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Catalogue of marine Polyzoa in the collection of the British museum (Volume 2) online

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upper margin of the mouth is furnished with five elongated spines,
the innermost of which is forked at the extremity.

2. SCRUPOCELLARIA DIADEMA. PL XXVIII. figs. 1, 2, 3.

Operculum slightly expanded at the extremity, entire, or ob-
scurely bilobed. A sessile avicularium in front, below the aper-
ture. Ovicell with a single row of four or five openings imme-
diately above the lower border.

Scrupocellaria diadema, Busk, Voy. of Rattlesn. i. 370.
? Acamarchis Bertholletii, Savig. Egypt, pi. 11. fig. 3.
Hab. Moreton Bay, R.

3. SCRUPOCELLARIA BCRUPEA. PL XXI. figs, 1, 2.
Operculum reniform, entire ; four to five marginal spines above.

Scrupocellaria scrupea, Busk, Ann. Nat. Hist. 2nd series, vii. 83.

pi. 9. figs. 11, 12.
Hab. Britain (south?).

4. SCRUPOCELLARIA MACANDREI. PL XXIV. figs. 1, 2, 3.

Operculum expanded, irregularly reniform, entire. Margin of
aperture incrassate, granulose below with a minute spine above
and on the outer side, usually absent. Radical tubes toothed.

? Crisia Delilii, Savigny, Egypt, pi. 12. fig. 3.
Hab. Coast of Spain, M e Andrew.

IB. Inoperculatse. Without a pedunculate operculum.

5. SCRUPOCELLARIA CYCLOSTOMA. PL XXVIII. figs. 4, 5.
Aperture subcircular ; margin thickened, with three small spines



MARINE POLYZOA. 25

above. A large anterior sessile avicularium below the aperture.
Ovicell ?

Scrupocellaria cyclostoma, Busk, Voy. of Rattlesn. i. 370.
Hab. Bass' Strait, 45 fathoms.

6. SCRUPOCELLARIA PEROX. PL XXII. figs. 1, 2 & 5.

Aperture broad, oval, pointed below. Margin rounded, un-
armed. An anterior avicularium frequently as wide as the cell
below the aperture ; external avicularium very small. Ovicell
punctured all over.

Scrupocellaria ferox, Busk, Voy. of Rattlesn. i. 370.
Hab. Louisiade Archipelago. Bass' Strait.

Distinguished at a glance from the preceding species by the
enormous anterior avicularium, which is often nearly as capacious
as the cell itself, and would, in the living state, afford an excellent
opportunity of investigating the structure and nature of these
appendages. The radical tubes in this species, as in S. macandrei,
are curiously serrated.

7. SCRUPOCELLARIA SCRUPOSA. PL XXII. figs. 3, 4.

Cells subelongate, narrow. Aperture elliptical, with three or
four spines above. Ovicell smooth.

Creeping stony Coralline, Ellis, Corall. 38. no. 4. pi. 20. c, C.
Celliferous Coralline with angular edges to its cells, Ellis, Phil.

Trans, xlviii. pi. 13. no. 7 ; Phil. Trans, abridg. x. 493. fig. 7-

K,L.
Sertularia scruposa, Linn. Syst. 1315; Esper, Pflanz. Sert. t. 15.

figs. 1-3; Berk. Syn. i. 220.
Cellularia scruposa, Pall. Elench. 72 ; Flem. Brit. Anim. 539 ;

Couch, Zooph. Cornw. 57; Corn. Faun. iii. 126. pi. 23. fig. 2;

Reid, Ann. $ Mag. Nat. Hist. xv. 69. & xvi. 388; Johnst.

Hist. Brit. Zooph. ed. 2. 336. t. 58. figs. 5, 6.
Cellaria scruposa, Ellis and Soland. Zooph. 23 ; Bosc, Vers, iii.

132. pi. 29. fig. 7 ; Lamk. Anim. s. Vert. ii. 141, ed. 2. ii. 192 ;

Johnst. Trans. Newc. Soc. ii. 261. pi. 11. fig. 5.
Scruparia scruposa, Oken, Lehrb. Nat. 90.
Crisia scruposa, Lamour. Corall. 60; Templeton, lib. cit. ix. 469.
Bicellaria scruposa, Blainv. Act. 459.
Scrupocellaria scruposa, Van Beneden, Recherch. 43 & 50. pi. 5.

figs. 8-16 ; Busk, Ann. Nat. Hist. 2nd Ser. vii. pi. 9. figs. 8,

9, 10; Gray, List Brit. Rad. B. M. 111.
Hab. Britain. Seas of Europe.



26 MARINE POLYZOA.

4. CANDA.

Cells rhomboidal, sinuated on the outer side for the lodgment
of a vibraculum. No avicularium on the upper and outer angle.

Canda, Lamx. 1816, Pol. flex.; Blainv. 1830; Gray, List Brit.

Rad. E. M.

Cellaria, sp. Lamk. 1816.

Cellarina, Van Eened. Bull. Acad. Brux. 1849, 645.
Bicellaria, sp. Blainv. 1830.
Scrupocellaria, Gray, List Brit. Rad. B. M. 112.

This genus is at once distinguished from Scrupocellaria, to
which it is otherwise closely allied, by the absence of the sessile
avicularium on the upper and outer angle in front, and also by
the circumstance, that although there are flexible anterior avi-
cularia, they do not correspond in number with the cells, but
seem to be disposed in a special tract along the middle of the
branch or internode. The connexion of the branches by trans-
verse tubular fibres is not a character of either generic or specific
importance, though it is more striking in the only species hitherto
known as belonging to this genus than in any other. These
transverse tubular fibres are, like the radical fibres in Scrupo-
cellaria, always inserted, not into the body of a cell, but into a
vibraculum. They are evidently of the nature of a byssus.

1. CANDA ARACHNOIDES. PL XXXIII.

Cells biserial ; aperture oval, truncated above, and the upper
margin recedent, with a spine on each side, the outer the longer.
Surface of cell covered with transparent granulations. An irregular
number of sessile avicularia along the median line of each branch.
Branches connected by numerous tubular fibres.

Canda arachnoides, Lamx. Exp. Meth. 5. pi. 64. figs. 19-22;

Blainv. Man. d'Act. 457. pi. 79. fig. 2 (not Gray, Brit. Rad.

113); Busk, Voy. of Rattksn. i. 3?1.
Cellaria filifera, Lamk. An. s. V. 2nd ed. ii. 177-
? Acamarchis Jolloisii, Savig. pi. 11. fig, 2.
Hob. Bass' Strait, 45 fathoms.

2. CANDA REPTANS. PL XXL figs. 3, 4.

Cells constricted below. Aperture oval, with three or four
marginal spines and a pedunculate operculum with a lobate
lamina.

Creeping Coralline, Ellis, CoralL 37. pi. 20. no. 3. fig. b, B.
Sertularia reptans, Linn. Syst. 1315; Fabr. Faun. Groenl 445.
Sertularia repens, Berk. Syn. i. 220.
Cellularia reptans, Pall. Elench. 73 ; Flem. Brit. Amm. ; Johnst.



MARINE POLYZOA. 27

Brit. Zooph. 291 . pi. 38. figs. 3, 4 ; Couch, Zooph. Cornw. 57 ;

Corn. Faun. iii. 127. pi. 23. fig. 3; Reid, Ann. $ Mag. Nat.

Hist. xvi. 385; Johnst. Hist. Brit. Zooph. ed. 2. p. 337. t. 58.

figs. 3, 4.
Cellaria reptans, Ellis and Soland. Zooph. 23; Lamk. Anim. s.

Vert. ed. 2. ii. 191 ; Johnst. Trans. Newc. Soc. ii. 262.
Scruparia reptans, Oken, Lehrb. Nat. 90.
Crisia reptans, Lamour. Corall. 60 ; Templeton, Mag. Nat. Hist.

ix. 469.

Bicellaria reptans, Blainv. Man. (TAct. 459; Cuv. R. A. III. t.
Acamarchis Geoffroyi, Audouin, Expl. i. 241 ; Savigny, Egypt.

pi. 11. fig. 4.

Scrupocellaria reptans, Gray, Brit. Rad. 112.
Hab. Britain (ubique).

5. EMMA.

Cells in pairs or triplets. Opening more or less oblique, sub-
triangular,partially filled up by a granulated calcareous expansion.
A sessile avicularium (sometimes absent) on the outer side below
tbe level of the opening.

Emma, Gray, Dieffenb. N. Zealand, ii. 293; Busk, Voy. Rat-
tlesn. 1. 3/3.

This genus appears to be a natural one, though apparently
allied to Tricellaria (Fleming). The more important points of
distinction consist in the conformation of the opening of the cell,
and in the position of the avicularium when the latter organ is
present. The lower half of what would otherwise be the oral
opening of the cell is filled up by a thin plate of calcareous matter,
granulated on the surface, and by which the actual opening is
rendered more or less subtriangular, the mouth being placed just
below the apex of the triangle. The margin of the opening is
considerably raised, especially at the oral end, so that the opening
appears to be situated in a deep depression. This character of
opening, however, occurs also in a triserial species of Cellularia
from Algoa Bay. The position of the avicularium, entirely
below the level of the opening on the outer side of the cell, is the
peculiar characteristic of Emma as distinguished from Menipea,
in which that organ when present is placed in the upper and
outer angle, as in Cellularia proper and Scrupocellaria. It is
worthy of notice, that avicularia may be present in every cell in
some specimens, and most usually, whilst in others of equal size
there will be none at all apparent. So that the position of
these organs in this genus, as well as in others, is of more im-
portance systematically than even their existence.

c2



28 MARINE POLYZOA.

1. EMMA CRYSTALLINA. PI. XL.

Cells in pairs ; one, two or three spines on the outer edge, the
central usually the longest and strongest.

Emma crystallina, Gray, Dieffenb. New Zealand, ii. 293 ; Busk,

Voy. of Rattlesn. i. 373.
Hab. Bass' Strait, 45 fathoms. New Zealand, Hooker.

Parasitic upon Polyzoa, &c., circinate, branched; branches
irregular, divaricate. The opening of the cell triangular, very
obliquely placed.

2. EMMA TRICELLATA. PL XLI.

Cells in triplets ; three or four long spines on the upper and
outer part ; a small spine on the inner and lower part of the
margin of the aperture.

Emma tricellata, Busk, Voy. of Rattlesn. I 373.
Hab. Bass' Strait. New Zealand, Hooker.

Parasitic upon Catenicella, &c. Habit long, straggling, very
like the preceding species. The cells are more infundibuliforin,
and the avicularium, which, as in E. crystallina, is not always
present, is larger, but occupies the same position on the cell.

2. INARTICULATA seu CONTINUA. Polyzoary continuous
throughout.

1. UNISERIALARIA. Cells disposed in a single series.

Fam. 4. SCRUPARIAD^E.

Cells uniserial. Junctions rigid or of the same consistence
as the cells. Polyzoary usually loosely adnate.

Crisiadje (part.), Gray. Syn. Brit. Mus. 1842, 135.
Scupariadse, Gray, List of Brit. Rad. B. M. 132, 149.
Eucratiada3, Johnst. B. Z. ed. 2. 288.

Synopsis of Genera.

1. Scruparia.

2. Hippothoa.

3. ^Etea.

4. Beania.

1. SCRUPARIA.

Cells decumbent ; aperture oblique, subterminal: Branches
given off from the front of a cell below the aperture.

Scruparia a, Oken, Lehrb. Nat. 90, 1815.



MARINE POLYZOA. 29

Eucratea, Johnst. Brit. Zooph. ed. 2. 289.
Eucratea, sp. Lamx. Bull. Soc. Phil. iii. (1812) ; Flem. 1828.
Unicellaria, sp. Blainv. Diet. Sci. Nat. Ix. (1830).
Scuparia, Gray, Brit. Rad. 132.

1. SCRUPARIA CHELATA. PL XVII. fig. 2.

Cell in the form of a horn. Aperture oblique. Frequently
an aborted or rudimentary cell below the aperture in front.

BullVhorn Coralline, Ellis, Corall. 42. no. 9. pi. 22. fig. b, B.

Sertularia chelata, Linn. Syst. ed. 10. 81G.

Cellularia chelata, Pall. Elench. 77-

Sertularia loricata, Linn. Syst. 1316; Berk. Syn. i. 220; Esper,

Pflanz. Serf. t. 29. figs. 1,2; Turt. Gmel. iv. 686 ; Turt. Brit.

Faun. 217 ; Stew. Elem. ii. 449.
Cellaria chelata, Ellis and Soland. Zooph. 25 ; Bosc, Vers, iii.

134; Lamk. Anim. s. Vert. ii. 140, ed. 2. ii. 189.
Eucratea chelata, Lamx. Bull. Soc. Phil. 1812, iii. 184 ; Corall.

64. pi. 3. fig. 5 ; Expos. Method. 8. pi. 65. fig. 10 ; Johnst. Hist.

Brit. Zooph. ed. 2. 289.

Scruparia chelata, Oken, Lehrb. Nat. 90 ; Gray, List Brit. Rad.
Eucratea loricata, Flem. Brit. Anim. 541.

Eucratee cornee, M.-Edw. Ann. d. Sc. Nat. n.s. ix. 204. pi. 8. f. 1 .
Unicellaria chelata, Blainv. Act. 461. pi. 77' fig. 2.
Crisia chelata, Johnst. Brit. Zooph. 261 ; Reid, Ann. fy Mag. Nat.

Hist. xvi. 3.92; Couch, Corn. Faun. iii. i>8. pi. 18. fig. 1.
Hab. Europe; Australia.

2. HlPPOTHOA.

Cells decumbent, adherent ; branches given off from the sides
of the cells.

Hippothoa, Lamx. Exp. Meth. 82, 1821 ; Gray, Zool. Misc. 34 ;

List, of Brit. Rad. 115, 147; Johnst. Brit. Zooph. ed. 2. 291

(not Syn.}.
Catenicella (part.), Blainv. 1830 (agrees with character), not

M. -Edwards.

" Terebripora, D'Orbigny."
Tubulipora, sp. Jameson.

1. HIPPOTHOA CATENULARIA. PI. XVIII. figs. 1, 2.

Cells contiguous, ovate, thick; aperture oblique, oval ; branches
irregular.

Tubipora catenularia, Jameson, Wern. Mem. i. 561 .
Tubipora catenulata, Stew. Elem. ii. 425.

Hippothoa catenularia, Flem. Brit. Anim. 534 ; Hassa 77 ,A.in.fy
Mag. Nat. Hist. vi. 170; Couch, Zooph. Cornw. 43; Corn.



30 MARINE POLYZOA.

Faun. iii. 101. pi. 18. fig. 5; Johnst. Hist. Brit. Zooph. ed. 2.

p. 2.91. t. 50. figs. 9, 10; Gray, Brit. Rad. 116.
Hippothoa Elliotse, Gray, Zool. Misc. 34.
Hab. Seas of Europe (ubique).

2. HIPPOTHOA DIVARICATA. PI. XVIII. figs. 3, 4.

Cells remote, ovate lanceolate or fusiform; subcarinate in
front ; aperture small, with a notch in the lower margin. Ovi-
cells small, superior, galeriform; branches given off at right
angles, and usually in opposite pairs.

Hippothoa divaricata, Lamx. Expos. MM. 82. t. 80. figs. 15, 16 ;

Johnst. Hist. Brit. Zooph. ed. 2. 292. t. 51. figs. 3, 4; Audouin,

Expl.i. 239; Savign. Egypt, pi. 12. f. 2 (with ovicells).
Catenicella divaricata, Blainv. D. S. N. 1830, Ix. 427 ; Man. Act.
Hippothoa lanceolata. Gray, Zool. Misc. 35; Hassall, Ann. 4"

Mag. Nat. Hist. vii. 366. pi. 8. figs. 5, 6; Couch, Zooph.

Cornw. 43 ; W. Thompson, Ann. Nat. Hist. v. 252 ; Couch,

Corn. Faun. iii. 102. pi. 18. fig. 6.
Hab. Britain. Seas of Europe.

3. HIPPOTHOA PATAGONICA. PL XVII. fig. 1.

Cells oval, irregularly attenuated downwards, irregularly an-
nulate, thick ; opening small, with a notch on the lower lip,

Hab. Coasts of Patagonia, Falkland Islands, Darwin.

The difference between this and the preceding one is hardly
greater than what occurs in many of the Polyzoa under different
circumstances of age and situation ; but upon comparison of the
oldest cells and the most thickened I have been able to meet with
in Hipp, divaricata, I am satisfied that the distinction between that
species and the present is a good one.

3. ^TEA.

Cells tubular, erect, scattered, rising from a creeping fistular
fibre adnate to a foreign base. Aperture terminal or subterminal.

^tea, Lamx. Bull Soc. Phil 1812, char. ; Gray, Brit. Rad.

133.

Anguinaria, Lamk. 1812 (no char.); Johnst. Br. Zooph. ed. 2. 292.
Falcaria ft Oken, Lehrb. Nat. 91, 1815.

The name Anguinaria appears on the plates devoted to the spe-
cies of this genus, but subsequent consideration having shown the
justice of recurring to Lamouroux's appellation, his term has been
adopted in the text.



MARINE POLYZOA. 31

1. JETEA ANGUINA. PI. XV. fig. 1.

Cells spatulate at the end; curved, ringed.

Snake Coralline, Ellis, Corall. 43. no. 11. pi. 22. fig. c, C, D.
Sertularia Anguina, Linn. Syst. ed. 10. 816 ; Linn. Syst. 1317 ;

Turt. Gmel. iv. 686 ; Berk. Syn. i. 220 ; Turt. Brit. Faun. 21 7 ;

Stew. Elem. ii. 449; Esper, Pflanz. Sert. t. 16. figs. 1, 2;

Oliv. Zool. Adriat. 291.
Cellularia Anguina, Pall. Elench. 78 ; Ellis, Phil. Trans. Ivii. 437.

pi. 19. fig. 10; Hogg's Stock. 35.

Cellaria Anguina, Ellis and Soland.Zooph. 26 ; Bosc, Vers, iii. 135.
iEtea Anguina, Lamx. Bull. Soc. Phil. 1812, iii. 184 ; Corall. 65.

pi. 3. fig. 6 ; Exp. Meth. 9. t. 65. fig. 15 ; Gray, Brit. Had. 133.
Falearia Anguina, Oken, Lehrb. Nat. 91.
Sertularia mollis, D. Chiaje, Anim. s. Vert. Nap. iv. 147.
Anguinaria Anguina, Flem. Brit. Anim. 542 ; Lister, Phil. Trans.

1834, 385. pi. 12. fig. 4; Blainv. Act. 467. pi. 79. fig. 3.
Anguinaria spatulata, Lamk. Anim. s. Vert. ii. 143, ed. 2. ii. 196 ;

Stark. Elem. ii. 439; Thompson, Ann. Nat. Hist. v. 252;

Couch, Zooph. Cornw. 44 ; Corn. Faun. iii. 103. pi. 19. fig. 2 ;

Johnst. Hist. Brit. Zooph. ed. 2. 290. t. 50. figs. 7, 8 ; Busk,

Trans. Microsc. Soc. 1848, 15.
Hob. Britain, Seas of Europe, Atlantic Ocean, Antarctic Ocean,

Tasmania, &c.



DILATATA. PL XV. figs. 2, 3.

Cells cyathiform at the apex ; curved, ringed. Aperture largely
dilated, suborbicular.

Anguinaria dilatata, Busk, Ann. Nat. Hist. 2nd ser. vii. 85. pi. 9.

fig. 14.
Hab. Torres' Strait. Port Philip.

3. /ETEA LIGULATA. PI. XLII.

Cells very long, truncate at the extremity, straight ; mouth ter-
minal ; surface not ringed ; cell constricted immediately below the
aperture.

Hab. Coast of Patagonia ; Straits of Magellan ; Darwin.



4. ^ETEA TRUNCATA.

" Cells short, straight, narrowed at their origin, extremity
truncate, mouth terminal, surface punctate, not ringed."

/Etea truncata, Landsborough.
Hab. Coast of Arran ; on Laminaria.

It is nearly allied to ;E. ligulata, but quite distinct.



32 MARINE POLYZOA.

4. BEANIA.

Polyzoary confervoid, subcorneous or calcareous. Cells arising
one from another by a slender filiform tube given off from the
lower part of the cell, which is open in front, the edges of the
opening furnished with hollow spinous processes arching over
the opening. Mouth terminal, with a denticle on each side.

Beania, Johnst.Brit. Zooph. ed. 2. p. 3/1 ; Gray, Brit. Rad. 96.
Though ranged among the Vesiculariadae by Dr. Johnston,
this "remarkable" genus, as he justly terms it, is clearly to be
referred to the Cheilostomatous suborder. It is nearly allied on
the one hand to ^Etea, and on the other, through Diachoris, to
the Flustradse. As in Diachoris, the aperture occupies nearly
the entire front of the erect cell. It differs however from that
genus in the uniserial arrangement of the cells, and the marginal
spines which defend the sides and front of the aperture.

1. BEANIA MIRABILIS. PI. XXIV. figs. 4, 5.
Costse seven to ten on each side.

Beania mirabilis, Johnst. Ann. Nat. Hist. v. 272; Hist. Brit.

Zooph. ed. 2. p. 372. f. 69, 70.
Hab. Britain, on shells.

2. BEANIA AUSTRALIS. PI. XVI. figs. 1, 2, 3.
Costce eighteen to twenty on each side.

Hab. Coast of Patagonia; Cape Horn, Darwin, on shells and
fucus.

This species sometimes appears to form a connected frond, but
the cells are not so regularly interconnected as in Diachoris, and
are most usually truly uniserial.

2. BI-MULTISERIALARIA. Cells disposed in a double or
multiple series.

Fam. 5. FARCIMINARIAD^E.

Cells disposed round an imaginary axis, alternate, forming
cylindrical branches of an erect, dichotomously divided, conti-
nuous polyzoary.

Farciminariadae, Busk, MSS.

1. FARCIMINARIA.

Corneous, flexible ; margin of cell much raised ; aperture occu-
pying the whole front of the cell. Ovicell cucullate.

Farciminaria, Busk, MSS.



MARINE POLYZOA. 33

Sec observations under the genus Salicornaria, p. 16. A
second and very curious species of this genus, from South Africa,
has occurred since this Catalogue was drawn up, which will be
afterwards described.

1. FARCIMINARIA ACULEATA, n. s. PL LXIV. figs. 4, 5;
PL LXV. (bis) fig. 6.

Sides of cells within the margin beset with furcate spines.
Ovicell cueullate, external ; surface aculeate.

Hob. Tasmania, Hooker; New Zealand, LyalL

Fain. 6. GEMELLARIADVE.
Cells opposite in pairs.
Gemellariadae, Busk, Voy. of Rattlesn. i. 383.

Synopsis of Genera.

1. Gemellaria.

2. Didymia.

3. Dimetopia.

4. Notamia.

a. Each pair arising from the pair next below it. Each pair at
a bifurcation giving origin to two pairs ; no avicularia.

In some respects approaching the Bicellariada?, this family
would yet appear to constitute a very natural group, distinguished
from the Bicellariadse, not only by general habit and the peculiar
position of the cells in pairs, but also by the absence in all cases
of pedunculate and articulated avicularia. Where, in this family,
these organs are present, as in Notamia, they are of a very pecu-
liar character and in a very peculiar relation to the rest of the
polyzoary. It might moreover be remarked, that the association
of the genus Notamia\\itli the others included in the same family,
is somewhat forced and artificial. The very curious structure of
the polyzoary in this genus would almost justify its being regarded
as the type of a distinct family, in which case the total absence
of avicularia w r ould afford an additional diagnostic character of
the Gemellariadae.

With reference to Emma crystallina, in which the cells are for
the most part in pairs and apparently opposite, it must be ob-
served, that at each bifurcation a third and alternate cell is inter-
posed between the two, and that in Emma tricellata there are
three alternate cells in each internode. When it is noticed also
that in Menipea, for the most part, the normal number of cells in
each internode is three or six, but that the latter number is not

c 5



34 MARINE POLYZOA.

unfrequently reduced to five by the complete or partial abortion
of one of the cells, it does not appear improbable that in Emma
crystallina the apparent gemination of the cells is in fact due
to the abortion of a third alternate cell in all the internodes ex-
cept the one at which the bifurcation takes place.

1. GEMELLARIA.

Cells joined back to back ; all the pairs facing the same way.
Aperture oval, slightly oblique ; at a bifurcation each cell of the
primary pair giving off one of the secondary pair.

Gemellaria, Savigny, 1805 ? ; Van Beneden ; Johnst. Brit. Zooph.

293; Gray, List Brit. Rad. B. M. 133.
Gemicellaria, Blainv. 1830.
Loricaria, Lamx. Expos. 7 (1821), not Lacep.
Notamia, Flem. Brit. Anim. 1828.
Loricula, Cuvier, 1836.
Crisia, sp. Lamx. 1816 ; Lamk. 1816.
Scruparia ft Oken, Lehrb. Nat. 90, 1815.

1. GEMELLARIA LORICATA. PL XLV. figs. 5, 6.
The only species.

Muscus coralloides mollis elatior ramosissimus,, Doody, Raii Syn.

i. 34. no. 6.

Coat-of-mail Coralline, Ellis, Corall 40. no. 7. pi. 21. f. I, B.
Sertularia loricata, Linn. Syst. ed. 10. 815.
Cellularia loriculata, Pall. Elench. 64 ; Hogg's Stock. 35.
Sertularia loriculata, Linn. Syst. 1314; Turt. Gmel. iv. 684;

Berk. Syn. 1. 219; Esper, Pflanz. Sert. t. 24. f. 1-3; Turt.

Brit. Faun. 216; Jameson, Wern. Mem. i. 564; Stew. Elem.

ii. 447.
Cellaria loriculata, Ellis and Soland. Zooph. 24 ; Bosc, Vers,

iii. 133; Lamk. Anim. s. Vert. ii. 136, ed. 2. ii. 179; Johnst.

Trans. Newc. Soc. ii. 262.
Scruparia loricata, Oken, Lehrb. Nat. 90.
Crisia loriculata, Lamx. Corall. Flex. 140.
Loricaria europsea, Lamx. Expos. Method. 7-
Notamia loriculata, Flem. Brit. Anim. 541 ; Farre, Phil. Trans.

1837, 413. pi. 27. f. 6^9 ; Hassall, Ann. $ Mag. Nat. Hist.

vi. 170; Couch, Zooph. Cornw. 42; Corn. Faun. iii. 101.

pi. 18. f. 4.
Loricula loricata, Cuvier, Reg. Anim. ed. 2. iii. 303 ; Templeton,

Mag. Nat. Hist. ix. 469.
Gemicellaria loriculata, Blainv. Diet. Sci. Nat. Ix. 425 ; Actinol.

461.pl. 78. f. 4.



MARINE POLYZOA. 35

Gemellaria loriculata, Savig. Egypt. Polyp. ; Van Beneden, Re-
cherch. 33. pi. 5. f. 1 ; Johnst. Hist. Brit. Zooph. ed. 2. 293.
t. 47. f. 12, 13, 477; Gray, List Brit. Rad. 134.

Hab. European Seas.

2. DIDYMIA.

Cells joined side to side. Aperture large, oval, wholly ante-
rior. Cells all facing the same way. At a bifurcation each cell
of the primary pair giving off a secondary pair at the summit.

Didymia, Busk, Voy. of Rattlesn. i. 3S3.

1. DIDYMIA SIMPLEX. PL XXXIX.
The only species.

Didymia simplex, Busk, op. cit. 383, t. 1. f. 6.
Hob. Bass' Strait, 45 fathoms.

A fine species, growing in loosely branched tufts to a height of
several inches. In some (dried) specimens the branches are
slightly incurved, but not in all. The situation of the ovicell is
peculiar. It is contained within the upper part of a cell placed
between, or rather in front of the pair from which the two
branches at a bifurcation take their origin. The ovicelligerous
cell differs widely in form from the others, being pyriform and
much attenuated below; and the orifice is below the middle.
The upper compartment, in which the ovicell itself is lodged,
appears to be separated from the lower by a transverse diaphragm.

3. DIMETOPIA.

Cells joined back to back. Aperture oblique ; each pair look-
ing in a direction at right angles with that of the next. At a bi-
furcation the pair being disjoined, each of the disjoined cells
gives off a secondary pair.

Dimetopia, Busk, Voy. of Rattlesn. i. 384.

1. DIMETOPIA SPICATA. PI. XXIX. fig. 1.

Cells infundibuliform. Margin thickened, with numerous
equidistant, elongated, acute spines.

Dimetopia spicata, Busk, op. cit. 384. 1. 1. f. 9.

Hab. Bass' Strait, 45 fathoms ; New Zealand, Lyall, fyc.

White and transparent, forming thick tufts about 1| to 3 inches
or more in height.

2. DIMETOPIA CORNUTA. PL XXIX. figs. 2, 3.

Cells contracted below the middle. Aperture oblique, wide



36 MARINE POLYZOA.

above ; a strong conical process on each side above ; one or two
long projecting spines in front, inserted below the margin.

Dimetopia cornuta, Busk, op. cit. p. 384. t. 1. f. 7j 8.
Hab. Bass' Strait, 45 fathoms.

Branches narrower than in the former species. Colour yel-
lowish. Tufts loose; ovicell small in proportion to the size of
the cells. It is placed immediately above and behind the upper
margin of the aperture.

/3. Each pair arising from the pair next but one below it,, by
tubular prolongations. A new series of cells intercalated
into each branch at the bifurcation ; avicularia.

4. NOTAMIA.

A pair of tobacco-pipe shaped avicularia visible above each
pair of cells, each arising from the inferior tubular prolongation


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