
or three other species, one at least common to Australia, occur in
South Africa.

A species, undoubtedly referrible to this genus, is figured
by Savigny (Egypt, pi. 13. fig. 1) under the name of Catenaria,
and described by Audouin under that of Eucratea contei. The
characters, however, given of this species, either in the figure or
description, are insufficient for its exact determination among
such a number of forms, greatly resembling each other in gene-
ral aspect : and although the Cellaria catenulata of Lamarck (An.

B 2


s. Vert. t. ii. p. 180) is equally an indisputable member of the
same genus, its identification, from the description there given,
with any of the species here enumerated, does not appear to be
possible. There seems little reason for referring his Cell, vesicu-
losa to the genus at all, as in that species, it is said, the articula-
tions appear to be formed of two cells united. The Menipea hya-
l&a of Lamouroux (Polyp. Flex. p. 146. pi. 3. fig. 1), though in the
figure exhibiting some faint traces of the aspect of a Caienicella,
cannot safely be referred to that genus ; neither, most probably,
can Eucratea cordierii, Audouin (Savigny, Egypt, p, 13. fig. 3),
which latter would seem to form the type of an as yet unde-
scribed genus. In Catenicella each cell arises from the upper and
back part of another by a short corneous, tube, which is prolonged
from the interior of one cell to that of the one above. The cell
is furnished on each side at the top with a usually well-developed
avicularium, in some species of huge size, and in some very mi-
nute or entirely aborted. This avicularian process, which is
sometimes closed above and more or less elongated upwards, con-
stituting a conical or acerose spine, is sometimes open above,
assuming the form of a shallow cup or receptacle. In some spe-
cies both modifications of this portion of the lateral process are
met with in the same specimen. This form of spine or cup, as
the case may be, is always distinctly separated from the cavity of
the avicularium itself by a calcareous septum. Below the avicu-
larium there is also in many cases a third distinct cavity, usually
widely open, the opening being occasionally covered in by a con-
vex transparent membrane, and its bottom apparently perforated
by several minute foramina. It is thus correct to say, that each
cell is furnished with two lateral processes, each of which, in the
fully developed state, consists of three distinct compartments,
one superior, a cup or spine ; a middle one, which is the avicu-
larium ; and an inferior. And it would appear that one or more
of these elementary compartments of the lateral process may be
more developed than the next, or sometimes more or less com-
pletely aborted. The mouth of the cell is situated at the upper
part, and is of the same conformation as in the rest of the Chei-
lostomatous suborder. An important generic character consists
in the gemination of the cell at each bifurcation.

These characters are common to all the species included in the
genus, which furthermore admits of being subdivided into three
extremely natural sections or subgenera. These subdivisions are
named respectively the " Fenestratae," the " Vittatse," and the
" Simplices." In the fenestrate division the cells are of larger
size and stronger than in the others, and the wall of the cell ap-
pears to be constituted of at least two distinct laminae. The ex-
ternal lamina on the front of the cell is perforated by a certain


number of holes, or rather is wanting in a certain number of spaces,
for which spaces the term " fenestrae " is here employed. These
apparent openings, therefore, do not penetrate into the cavity of
the cell. But besides the fenestrae, there is in some cases a small
central opening which does penetrate through the wall. In most
cases the fenestrae are arranged in a crescentic, or rather horse-
shoe-shaped line, indicative as it were of the limits of a regular
oval space in the front wall of the cell, the upper part of which
oval would be formed by the mouth, and the remainder filled up
by the deposition of calcareous matter, as happens in the older
cells of many other of the Cheilostumata.

A further characteristic of the fenestrate Catenicellce is the ter-
minal position of the ovicells. These organs are clearly trans-
formed cells, or cells dilated to considerably more than their natu-
ral bulk, and assuming a subglobose form ; and, what is worthy
of remark, these terminal ovicells always have a sessile avicula-
rium on the summit.

In the "Vittatae" the cell is smaller, and usually more delicate
and transparent. They probably want the outer lamina, or have
it very thin, and consequently present no fenestrate spaces, and
the front of the cell is beset (sometimes very sparingly) with more
or less prominent, minute, acuminate " papilla?." On each side,
sometimes on the anterior aspect, sometimes quite laterally, is a
narrow elongated band, or " vitta " as it is here designated, from
which the sectional appellation is derived. This band or stripe
(the nature of which is unknown) varies in width and propor-
tionate length and position in different species ; it is slightly ele-
vated, and marked with larger or smaller circular, discoid, or acu-
minated eminences. This subdivision is further distinguished by
the situation of the ovicells, which are not terminal, but occur at
irregular intervals on cells in the course of the series. They are
of the ordinary galeate form, but are not apparently placed above
the mouth 'of a cell, as is most usual in the Cheilostomata, but
below it in front. In all cases the shape of the ovicelligerous cell
is very different from the rest, and in all the vittate species it
arises from its predecessor, without the intervention of a short
tube, but is immediately sessile upon it by a broad base. This
conformation is well seen in C. gibbosa (PL VII. figs. 3, 4). It is
not improbable, however, that the inferior position of the ovicell
is more apparent than real, and that in fact the ovicell, which ap-
pears to be inferior in the upper of the two cells, really belongs
to the one below, and is merely, as it were, immersed in the base
of the upper one. In one instance, C. taurina (PI. XI. fig. 3), the
situation of the ovicell is peculiar : in this species the ovicelli-
gerous cell is geminate, the ovicell being placed on the summit of
a secondary cell, on the side of the one forming part of the series.


In the third subdivision of the Catenicellce, or that here termed
" Simplices," there is at present but one species. This differs so
much in many respects from any of the former, that it might,
perhaps, constitute the type of a distinct genus : agreeing how-
ever as it does, in essential particulars, with the rest, it has been
thought better to place it, at least provisionally, with them. In
this form there are neither "fenestrae" nor "vittae," nor are there,
properly speaking, any avicularia. The latter, however, are repre-
sented by two strong lateral processes, which are grooved in front,
and may in the living state have a moveable member, either man-
dible or seta, which is wanting in the dead specimens.

#. Fenestratae. Cells fenestr ate in front ; ovicells terminal.

Catenicellae fenestratae, Busk, in Macgillivray's Voy. Rattlesn.
i. 352.


Cells elongated rhomboidal, truncate at each end. Fenestrae
3, large, the lowest the largest. Avicularia large and strong ;
back marked with faint longitudinal striae.

Catenicella lorica, Busk, in Voy. of Rattlesn. i. 358.
Hob. Bass' Strait, 45 fathoms.

Colour white, transparent. A fine, widely-branching species,
in which the catenulate aspect is more evident to the eye than in
almost any other. It is at once recognizable by the rhomboidal,
scutate form of the cell, viewed anteriorly; and when the back is
also vie\ved, the resemblance of the two aspects to the back, and
breast-plates of a coat of mail, is very striking. The structure of
the lateral processes is more distinctly to be made out in this spe-
cies than in any other. Each lateral process consists, 1. of a
deep cup-like cavity above ; 2. a middle compartment the avi-
cularium; and 3, a third loculament below the avicularium, the
wide opening of which is covered in by a convex transparent mem-
brane. The bottom of this loculament appears to be perforated ;
and it is to be noticed also, that there is a small central perfora-
tion in the septum separating it from the cavity of the avicula-
rium. Towards the bottom of the cell, on each side, is a well-
developed lateral area, of exactly the same conformation as the
subavicularian loculament, and like it covered in by a convex
transparent membrane. It might be supposed that these cavities
were for the purpose of containing air, in order to render the
otherwise heavy branches of the polyzoary buoyant. They at all
events appear to be perfectly empty.


figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

Cells oval, compressed. Avicularia wide, supporting sometimes
a cuplike cavity, sometimes a closed, broad, conical spine.
Fenestrae 7, with fissures radiating towards a rounded central
pore. Front of cell studded with minute acuminate papillae ;
back smooth, sometimes spotted.

Catenicella ventricosa, Busk, in Voy. ofRattlesn. i. 357- 1. 1. fig. 1 .
Hab. Bass' Strait, 45 fathoms.

Colour dirty white or brown ; habit stiff; stem strong, straight ;
branches short and crowded ; probably attains a height of 4 or 5
inches. The only other species with which it can be confounded
is C. amphora, from which it differs in the greater size and more
irregular form of the lateral processes ; in the presence of the mi-
nute papillae on the surface ; and in the absence of the narrow lon-
gitudinal band on the back ; instead of which, the older cells in
C. ventricosa exhibit a sort of broad scutum, almost covering the
back of the cell, and sending off two lateral bands on the sides
of the cell, one passing below the avicularium and above the late-
ral area, and the other towards the acuminated apex of the avi-
cularium. It also w r ants the raised bands which in C. amphora
pass from the sides of the mouth to the apex of the avicularium
in front. One large specimen presents a variety worthy of
note : in this the backs of all the cells, except one here and
there, exhibit (internally?) numerous irregular- sized leopard-like


Cells oval. Fenestrae 7-9, disposed in a crescent, with fissures
radiating towards the median line. Avicularia supporting large,
pyramidal, pointed, hollow processes, compressed, and perforated,
before and behind, by five or six small circular pores.

Catenicella hastata, Busk, in Voy. of Rattlesn. i. 355.
C. bicuspis? Gray, Dieffenbach's New Zealand, ii. 293.
Hab. Bass' Strait, 45 fathoms. New Zealand.

Of a yellowish white colour, sometimes reddish. Forms fine
bushy tufts, with long wavy branches, arising from a short com-
mon stem, and attaining a height of 5 or 6 inches. It appears
sometimes to be parasitic upon other Polyzoa, and is then much
smaller. Its peculiar characteristics are, the perforated and stri-
ated scutiform area on the front of the cell, and the perforated
or apparently perforated pyramidal lateral processes above each


4. CATENICELLA AURITA. PI. IV. figs. 1, 2, 3.

Cells oval or subglobose. Avicularia large and strong, two
blunt processes, the upper the longer, on each side of the open-
ing in front. Fenestrae 5, around a central one.
Hob. New Zealand. Cook's Straits, Lyall; Campbell's

Island, Hooker.


Cells oval, sides rendered straight upwards by the wide avicu-
laria, which are prolonged above into an acute spinous process,
and support a shallow cup. Fenestra3 9, pyriform, an oval central
perforation ; an elevated band extending from the sides of the
aperture to the upper angular processes of the avicularia; an
elevated flattened band, along the middle of the back, branching
off above to each avicularium.

Catenicella amphora, Busk, Voy. of Rattlesn. i. 356.

Cellaria catenulata? var. B., Lamarck, An. s. V. ii. 180 (2nd ed.).

Hab. Bass' Strait, 45 fathoms.

Of a bright reddish brown colour, and in the younger cells very
transparent. Forms small irregularly branched bushes, 4 to 6
inches high and wide. It is peculiar by its extremely regular
vase-like form of cell, which is given by the continuation up-
wards of the broad avicularia in nearly a straight line, and their
prolongation into a sharp angular spine, on the inner side of
which is a shallow cup-like cavity, whose sides are usually more
horny than calcareous. The number of fenestrae appears to be
very constant.

The length of the branches before their dividing, and their
straightness, together with the colour of this species, render it
not improbable that it is the form intended by Lamarck (/. c.).


Cells short, ovoid. Avicularia nearly as long as the cell, termi*
nating in an acute spinous point, and supporting a deep cupped
cavity above; aperture placed obliquely; front of cell divided
into five large subtriangular fenestrse by four broad bands. Back
of cell with a broad central band and two narrower bands branch-
ing from it on each side ; surface of spaces left uncovered by the
dorsal bands beset with setose spines.

Catenicella plagiostoma, Busk, Voy. of Rattlesn. i. 358.
Hab. Bass' Strait, 45 fathoms. Swan Island, Banks' Strait.

Colour brownish white ; habit stiff; branches short. This spe-
cies is at once recognizable by the peculiar oblique position of


the mouth, the enormously developed avicularium, usually only
on one side of the cell, and by the sculpture of the cell, which
appears as if it were swathed with broad tapes or bands. The
wide spaces left between the bands in front clearly represent the
true nature of the fenestrse of other species. It is the only spe-
cies furnished with elongated setose spines.


Cells subglobular, compressed, more or less alate. Avicularia
large, without any superior appendage, and prolonged downwards
into elevated lateral alae. Fenestrae numerous, small, round,
equidistant, the circumferential being larger than the rest : a
minute central crescentic pore.

Catenicella cribraria, Busk , Voy. of Rattlesn. i. 359.
Hab. Bass' Strait, Hooker, 45 fathoms. Cook's Strait, New
Zealand, Lyall.

Colour brown, loosely branched, and several inches high. Di-
stinguished readily by the cribriform aspect of the front of the
cell, by the curiously formed central orifice, and by the absence
of any superior appendage to the avicularium.


Cells oval or subglobular, much compressed. Avicularia short
and broad, supporting a deep cuplike cavity. Fenestrae 5, large.
Lower margin of aperture notched in the middle ; back of cell
minutely sulcate ; sulci short, interrupted, irregular.

Catenicella margaritacea, Busk, Voy. of Rattlesn. i. 356.

Cellaria vesiculosa?, Lamk. An. s. V. ii. 190.

Hab. Swan Island. Banks' Strait. New Zealand, Lyall.

\ very beautiful species, the branches resembling strings of
minute pearls. The pearly lustre (in the dry state) owing with-
out doubt to the minute sulci on the backs of the cells. These
sulci are not, however, consequent upon the drying, because they
are equally apparent and constant when the specimen has been
immersed in fluid. The species may almost at once be distin-
guished by the notch in the lower margin of the mouth, and which
notch represents the central suboral opening present in some
other species.

/3. Vittatae. Cells furnished with a narrow elongated bond or
" vitta " on each side. Without ftnestrcs. Ovicells galeriform,
not terminal.


Cells oval. Avicularia large, flat, or cupped above. Vittae

B 5



elliptical, sublateral. Surface in front covered with minute acu-
minate papillae.

Catenicella formosa, Busk, Voy. of Rattlesn. i. 360.
Hab. Swan Island, Banks' Strait.

Colour light plumbeous. Parasitic upon C. margaritacea. The
cells are the largest of any in the vittate division, and very regu-
lar and uniform in size and outline. The more distinctive cha-
racters are taken from the comparatively broad vittse, and the flat
or cupped upper surface of the avicularia, which are usually con-
tinued downwards into a prominent ridge or ala.


Cells elongated oval. Avicularian processes large, perforated
at the base or by several openings. Vittse long, wider below,
lateral. Surface in front papillose.

Hab. New Zealand, Hooker, Lyall, Darwin. Tasmania, Hooker.


Cells ovoid or subglobular. Avicularia usually very unequal,
the larger one gaping. Vittse, anterior, broad. Surface in front

Hab. New Zealand, Dieffenbach. Algoa Bay.

Differs from C. elegans, with some forms of which it might be
confounded, in the absence of acuminate papillae on the anterior
surface, and in the comparatively greater size and peculiar gaping
aspect of the avicularia, or not unfrequently of one of them.


Cells elongated, ovoid. Avicularia large and projecting, with-
out any superior appendage. Vittae narrow, sublateral. Surface
in front papillose.

? Eucratea Contei, Audouin, Expl. i. 242 ; Savig. Eg. pi. 13. f. 1.
Catenicella Savignyi?, Blainv. Man. d'Act. 462. pi. 78. f. 1.
Catenicella elegans, Busk, Voy. of Rattlesn. i. 361. t. 1. f. 2.
Hab. Bass' Strait, 47 fathoms; Port Cooper, Banks' Penin-
sula; Algoa Bay; Port Dalrymple.

A delicate and beautiful parasitic species ; the branches slen-
der and spreading; colour white and very transparent; cells
regular, and uniform in size and shape. There appears to be
little or no difference between the Australian and South African
species ; in the latter, however, the vittae are usually much longer,
extending upwards as high as the mouth.


13. CATENICELLA CORNUTA. PI. X. figs. 1, 2, 3.

Cells oval. Avicularia in most cells wholly transformed into
long pointed retrocedent spines, on one or both sides ; in others
into shorter spines, or unaltered. Vittse linear, extremely nar-
row, lateral, and extending the whole length of the cell from the
base of the avicularium. Surface in front smooth.

Catenicella cornuta, Busk, Voy. of Rattlesn. i. 361.
Rob. Bass' Strait, 45 fathoms.

Colour yellowish white; growth small; parasitic upon C. am-
phora. As some difficulty might be experienced in the discrimi-
nation of this species from C. elegans and another South African
species (C. taurina), it is requisite to remark that the long re-
trocedent spines, when present, are not placed upon or super-
added to the avicularia, but that they seem to represent an
aborted or transformed state of those organs. They vary much
in length and size in different cells, and even in those of the
same branch, as it frequently happens that there is a spine,
usually of diminutive size, on one side, and a very large avicu-
larium on the other; sometimes (but rarely) an avicularium
of more moderate size on both sides. But the character of the
species by wiiich it is more particularly distinguished, consists in
the presence on a great many cells, in one part or other of the
polyzoary, of the two long and strong spines projecting back-

14. CATENICELLA UMBONATA. PI. X. figs. 4, 5.

Cells more or less pyriform, narrow below, bulging or ventri-
cose above. Avicularia large and strong. Vittae strap-shaped,
anterior, extending from the level of the mouth to the bottom of
the cell, with acuminate papillae. A broad compressed project-
ing process on the middle of the back. Surface in front papil-

Catenicella umbonata, Busk, Voy. of Rattlesn. i. 362.
Hab. Bass' Strait, 45 fathoms.

The cells in this species are small, inflated or ventricose, and,
as it were, subglobular above, becoming much attenuated below ;
but the cavity of the cell does not appear to extend into this
contracted portion, in which is contained the connecting tube,
strengthened by calcareous matter, the inferior continuation of
the lateral alee, which descend from the base of the avicularium.
Owing to the large size of the avicularia the upper part of the
cell is much widened, and the whole acquires somewhat of a tri-
angular form, and has a peculiar rugose aspect ; derived in part
also from the large size and elevation of the acuminated papilla?.


not only of the vittae, but on the surface of the cell itself. The
central umbo or crest posteriorly is a marked feature.


Cells pyriform, ventricose posteriorly, mnch attenuated down-
wards. Avicularia small, placed in front close to the side of the
aperture, at the base of strong conical pointed processes which
project in front, and are connected across the top of the cell by
a prominent toothed ridge. Vittse long, linear, entirely lateral.
Surface in front with a few scattered acuminate papillae.
Catenicella gibbosa, Busk, Voy. of Rattlesn. i. 360.
Hab. Prince of Wales Channel, Torres 3 Strait, 9 fathoms, mud.

Of a dark lead colour when dry. Forms an elegantly-branched
bush, about 2 inches high. The gibbous form of the cells, and
the peculiar anterior position of the avicularia, at the base of the
projecting lateral processes, at once distinguish it from all the
other vittate species. The toothed (sometimes entire) ridge ex-
tending between the two lateral processes across the top of the
cell and overlapping the mouth like a penthouse, is also a very
peculiar feature.


Cells oval or subglobose. Avicularia large and strong, fre-
quently transformed into long and large ascending (not retroee-
dent) spines. Surface of cell smooth. Vittse small, inconspicuous,
lateral. Surface in front smooth. Ovicelligerous cells gemmate.

Hab. Algoa Bay, &c., South Africa.

This species is at once distinguishable by the peculiarity in the
conformation of the ovicelligerous cells, and the spines, which are
as long as in C. cornuta, are not retrocedent as in that species,
but ascend directly. The habit of the polyzoary is also very pe-
culiar, growing in long branching tufts, and the smaller branchlets
composed of the cells arise in pretty regular whorls around the
central stems ; giving to the whole somewhat of the aspect of
Thuiaria thuja.

y. Simplices. Without vittce or fenestrae.
Catenicellse simplices, Busk, Voy. of Rattlesn. i. 363.

17. CATENICELLA CARINATA. PL VI. figs. 4, 5, 6.

Cells oval, narrowed at each end 5 lateral processes (without
avicularia ?) projecting horizontally outwards from the side of the
aperture, which is nearly central. Mouth with a small tooth on
each side, and below it a triangular space with three strong coni-


eal eminences. A few scattered papillae on the surface of the
sides and back. Ovicelligerous cells gemmate.

Catenicella carinata, Busk, Voy. of Rattlesn. i. 363.
Hab. Bass' Strait, 45 fathoms.

This remarkable form differs so widely in many respects from
any of its congeners, as almost to deserve to be considered as the
type of a distinct subgenus. The lateral processes, which may
be taken to represent the perfect avicularia of the other species,
are, as far as can be ascertained from specimens that have been
dried, without a moveable mandible, and are probably really so
because there is no corresponding beak. These processes are

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