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Catalogue of marine Polyzoa in the collection of the British museum (Volume 2) online

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channelled in front nearly from the base to the extremity ; they
arise by a broad base on each side of the mouth and on the front
of the cell, and from the conjoined bases is continued upwards
and downwards, or to the top and bottom of the cell, a promi-
nent flattened band. The expanded bases circumscribe an oval
space nearly in the centre of the front of the cell, the upper
two-thirds of which space are occupied by the circular mouth,
on each side of which is a small calcareous tooth, to which appa-
rently are articulated the horns of the semilunar labial cartilage.
The lower third is filled up by a yellow horny ? membrane, upon
which are placed three conical eminences disposed in a triangular
manner. The back of the cell is very convex, and has, running
along the middle of it, an elevated crest or keel, acuminate
in the middle. The ovicell is situated in front of the cell below
the mouth, and below it are three considerable-sized areolated
spots, disposed like the three conical spines in a triangle. The
cells upon which the ovicells are placed, are always geminate,
that is to say, have a smaller cell growing out from one side. It
is not improbable that the ovicelligerous cell in fact represents
two cells, to the lower one of which the ovicell properly belongs.


Cells connected by short corneous tubes, of which two arise
from a single cell, at each bifurcation. Avicularia single and
anterior, or double and lateral, or altogether wanting ?

Alysidium, BusJc, MSS.

Closely allied to Catenicella ; the difference in the mode in
which the branches are given off, appears to afford a sufficient
ground for the separation from that genus, of the forms included
in the present. It must be stated, however, that there is, except
in that respect, but little connection between the two species here
somewhat arbitrarily made congenerous, each of which will most
probably form the type of a distinct genus.


1. ALYSIDIUM PARASITICUM, n. sp. PL XIV. figs. 6, 7> 8, 9.

Cells oval, narrow below ; a lateral process on either side above
and in front, on the sides of a depressed area, in which the aper-
ture is placed, and in which are two small perforations below the
aperture. Ovicelligerous cells, arising by a corneous tube from
the front of a cell.

Hab. Algoa Bay, Port Natal, &c.

A small delicate species, hitherto only observed parasitic upon
Carbasea armata ; but it appears to be very abundant. The ovi-
cells are very peculiar, and would afford an excellent subject for
examination in the living state.

2. ALYSIDIUM LAFONTII. PL XIV. figs. I, 2, 3, 4.

Cells much elongated and tubular below. Aperture superior,
margin with spines; a large avicularium in front immediately
below the aperture. Front of cell with numerous perforations ;
ovicell superior, cucullate.

Eucratea Lafontii, Audouin, Expl. i. 242 ; Savig. Egypt, pi. 13.

f. 2.
Hob. Coast of Spain, M' Andrew. Mediterranean? Savig.

This species occurs abundantly on a piece of Eschara foliacea,
spreading across its hollows like a spider's web. In Savigny's
figure it is represented as growing upon a species of Fucus. It
is a very curious and remarkable form.


Cells with an avicularium on each side ; with two or more,
usually three, distinct apertures ; arising one from the upper part
of another in a linear series, all facing the same way and form-
ing dichotomously divided branches of an erect phytoid polyzoary :
cells at the bifurcation single.

Calpidium, Busk, Voy. of Rattlesn. i. 364.

This very peculiar genus is distinguishable from Catenicella in
the first place, by the anomalous circumstance that each cell is
furnished with two, or more usually with three, distinct keyhole-
shaped mouths, and is doubtless inhabited by three distinct
individuals. Whether these are separated from each other by
internal partitions is unknown, but the closest examination of
cells, rendered transparent by means of acid, fails to discover
such. In cells thus prepared there are apparent, however, three
distinct masses, reaching from the bottom of the cell to each
orifice, and which are probably the remains either of the body or
of the retractor muscles of the animals.



Cells triangular-urn-shaped, compressed, very broad above;
upper border straight ; mouths 2-3, keyhole-shaped. Five fe-
nestrse below each mouth ; numerous branching bands on the

Calpidium ornatum, Busk, Voy. ofRattlesn. i. 364. 1. 1. f. 3, 4, 5.
Hab. Bass' Strait, 45 fathoms.

Cells large, regular, and uniform in size, resembling very closely
an antique sculptured urn. Colour dark brown, and the walls so
thick as to be nearly opaque. The polyzoary, which appears to
attain a height of 4 or 6 inches, is bipinnate (with all the
branches on one plane), the branches alternate, and given off with
extreme regularity. The ultimate ramules are incurved. The
central stem, or series of cells, differs in no repect as regards the
size or disposition of the cells composing it, from the branches.

2. BI-MULTISERIALARIA. Cells disposed in a double or
multiple series.


Cells disposed around an imaginary axis, forming cylindrical
branches of a dichotomously divided, erect polyzoary.

Salicornariana, Gray, Brit. Rad. 131.

Synopsis of Genera.

\. Salicornaria.
2. Nellia.

The distinction between the Salicornariadae, as here constituted,
and the Farciminariadae is at first sight not very obvious, but
further examination will serve to justify their separation. In the
Salicornariadae the branches of the polyzoary constitute distinct
articulations connected by flexible joints, whilst in the Farcimi-
nariadas the polyzoary is continuous throughout. In the Salicor-
nariadae moreover the ovicells are deeply immersed, their situation
being discernible merely by an alteration in the form of the cells
by which they are borne. In the Farciminariadae, on the other
hand, the ovicell is external and of the usual cucullate form.
The composition of the polyzoary in the Salicornariadae is cal-
careous, in the Farciminariadae corneous. Another family, that
of the Vinculariadas, to be afterwards described, although agreeing
with the Salicornariadae and Farciminariadae in the disposition of
the cells around a central imaginary axis, offers sufficient points
of difference to justify its distinction from them.



Front of cell much depressed, surrounded by an elevated ridge,
by which the surface is divided into more or less regular rhorn-
boidal or hexagonal spaces; no aperture. Avicularia disposed

Salicornaria, Guv. R. A. 1837; Johnst. Brit. Zooph. ed. 2. 355.
Farcirnia, Flem. Brit. Anim. 534; Johnst. Brit. Zooph. ed. 1.
Cellariaa, Lamk. Syn. 1801, 1812; Lamx. 1812; Blainv. 1830.

The distinguishing characteristic of this genus., which consists
in the division of the surface of the branches into more or less
regular and uniform rhomboidal or hexagonal spaces, is sufficiently
obvious in all mature specimens ; but as the form of spaces is in
great measure dependent upon the degree of development of the
cells, whose fronts the spaces represent, little dependence can be
placed upon their mere form as a specific distinction. A better
distinction in doubtful cases will be found in an organ which
does not appear hitherto to have been noticed in this genus, viz.
the avicularmm, the form and position of which afford appa-
rently an invariable character as readily discernible and sufficient,
as a specific distinction, as does its presence or absence serve with
other characters to distinguish Salicornaria from its near ally

PL LXV. (bis) fig. 5.

Front of cell rhomboidal, or hexangular with a straight side at
top and bottom; sometimes arched above; cells in the same
series contiguous. Surface granular. Avicularium distinct from,
and above a cell, rostrum immersed, mandible semicircular.

Salicornaria farciminoides, Johnst. Hist. Brit. Zooph. ed. 2.

p. 355. t. 66. figs. 6, /; Gray, Cat. Brit. Rad.
Corallina fistulosa fragilis, Raii Hist. i. 65.
Corallina fistulosa fragilis, internodiis prselongis laevibus, albis,

farciminum modo catenatis, Pluken. Phytog. pi. 26. fig. 2.
Bugle Coralline, Ellis, Corall. 46. no. 1. pi. 23. figs, a, A, B, C.
Eschara fistulosa, Linn. Syst. ed. 10. 804.
Cellularia Salicornia, Pall. Elench. 61.
Tubularia fistulosa, Linn. Syst. 1302; Oliv. Zool. Adriat. 267 ;

Berk. Syn. i. 214.

Cellaria farciminoides, Ellis and Soland. Zooph. 26.
Isis Hippuris, Fabr. Faun. 427.
Cellaria Salicornia, Lamk. Anim. s. Vert. ii. 135, ed. 2. ii. 176 ;

Bosc, Vers, iii. 129. pi. 28. fig. 6 ; Lamx. Expos. Method. 5;

Corall. 55; Bull Sec. Phil iii. 185; Blainv. Act. 455. pi. 77-

fig. 1.


Salicorniaires, Cuv. Rdg. Anim. iii. 303.
Salicornaria dichotoma, Schweig. Handb. 428.
Salicomaria fistulosa, Templeton, Mag. Nat. Hist. ix. 469.
Farcimia fistulosa, Flem. Brit. Anim. 534 ; Johnst. Trans. Newc.

Soc. ii. 266.

Cellaria fistulosa, S. V. Wood, Ann. f Mag. Nat. Hist. xiii. 17.
Farcimia Salicornia, Johnst. Brit. Zooph. 295. pi. 37. figs. 6, 7 ;

Couch, Zooph. Cornw. 58 ; Corn. Faun. 129. pi. 20. tig. 3.

Var. a. Front of cell rounded, above.

Tubularia fistulosa, Esper, Tubul. t. 2. figs. 1-4.

Farcimia sinuosa, Hassall, Ann. Sf Mag. Nat. Hist. vi. 1/2. pi. 6.

figs. 1, 2; Macgilliv. ibid. ix. 468.
Farcimia spathulosa, Hassall, ibid. xi. 112.
Salicornaria sinuosa, Johnst. Brit. Zooph. ed. 2. p. 356. t. 66. fig. 8;

Gray, Cat. Brit. Rad.
Hob. Seas of Europe ; Algoa Bay.

There can be no doubt, after examination of the typical spe-
cimens in the British Museum collection, of the identity of S.
farciminoides and S. sinuosa, Hass. Figs. 1, 2. PI. LXIV. are
drawn from different parts of one and the same specimen.


(bis) fig. 2.

Front of cell oval or lanceolate, pointed above and below ; cells
in the same series distant. Surface granular. Avicularium re-
placing a cell; rostrum prominent, cucullate mandible broad

Cellaria tenella? Lamk. A. s. V. t. ii. p. 1/7-
Salicornaria punctata, Busk, op. cit. 366.
Cellaria Salicornioides ? Savigny, Egypt, pi. 6. fig. 7-
Hab. Off Cumberland Island ; Cape Capricorn.

Parasitic upon Sertularians and Polyzoa; branches slender,
straggling, of irregular lengths.


Front of cell hexagonal, with an angle at top and bottom.
Cells in the same series distant, elongated or very short. Sur-
face subgranular. Avicularium replacing a cell ; rostrum promi-
nent, pointed ; mandible long, narrow, produced, acute.

Salicornaria bicornis, Busk, op. cit. 366.

Var. a. with the sides of the cell raised into a minute spinous

projection at each of the upper lateral angles.
Hab. Bass' Strait, 45 fathoms. Tasmania, Hooker,


Parasitic. Branches shorter and thicker than in the preceding
species. In the shape of the area they are much alike, but in S.
tenuirostris, in some cells, and occasionally throughout the
greater part of an internode, the area differs widely from the
more usual form. It is much expanded and arched above. In
this case there is usually a considerable- sized perforation above
the mouth of the cell, as occurs not unfrequently also in S. far-
ciminoides. These indicate the situation of the immersed ovicells.
The avicularium affords an excellent character between these
otherwise not readily distinguishable forms.

PL LXV. (bis) fig. 1.

Front of cell arched above, very acute below. Cells distant in
the same series. Surface smooth. Avicularium replacing a cell,
rostrum immersed, mandible wide, large, triangular, pointed.

Hab. Falkland Islands, S. Patagonia, Darwin.

Readily distinguishable by the perfect smoothness of the sur-
face and uniformly arched form of the area above, as well as by
the form of the avicularium.


Front of cell convex, with a distinct raised border ; a large
aperture. No avicularia. Ovicells ?

Salicornaria, part., Busk, Voy. of Rattlesn. i. 367.
Nellia, Busk, MSS.

Although evidently closely allied to Salicornaria, this genus
would seem to be sufficiently distinct in the form of the front of
the cell and in the complete absence of avicularia. The ovicells
have not been noticed, and are probably deeply immersed. In
the small number of series of the cells and their conformation it
approaches the next genus, Cellularia.

1. NELLIA OCULATA. PL LXIV. fig. 6 ; PL LXV (bis) fig. 4.

Outline of cell rounded above, not contracted downward,
truncate below. Two raised hollow, perforated, papilliform pro-
cesses below the aperture. Aperture elliptical. Cells quadri-

Salicornaria dichotoma, Busk, op. cit. i. 367.

Hab. Prince of Wales Channel, Torres' Strait, 9 fathoms.

Forms small crowded tufts from one to two or three inches
high ; branches very uniform in length, and thence very regularly
forked or dichotomous.


2. NELLIA SIMPLEX. PL LXV. fig. 1 ; PI. LXV. (bis) fig. 3.

Outline of cell rounded above, contracted downwards, truncate
below. Margin much raised above. Aperture oval.

Salicornaria marginata, Busk, op. cit. i. 367.
Hob. Prince of Wales Channel, Torres' Strait.

Usually of a greenish colour ; but this may be adventitious,
although it is general and uniform throughout the specimen.
This species differs from the above in being much larger, and in
wanting the two perforations on each side above the mouth ; in
the less comparative size of the aperture, and in the remarkable
elevation of the sharp margin surrounding the upper half of the
cell. In the looser aggregation and in the form of the cells, it
shows the transition from the Salicoruariadae to Cellularia.


Cells disposed in the same plane, forming linear branches of a
dichotoinously divided, phytoid, erect polyzoary.

Bugulidffi, part., Gray, Cat. Brit. Rad. B. M. 110. 146.
Cellularidse, part., Johnst. Brit. Zooph.

Escharidse, part., Johnst. Brit. Zooph. ed. 1. 248, ed. 2. 264;
Gray, Syn. Brit. Mus. 1847, 135.

Synopsis of Genera.

1. Cellularia.

2. Menipea.

3. Scrupocellaria.

4. Canda.

5. Emma.


Cells bi-triserial, more than four in each internode; oblong
or rhornboidal, contiguous ; perforated behind. Without avicu-
larium or vibraculum, unless rarely the former on the upper and
outer angle of the cell.

Cellularia, part., Pallas, Elench. Zool. ; Fleming, B. A.
Cellularia, Busk, MSS.
Bugula, part., Gray, List Brit. Rad. B. M. 114.


Upper and outer angle prolonged into a strong spine. A
single perforation behind. A cuspidate spine on the summit of
the median cell at each bifurcation. Ovicell smooth.


C. monotrypa, Busk, Voy. of Rattlesn. i. 368.

Hab. Australian Seas (ubique); New Zealand, Hooker-, Lyall.

This is at once distinguished from C. peachii by the cuspidate
point on the summit of the median cell at each bifurcation, and
the smoothness of the surface of the ovicell.

2. CELLULARIA PEACHII. PI. XXVII. figs. 3, 4, 5.

Cells subelongated, attenuated downwards, truncate and some-
what rounded above. A small spine on the upper and outer
angle sometimes wanting. Three to five perforations behind.
Mouth oval, regular; margin subincrassate, minutely granular.
Ovicell subglobular, with a tessellated surface.

Cellularia Peachii, Busk, Ann. Nat. Hist. New Ser. vii. 82. pi. 8.

figs. 1, 2, 3, 4.

Cellularia neritina, var., Johnst. Brit. Zooph. i. 340,, ed. 2,
Bugula neritina, var., b, c, d, e, Gray, List Brit. Rad. 114.
Hab. Britain (north?).


Cells immersed, nearly square ; front surrounded by a raised
line, within which the surface is granular ; five to seven minute,
scarcely conspicuous perforations behind.

Hab. Algoa Bay.


Cells oblong, or elongated and attenuated downwards ; imper-
forate behind, with a sessile avicularium frequently absent on the
upper and outer angle, and one or two sessile avicularia on the
front of the cell below the aperture.

Menipea, Lamx. Bull. Soc. Philom. 1812, Polyp. Flex.
Cellaria, part., Linn., Solander.
Crisia, part., Lamx. Polyp. Flex. 61.

Tricellaria, Flem. Brit. Anim. 540, 1828 ; Blainv. Man. d'Act.45S ;
Gray, Brit. Rad. B. M. 113.

The essential character employed to distinguish this genus, is
the presence of one or more sessile avicularia on the front of the
cells below the aperture, and usually of a sessile avicularium at
the upper and outer angle. Although these characters are in
themselves artificial, yet the group formed by the aid of them
appears to be for the most part pretty natural. With the excep-
tion of one or perhaps two species, at present referred to this
genus, the Menipea have three or six cells only in each internode.
The branches are consequently loose and straggling, and usually
incurved at the extremities, as is best seen in Menipea cirrata.


In the aberrant species above referred to the cells are numerous
in each internode, usually tri- or multiserial. The genus appears
to enjoy a wide geographical range, occurring from the arctic
circle in a species not here described, to the southern points of
South America and of Africa.

a. Operculatse. Cells with a pedunculate operculum protecting the
aperture. Tricellaria.


Cells elongated, three in each internode. Operculum simple,
acicular, curved; three to four spines on the upper border.
Anterior avicularium single.

Hob. Tierra del Fuego, low water, Darwin-, Falkland Islands,

2. MENIPEA TERNATA. PL XX. figs. 3, 4, 5.

Cells elongated, much attenuated downwards, three in each
internode. Operculum expanded, entire; two spines on the
upper margin. Anterior avicularium single.

Cellaria ternata, Ellis and Soland. Zooph. 30.

Sertularia ternata, Turt. Gmel. iv. 687.

Crisia ternata, Lamx. Corall. Flex. 61.

Tricellaria ternata, Flem. Brit. Anim. 540; Blainv. Act. 458;

Gray, Brit. Had. 113.

Cellularia ternata, Johnst. Hist. Brit. Zooph. ed. 2. p. 335. t. 59.
Hab. Britain.

/3. Inoperculatae. Without a pedunculate operculum. Menipea.

3. MENIPEA CIRRATA. PL XX. figs. 1, 2.

Cells pyriform, constricted below, six in each internode, one
of the lower usually more or less aborted; usually one large
lateral avicularium to each internode ; three marginal spines very
long and strong ; anterior avicularium single, its upper border

Cellaria cirrata, Ellis and Soland. Zooph. 29. t. 4. fig. d, D.

Cellaria crispa, Pall. Elench, Zooph. 71.

Sertularia crispa, Gmel. Syst. Nat. ed. 13. 3860, and

Sertularia cirrata, ib. 3862.

Tubularia cirrata, Esper, Pf. T. t. /. fig. 1-3 ; Seba, Thesaut . iij .

t. 101. no. 8.
Menipea cirrata, Lamx. Exposit. p. 7. pL 4. fig. D, D 1 ; Krauss,

Cor. und Zooph. d. Suds. p. 32.
Hab. South Africa.



Cells oblong, rectangular (behind), bi-triserial, numerous.
Aperture oval, pointed below, and there partially filled in by a
granulated expansion ; one or two marginal spines on each side
above. Ovicell rounded, cucullate, smooth; lip of opening

Hob. South Africa.


Cells oblong, rectangular, slightly constricted at the waist
(behind) ; multiserial, numerous. Aperture oval, partially filled
in by a granulated expansion below ; a marginal spine on each
side above. Ovicell large, square, with a strong and long,
ascending, central umbo in front ; the front lip of the opening
emarginate ; a radical tube inserted into the lower part of each
marginal cell behind.

Hob. ? B. M. (an var. prec.)?

Although here placed under another name, there is perhaps
little doubt but that this form is merely a variety of the preceding.
The difference in the form of the lower part of the aperture, which
in M. triseriata is described as pointed, and which in the present
species usually appears square or rounded, seems to be owing
to the encroachment upon it of the large ovicell. The central
umbo in front of that organ, though at first sight a strongly cha-
racteristic diagnostic mark, may, as frequently happens, be owing
to local conditions. It is a very common thing, especially among
the LepralicB, that a boss-like projection of a similar kind should
be thrown out on the front of the cell or of the ovicell, and usually
upon both ; and it is not improbable that the umbo on the ovicell
in M . multiseriata may be of the same kind, a protective spine.


PL XXVI. figs. 1, 2.

Cells elongated, slightly narrowed below, six in each inter-
node ; mouth oval, simple ; a very large and long spine on the
upper and outer angle, below which is a sessile avicularium ; a
single spine on the inner edge of the aperture. Anterior avicu-
larium single, small.

Hob. Falkland Islands, Hooker-, Darwin. Port Desire, Patago-
nia, Darwin.

In PL XXV. this species is inadvertently named Cellularia. It
is a species very variable in the size and form of the cells, and
several figures therefore of its various forms have been given. In


PL XXIII. fig. 1, is shown the mode in which the polyzoary seems
to originate in a single cell, which is attached by a corneous tube
to some foreign base. And in PI. XXVI. fig. 2, is shown a cu-
rious cup-shaped appendage attached by means of a similar tube
to the bottom of a cell.


Cells rhomboidal, with a sinus on the outer and hinder
aspect ; each furnished with a sessile avicularium at the upper
and outer angle, and with a vibraculum placed in the sinus on
the outer and lower part behind. Aperture oval or subrotund,
spinous above, with or without a pedunculate operculum. Cells
biserial and numerous in each intemode.

Scrupocellaria, Van Beneden, Recherch. 43; Gray, List of Brit.

Rad.B.M. 111.
Bicellaria, sp. Blainv. 1830.
Cellularia, sp. Pallas ; Flem.
Cellaria, sp. Soland.; Lamk. 1816.
Scruparia, sp. Oken, Lehrb. Nat. 90, 1816.

This natural genus is characterized more particularly by the
presence upon each cell of a sessile avicularium, seated, or in fact
forming the upper and outer angle, and of a vibraculum placed
on the back of the cell. The cells in some species are provided
with a pedunculate operculum, by which it is intended to desig-
nate a process, which arising by a short tube from the anterior
wall of the cell, immediately beyond the inner margin of the
opening, projects forwards and bends over the front of the cell,
expanding into a variously-formed limb, and serving as pro-
tection to the mouth of the cell in front. The cavity of the tube
by which the process arises, becomes, in the expanded portion,
continuous with variously disposed grooves or channels which
terminate at the edges of the operculum. This organ affords
excellent specific characters (not in this genus alone). Besides the
sessile avicularia above noticed, many species of this genus also
possess avicularia of another kind, and which are placed on the
front of the cell below r the opening and towards the inner side, or
in other words, towards the middle line of the branch. In this
genus, in all those species in which the second avicularium occurs,
' each individual cell is provided with one. This additional avi-
cularium appears to be composed of a flexible material, and it is
very easily broken off, so that in many instances, perhaps
throughout an entire specimen, the organ itself may be wanting,
although its position is clearly evidenced by the existence of a
rounded opening in the usual situation of the organ. It is ne-
cessary to distinguish this form of flexible (if such it be) avicu-


larium from the truly articulated and moveable avicularia, in the
form of birds' heads, and which form does not occur in the genus

a. Operculatse. Aperture protected by a pedunculate operculum.


Operculum large, expanded, marked with channels branching
like the horns of a stag. The marginal spine next above the
peduncle of the operculum bifurcate.

Scrupocellaria cervicornis, Busk, Voy. of Rattlesn. i. 370.
Hab. Off Cumberland Island, 25 fathoms.

A small delicate parasitic species, very transparent. The very
peculiar markings on the operculum at once distinguish it. The

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