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Catalogue of the specimens of Mammalia in the collection of the British Museum (Volume 3) online

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Buselaphus Cagii, Raii Quad. 81.
Boselaphus Bubalis, Gray, Ann. fy Mag. N. H. 1846, 233;

Knowsley Menag. 20. t. 20. f. 1 ; Proc. Zool. Soc. 1849, 139.
Acronotus Bubalis, Gray, List Mamm. B. M. 157 ; Cat. Osteol.

B. M. 58.

Vache de Barbaric, Perrault, Mem. Hist. Anim. i. 203, ii. 24. t. 39.
Bekker el Wash, Yachmur bilicus, Shaw, Reise, 151, 358.
Bubale, Buffon, H. N. xii. 294. t. 3?. t. 38. f. 1; Supp. vi. 133.

t. 14 ; Cuvier, Menag. Mus. t.
Bubale des Anciens, Cuvier, Reg. Anim. i. 161.
Cervine Antelope, Penn. Syn. 37 ; Quad. i. 102 ; Shaw, Zool. ii.

331. t. 184.
Hab. North Africa.

Young. N. Africa. From Mr. Fraser's Collection.

OSTEOLOGY.

Bubale, Daub, in Buffon H. N. xii. t. 37, t. 38. f. 1, 2.

Skull and horns, one deformed. North Africa ?

Frontal bone and horns. North Africa?

Var. 1.? Tunisianus. Uniform pale brown; with a dark brown
streak down the outer side of the front of the fore-legs, like

F2



124 MAMMALIA.

the streak on the leg of the Lecama or Harte beest from South
Africa, which is not generally found in this species.

Boselaphus Bubalis var. 1, Gray, Knowsley Menag. ; Proc. Zoo/.

Soc. 1849, 139.
Hab. Tunis.

A skin, without a head or hoofs, brought by Mr. Fraser from
Tunis ; it probably indicates a third species, or perhaps the dark
streak is only marked in the very adult or fully-coloured specimens.

2. ALCELAPHUS CAAMA. The LECAMA or HARTE BEEST.

Grey brown. Dorsal line, streak on face, outer side of limbs,
black. Large triangular spot on the haunches whitish.

Antilope Caama, Cuvier, Diet. Sci. Nat. ii. 242, 1816.

A. (Alcelaphus) Caama, Blainv. B. S. Phil. 1816, 75; Desm.

Mam. 467; Fischer, Syn. 474, 841; Burchell, Trav. i. 420.
Antilope (Bubalides) Bubalis (part.), Licht. Berl. Mag. vi. 163;

Schreb. t. 277-
Acronotus Caama, Gray, List Mamm. B. M. 157 ; Cat. Osteol.

B. M. 58.
Boselaphus Caama, Gray, Ann. fy Mag. N. H. 1847, 233;

Knowsley Menag. 20. t. 20. f. 2, young; P. Z. Soc. 1849, 140.
Antilope Dorcas, Thunb. Mem. Acad. Petersb. iii. 316.
Damalis acronotus Caama, H. Smith, G.A.K. iv.338.t.l97,v.877*
Bubale, Buffon, H. N. xii. t. 38. f. 2 ; Suppl. vi. 135. t. 15.
Harte beesten eller Dorcas, Sparrm. in K. V. Handl. 1779, 151.

t. 5, bad.
Caama, Cuvier, Menag. Mus. t. ; Reg. Anim. i. 261 ; Pallas, Misc.

7; Spicil. i. 12 (not syn.).

Antilope Senegalensis, Cuvier, Diet. Sci. Nat., from Pennant.
Antilope Koba, Erxleb. Syn. 293, from Pennant.
? Senegal Antelope, Penn. Quad. i. 103. t. 50. vig. 40, head.
Harte beest, Dutch at Cape.
Kaama, Hottentots.
Licama, Coffers.
Hab. South Africa.

(Not in good state.) S. Africa. Part of Sir Hans Sloane's
Museum.

Male. S. Africa. From the South African Museum.
Adult male. S. Africa. Presented by the Earl of Derby.
Male, young. S. Africa.

OSTEOLOGY.

Frontal bone and horns. South Africa.

Frontal bone and horns, wide apart, very rough. South Africa.

Horns, with the head stuffed. South Africa.



MAMMALIA. 125

Frontal bone, with the skin on. South Africa.

Horns. South Africa.

Two pair of horns. S. Africa. Mr. Warwick's Collection.

Skull, without lower jaw. S. Africa.

Nine pair of horns. S. Africa. From Mr. Argent's Collection.

ICON.

Antilope Bubalis, Hardw. Icon. ined. B. M. n. 10,975. 1. 164, 165.

Pennant figures the head and horns of this species under the
name of Senegal Antelope, and erroneously refers to Buffon's
figures of the horns of the Koba as representing the species, which
has occasioned some confusion; for the A. Senegalensis (Cuvier,
Diet. Sci. Nat. ii. 235) is an abbreviation, and A. Koba (Erxle-
ben, Syn. 293) is a translation, of Pennant's description of this
species. Pennant's specimen is said to come from Senegal, but
he describes the nuchal line and the knees as black, and the
figure indicates the dark colour on the face of the Cape species.

The Hartebeest has an extensive range ; it is found everywhere
in the flat and w r ooded districts between the Cape of Good Hope
and the Tropic of Capricorn. Its movements are ungraceful, and
give a notion of great exertion, but when urged by danger it
shows no want of either agility or endurance. The flesh is
esteemed. A. Smith.

32. DAMALIS, H. Smith.

Horns lyrate, diverging, subcylindrical. Nose moderately
broad, cervine, with a small bald moist muifle between and be-
low the nostrils ; an exposed tear-bag. Female : two teats.

Damalis acronotus, sp. (Koba), H. Smith, Griffith A. K.v. 182.
Damalis, Gray, Ann. fy Mag. N. H. 1846, 233; Knowsley Menag. \

Proc. Zool. Soc. 1849, 140.

Alcelaphus, sp., Fischer, Syn. ; Turner, P. Z. S. 1850.
Bubalis, sp., Sundevall, Pecora, 83.
Gazella, sp. (pygarga), Blainv. B. S. Phil. 1816; H. Smith, G.

A. K. v. ; Fischer, Syn. 642.

* Horns recurved above, diverging from the base. Face dark in
front.

1. DAMALIS LUNATUS. The SASSAYBY.
Rufous, glaucous. Outer side of limbs dark.

Antilope lunata, Burchell, Trav. ii. 334, 591. fig.

Damalis acronotus lunatus, H. Smith, G. A. K. iv. 352. t. 198,

v. 880.
A. Alcelaphus lunata, Fischer, Syn. 642.



126 MAMMALIA.

Acronotus lunatus, Gray, List Mamm. B. M. 157.

Alcelaphus lunatus, Turner, P. Z. S. 1848.

Damalis lunatus, A. Smith, Zool. S. Africa, t. 31; Harris, W.

A. Africa, t. 8, and head; Gray, Cat. Osteol. B. M. 57; Ann.

Sf Mag. N. H. 1846, 233; Knowsley Menag. 21; Proc. Zool.

Soc. 1849, 140.

Bubalis lunata, Sundevall, Pecora, 83.
Sassaybi, Daniel, Afric. Scenery, t.
Hab. S. Africa.

Female. S. Africa. From the South African Museum.
Male. S. Africa.

OSTEOLOGY. Burchell, Trav. ii. 591. fig.

Horns and skin of legs. South Africa. Presented by W. Bur-
chell, Esq., LL.D.

Horns. S. Africa. From Mr. Warwick's Collection.

Two pair of horns. S. Africa. From Mr. Argent's Collection.

The Bastard Hartebeest inhabits between Latikoo and the
Tropic of Capricorn. It lives in herds of six or ten in the flat or
wooded districts. Its flesh is esteemed. Where not disturbed it
is confiding and curious, but where hunted it becomes vigilant
and shy. A. Smith.

** Horns regularly lyrate, nearly parallel at the base, and then
diverging and approaching at the tips. Face black marked.
Crumen moderate.

2. DAMALIS SENEGALENSIS. The KORRIGUM.

Reddish grey. Front of face from nose to occiput, a small
spot behind the eyes, a small streak above the angle of the
mouth, and streak on outside of the limbs above the knees, and
tuft of the tail, black. Very young : uniform pale brown, with-
out any dark marks.

Damalis (Acronotus) Senegalensis, H. Smith, Griffith A. K.\.

t. 199. f. 3.
Antilope Koba, Children in Denham fy Clapperton 9 s Travels (not

Erxleben).

Bubalis Koba, Sundevall, Pecora, 83.
Bubalis lunata, Sundevall, Act. Stockh. 1842, 201, 243 (not

Burchell).
Damalis Senegalensis, Gray, Cat. Osteol. B. M. 59 ; Ann. fy Mag.

N. H. 1846, 233; Knowsley Menag. 21. t. 21.
Damalis Korrigum, Gray, List Mamm. B. M. 158.
Antilope Corrigum, Ogilby, P. Z. Soc. 1836, 103; Gray, List

Mamm. B. M. 158.



MAMMALIA. 127

A. Gazella Korrigum, Lesson, Nov. Tab. R. A. 176.
Alcelaphus Senegalensis, Turner, P. Z. S. 1848.
Hob. West Africa; Gambia River, Macarthy's Island, Mr.
Whitfield, called Tonga ; Senegal ; Senaar. Mus. Stockholm.

Young. Gambia. Presented by the Earl of Derby.

OSTEOLOGY.

Skull and horns. Bornou. Presented by Capt. Clapperton,
R.N., and Major Denham. (The specimen figured by Col. H.
Smith, and noticed by Mr. Children.)

Skull and horns. Bornou. Presented by Capt. Clapperton,
R.N., and Major Denham.

Skull. Gambia. Presented by the Earl of Derby.

Mr. Whitfield informs me this species is found on Macarthy's
Island, on the Gambia; they afford very good venison; are
called Yonga or Yongah by the loliffs, and Tan Hong by the
Mandingoes.

In Denham <^r Clapperton's Travels I regarded this species as
the Koba of Buff on, and Colonel H. Smith and Dr. Sundevall
are of the same opinion : but on comparing the six pairs of horns
of this species which I have been able to examine with Buffon' s
figure and descriptions, I find them all longer and much thicker
at the base than Buffon describes them ; the thinner specimen (a
female?) being 7 and the others 9 or !) inches in circumference,
while that Buffon described is only 5 inches. The rings are also
more elevated, and reach nearer to the top than in Buffon' s
figure. All the characters lead me to believe that the horns figured
as those of the Koba by Buffon belong to Damalis Pygarga.

Colonel Hamilton Smith, in Griffith's Animal Kingdom, de-
scribed and figured the heads brought home by Messrs. Denham
and Clapperton as Antilope Senegalensis, but they are different
from the one so called by Cuvier. Mr. Ogilby, in the Proceed-
ings of the Zoological Society (1826, 103), proposed to call these
heads A. Corrigum.

Under the name of Antilope Koba, Schinz (Syn. Mam. ii. 407)
combines the A. defassa, Riippell, Damalis Senegalensis and
Antilope adenota, H. Smith, the Koba of Buffon, and the Anti-
lope Koba or Caama of Erxleben.

*** Horns regularly lyrate, parallel at the base. Face of the
adult white.

3. DAMALIS PYGARGA. The NUNNI or BONTE HOC.

Purple red. Outer, side of the limbs darker. Streak between
horns, face, and rump above the tail, white. Temple and upper



128 MAMMALIA.

part of throat whitish. Legs whitish, upper and lower part brown
varied. Female : throat and under part of body white. Fawn
pale yellowish brown.

Antilope Pygarga, Pallas, Spic. xii. 15 (not syn.); Sparrm. Act.

Holm. 1780, 3.
A. (vera) Pygarga, Licht. Berl. Mag. vi. 166; Gmelin, S. N. i.

189; Schreb. Saugth. 1187. t. 273; Desm. Mam. 456; Bur-

chell, Trav. i. 290, ii. 335.
A. Gazella Pygarga, Blainv. E. S. Phil. 1816, 75; H. Smith, G.

A. K. v. 820; Fischer, Syn. 461, 629.
Alcelaphus Pygargus, Turner, P. Z. S. 1848.
Antilope pygargus, Pallas, Spic. i. 10.
Gazella Pygarga, Gray, List Mamm. B. M. 161.
Bubalis pygarga, Sundevall, Pecora.
Antilope Dorcas, Pallas, Misc. 6 not Spicil. i. 11.
Damalis Pygarga, Gray, Ann. $ Mag. N. H. 1846, 233;

Knowsley Menag. t. ; Proc. Zool. Soc. 1849, 140.
White-faced Antelope, Penn. Quad. i. 93 ; Shaw, Zool. ii. 352.
Bonte bok or Pied Antelope, Harris, W. A. Africa, t. 17.
Antilope personata (Bonte bok), H. Woods, Zool. Journ. iv. 524,

v. 2. t. 1, young, not arrived at its colour; P. Z. S. iii. 45.
Nunni, Bushmen.
Hab. S. Africa.

Horns, long and slender. Mr. Warwick's Collection.

OSTEOLOGY.

Koba, Daub, in Buffon H. N. xii. 268. t. 32. f. 2.

Skull. Cape of Good Hope. Presented by William Burchell,
Esq., LLD. "

Horns. South Africa.

Two pair of horns. S. Africa. From Mr. Warwick's Collection.

Horns, ten pair. S. Africa.

Male.

Male and female. S. Africa. From Dr. Smut's Collection.

Young, pale brown. S. Africa.

Very young. S. Africa. From M. Verreaux's Collection.

Male, adult. S. Africa.

These animals are often brought to the Cape market for food.

The names Kob and Koba appear to be generic among the
negroes for Antelopes. Colonel Smith, Professor Sundevall, and
Mr. Children in Clapperton's Travels, have considered the horns
figured by Buffon under the name of Koba the same as Damalis
Senegalensis of this work. The comparison of six pairs of horns
of that animal with Buffon's figure and description has Jed me
to doubt the identification. I believe they are the horns of the



MAMMALIA. 129

Bontebok, D. Pygarga; if so, all the following names which
have been given to these horns must be regarded as synonyma
of this species.

A. Tragelaphus Senegalensis, Lesson, Nov. Tab. Reg. Anim. 181.
Koba, Bufon, H. N. xii. 210, 268. t. 32. f. 2, horns cop. E. M.

t 53 f 2

Damalis Koba, J. Brookes, Cat. Mus. 64, 1828.
? Senegal Antelope, Penn. Syn. 38. fig. at 39, head.
Antilope Koba, Erxl. Syst. 293; Desm. Diet. H. N. ii. 187;

Fischer, Syn. 463, 630.

A. Gazella Koba, Blainv. B. S. Phil 1816, 75.
Antilope Senegalensis, Cuvier, Diet. Sc. Nat. ii. 235 ; Desm.

Mamm. 457.

4. DAMALIS ALBIFRONS. The BLESS BOCK.

Purple red. Front of face, spot between horns and on tem-
ples, the hinder edge of rump below the tail, white. Throat,
stripe down the outer side of front of legs, brown.

Antilope albifrons (Bless bok), Burchell, Travels, ii. 335?; Har-
ris, W. Anim. Africa, t. 21, and head.

Bubalis albifrons, Sundevall, Pecora,

Damalis albifrons. Gray, Ann. Sf Mag. N. H. 1846, 233;
Knowsley Menag. 22. t. 22. f. 1, half-grown; Proc. Zool. Soc.
1849, 141.

A. Pygarga, part., Mus. Paris, 1851.

Hab. South Africa.

Dr. Burchell, when speaking of the Bless bock, proposed to
call it A. albifrons, as the name Pygarga has been used for both
the Springer and the Bless bock ; but it is not certain if he in-
tended by Bless bock this or the preceding species. Captain
Harris's figure shows the distinction of the two species, and he
applies Dr. Burchell's name to the one now described.

A half-grown specimen of this species, when compared with a
similar-sized specimen of D. Pygarga in the same paddock, was
darker, with a pale spot between the horns, separated by a dark
spot from the white on the face ; the temple was white, with a
white spot; the legs had a brown stripe down the outer si,de of
the front ; and the throat and rump brown, the latter without
any white spot.

**** }j orns unknown.

5. DAMALIS? ZEBRA. The DORIA.

Bright golden brown, with several black cross-bands narrow-
ing at the end. Outside of the fore- and hind-legs dark brown.

F5



130



MAMMALIA.



Antilope, n. s., Bennett, P. Z. S. 1832, 122.
Antilope Zebra, Gray, Ann. Nat. Hist. i. 27, 1836.
Cephalophorus ? Zebra, Gray, List Mamm. B. M. 154.
Antilope (Calliope) Doria, Ogilby, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1836, 121

(not described) ; Frazer, Zool. Typica, t.
Antilope Zebrata, Robert, Echo du Monde Savante, 1836; Ger-

vais, Diet. Sci. Nat. Supp. i. 267.
Damalis ? Zebra, Gray, Knowsley Menag.
Canis or Viverra Zebra, Whitfield, MSS.
Antilope fasciata?, Geof. D. H. N. 53.
Hab. W. Africa.

Flat skin, without limbs. Sierra Leone.

Skins without head and feet are alone known ; they are brought
down the river by the negroes. In the Catalogue of the Mam-
malia in the British Museum, I have referred this species with
doubt to Cephalophus. Mr. Ogilby (P. Z. S. 1836, 121) thinks
it should be referred with the Harness Antelopes to Calliope. I
am inclined, on account of the dark mark on the outside of the
limb, to think it belongs to the genus Damalis. Mr. Whitfield
believes it, on the authority of the negroes, to be a species of
Viverra.

The specific name is supposed to be commemorative of Mrs.

Fig. 1.




Skull of Ekotragus arundinacea. Female (see p. 92).



MAMMALIA. 131

Ogilby, whose Christian name was Doria. In the Catalogue of
the Zoological Society it is called the Gilded Antelope.

Section 2. Horns subangular, with a more or less distinct
ridge on the front angle. Knee in the middle of the fore-leg
Angulicornia.

Gray, Ann. $ Mag. N. H. 1846, 230.

Subtribe III. Strepsicerece. Horns subspiral, inclined back-
wards. Crumen distinct. Nostrils near together in front. Fore-
head flat. Males not bearded on the chin. Fur white banded
or spotted. Females : teats 4, in a small udder.

Antilope, C. spiralibus, Gray in J. Brookes, Cat. Mus. 63,

1828.

Strepsicerese, Gray, Ann. fy Mag. N. H. 1846, 230.
Strepsiceres, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850, 142; Knowsley Menay.
Antilope, part. (Tragelaphus), et Damalis, part. (Boselaphus.

Strepsiceros et Portax), H. Smith, G. A. K. v. ; Fischer, Syn.

625.

Strepsiceros et Portax, Turner, P. Z. S. 1850.
Bovina, part. (Portax), Sylvicaprina, part., Sundevall, Pecora.
Addax, sp., Laurill.
Bos, part., Wagler, N. Syst. Amph. 32, 1830.

The animals of this subtribe are peculiar as being the only hol-
low-horned or Bovine Ruminants which are marked with white
stripes and spots. The bands are not very distinct in the 1m-
poofo or Eland, but they are easily to be observed in the female,
if it is looked at obliquely, which was brought home by Burke,
and presented to the British Museum by the Earl of Derby.
The skull, which somewhat resembles that of the Deer, has a
rather small nasal opening, no suborbital pit, and only a small
suborbital fissure.

Colonel H. Smith forms of the larger species three of his four
subgenera of Damalis : he places the smaller kinds as a subgenus
(Tragelaphus) of Antelopes.

Prof. Sundevall placed the genera here brought together in
two different families; the genus Portax with the Bovina, and
the others in the Sylvicaprina, or True Antelopes.

M. Agassiz has observed, that the horns of the Strepsiceres and
the Sheep are twisted in the contrary direction. Mr. Ogilby has
justly observed, that the right horn of the Strepsiceres is twisted
in the same direction as the left horn of the Sheep, and vice versa.
Trans. Zool. Soc. iii. 57.



132 MAMMALIA.

SYNOPSIS OF GENERA OF STREPSICER^.

I. Limbs equal. African.

a. Nose cervine. Neck with a linear mane.

1. STREPSICEROS. Horns spiral, keeled.

2. OREAS. Horns straight, with a spiral keel.

b. Nose bovine. Neck with long hair.

3. TRAGELAPHUS. Horns subtriangular, subspiral.

II. Hinder legs short. Asiatic.

4. PORTAX. Horns short, subtriangular.

I. The African Genera have large heavy horns, only the rudi-
ment of a tear-bag, and the limbs nearly equal. Skull with
" the nasal opening of moderate size ; a suborbital fissure, but
no fossa ; the masseteric ridge not extending high ; the auditory
bulla swollen and prominent ; the basioccipital bone with its an-
terior and posterior pairs of tubercles well developed, the former
separated by a deep median groove; the median incisors ex-
panded at their summits; the molars without supplemental
lobes." Turner.

Strepsiceros, Turner, P. Z. S. 1850.
Antilope et Damalis, part., H. Smith.
Sylvicaprina, Sundevall, Pecora.

A. Horns with strong spiral keel. Nose cervine, hairy. Muffle
small, between and under the front half of the nostrils. Body
large, heavy. Neck maned.

1. STREPSICEROS.

Horns large, heavy, spirally twisted, with a distinct, raised,
rounded keel in front. Tear-bag a naked space. Throat with a
central linear mane. Females hornless. (Skull, t. 17. f. 1, 2.)

Damalis Strepsiceros, H. Smith, Griffith A. K. v. , 182.
Strepsiceros, Gray, Ann. fy Mag. N. H. 1846, 230; Turner, P.

Z. S. 1850.

Boselaphus, Lesson, Nov. Tab. R. A. 181, 1842.
Risia, Laurill.
Calliope, sp., Ogitby.



MAMMALIA. 133

1. STREPSICEROS KUDU. The EECHLONGOLE or KOODOO.

(t. 17. f. 1, 2.)

Grey, white striped. Face with a broad, white, lunate cross
band.

Antilope Strepsiceros, Pallas, Misc. 9; Spic. i. 17, xii. 19;

Gmelin, S. N. i. 192.
A. (gazella) Strepsiceros, Licht. Berl. Mag. vi. 172; Schreb.

Sauath. 1207. t. 267; Burchell, Trav. i. 267, 337, 374.
A. (Tragelaphus) Strepsiceros, Blainv. B. S. Phil. 1816, 75;

Desm. Mam. 468 ; Fischer, Syn. 472. 640.
Strepsiceros Capensis or Koodoo, Harris, W. A. Africa, t. 20,

and head.
Damalis (Strepsiceros) Strepsiceros, H. Smith, G. A. K. v.

883.

Calliope Strepsiceros, Ogilby, P. Z. Soc. 1836, 138.
Strepsiceros excelsus, Sundevall, Pecora, 71.
Bos Strepsiceros, Aldrov. Bisulc. 368. fig. 369.
Capra Strepsiceros, Jonst. Quad. t. 24; Houtt. Nat. Hist. iii.

t. 26. f. 1, 2.
Strepsiceros kudu, Gray, Cat. Mam. B. M. 155; OsteoL B. M.

59.
Condoma, Buffon, H. N. xii. 301. t. 39. f. 1, 2 (cop. E. M. t. 56.

f. 2); Supp.vi. t. 13.
Coudu, Vosmaer, Besch. 1783, t.

Cerf du Cap de Bonne Esperance, Colini, Comm. Palat. i. 487. t.
Afrikanischer Kutu, Knorr, Delic. iii. t. K.
Striped Antelope, Penn. Syn. 31. Quad. i. 88. t. 14 ; Shaw, Zool.

ii. 324. t. 185 ; Daniel, African Scenery, t.
Knorr, Delices, i. t. K. 1. f. 1, t. K. v. f. 1, t. K. xi.
Hab. S. Africa.

In bad state. Cape of Good Hope. Presented by the College
of Surgeons.

Male. Cape of Good Hope. Presented by the Earl of Derby.

OSTEOLOGY, Skull, 1. 17. f. 1, 2.
Condoma, Daub. Buffon H. N. xii. t. 39.

Three pairs of horns. South Africa.

Frontal bone and horns. South Africa.

Two skulls and horns. South Africa.

Head and horns. Presented by the Trustees of the Hunterian
Collection.

Single horn of young. South Africa.

*Skull, female. S. Africa.

Skull, with horns, male. S. Africa. From Mr. Argent's Col-
lection.



134 MAMMALIA.

Var. 1. Smaller. Mus. Ind. Comp. Lond. and Frankfort.
Antilope Tendall, Ruppell, Abyssinia, 22-, Fischer, Syn. 475.
Antilope chora, Ruppell, Abyssinia, 22; Fischer, Syn. 475.
Hob. Abyssinia.

Var. 2. Lighter and smaller.

Koodoo var., Oswell, Journ. Geog. Soc. xx. 150.

Hob. Banks of River Zonga, Oswell.

2. OREAS.

Horns large, straight or slightly curved, bent back from the
forehead, with a strong, raised, rounded spiral keel. Throat with

a longitudinal crested dewlap. Crumen . Females with

smaller, thinner, less keeled horns. Skull, t. 17. f. 3, 4.

Oreas (Oreades), Desm. Mam. 471 ; Lesson, N. Tab. R. A. 181.

Boselaphus, sp., Blainv. Bull. S. Phil. 1816; Desm. Mam.

Damalis (Boselaphus), H. Smith, Griffith A. K. v. 182.

Boselaphus, Gray, Ann. $ Mag. N. H. 1846, 230.

Damalis, Sundevall, Pecora, 74.

Bubalides, sp., Licht. Berl. Mag. vi. 153, 1814.

1, OREAS CANNA. The IMPOOFO or ELAND.

Pale brown, nearly uniform, with very indistinct, narrow white
stripes on the sides.

Antilope oreas, Pallas, Spic. Z. xii. 17; Gmelin, S. N. i. 190.
A. Bubalides oreas, Licht. Berl. Mag. vi. 153; Schreb. Saugth.

1153. t. 256.

A. Oreas oreas, Desm. Mam. 471 ; Burchell, Trav. i. 248.
A. Boselaphus oreas, Blainv. B. S. P. 1816, 75; Fischer, Syn.

477- 644.
Boselaphus Oreas, Gray, Cat. Mam. B. M. 155; Cat. Osteol.

B. M. 59; Ann. fy Mag. N. H. 1846.
Boselaphus Canna, Gray, Cat. Mam. B. M. 155, female.
Antilope Oryx, Pallas, Misc. Z. 9 ; Spic. Z. i. 15 ; Forster, MSS.

55 ; Erxleb. Mam.
Damalis Boselaphus Canna, H. Smith, G. A. K. iv. 198. t. 181.

f. 5, horn ? ; v. 882.
Antilope Canna, Fischer, Syn. 644.

Afrikanisches Elend thier, Kolbe, Vorgeb. Hoffn. i. 145. t. 3. f. 1 .
Coudou, Buffon, H. N. xii. 357. t. 46 b, horn.
Canna, Buffon, Suppl. vi. t. 12 c? adult; CUD. R. A. i. 263.
Eland, Sparrm. Kongl. V. Handl. 1779, 155. t. 5; Harris, W. A.

A. t. 6 and head; Vosmaer, Besch. 1785, t.
Cape Elk, var., Daniel, African Scenery, t.



MAMMALIA. 135

Indian Antelope, Penn. Syn. 26 ; Quad. i. 78 ; Shaw, Zool. ii.

319. t. 183; Barrow, Travels; Licht. Reise, i. 155, ii. 39.462;

Burchell, Travels.
Elandt, Dutch at Cape G. H.
Canna t'Gann or Y'gann, Hottentots.
Impophos or Poffo, Caffers.

Empophos, Zimmerm. Geog. Zool. ii. 109 ; Lobo, Abyss, i. 293.
Bastard Eland, Dutch at Cape G. H.
Hab. S. Africa.

Skin and horns, in bad state. S. Africa. Presented by Wil-
liam Burchell, Esq., LL.D.

Female. S. Africa.

Male and female. South Africa. Presented by the Earl of
Derby.

OSTEOLOGY. Skull, 1. 17. f. 3, 4.
Coudou, Daub, in Euffon H. N. xii. t. 46. f.

Three pairs of horns, separate. South Africa.

Frontal bone and horns. South Africa.

Skeleton. S. Africa. Presented by the Earl of Derby.

Horns on base of skull. S. Africa.

Horns and skin of nape. Cape of Good Hope. Presented by
William Burchell, Esq., LL.D.

Separate horn of an adult. (Antilope Canna of Col. H. Smith,
and figured by Griffith, A. K. 1. 181. f. 5.)

ICON.

Horns. Hardw. Icon. ined. B. M. 10,975. t. 166.
A. Orix. Forster, Icon. ined. B. M. i. t. 30.

Mr. Livingston observes, " It is a well-ascertained fact, that
the Eland, Gemsbock, Duiker, Steinbock, &c., can live for months
together without water. The Eland becomes enormously fat
during the driest season, viz. the winter, when all the herbage is
withered and so dry that it crumbles to powder in the hand ; and
yet the stomach of all these animals, when opened, contained a
good deal of moisture. Our party was well supplied with Eland
flesh during our passage through the desert ; and it being supe-
rior to beef, and the animal as large as an ox, it seems strange
it has not yet been introduced into England." Journ. Geog. Soc.
xx. 139, 1850.

They have bred at Knowsley, but are ravenous feeders, and
liable to an epidemic.

2. OREAS DERBIANUS. The GINGI JONGA.

Pale reddish brown. Front of the face, the neck, the front
part of the under side, a spot on the front and hinder side of the



136 MAMMALIA.



upper part of the fore-leg, and the dorsal streak, dark black. The
belly, the front and back edge of the upper part of the legs, and
under side of tail, whitish. A broad half-collar in front of the



shoulder, narrowed above. Fourteen or fifteen narrow, waved,
perpendicular streaks on each side of the body white. Withers
with intermixed black hairs. Throat of female dark brown ;


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