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Catalogue of the specimens of Mammalia in the collection of the British Museum (Volume 3) online

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crown reddish brown.

Boselaphus Derbianus, Gray, Ann. fy Mag. N. Hist. xx. 286 ;

Silliman, Amer. Journ. v. 279.

Oreas Derbianus, Gray, Knowsley Menag. t. 3 and 9 .
Hab. Western Africa ; River Cassaman.

Horns. Gambia. Presented by the Earl of Derby.
Horns. Gambia.



B. Horns subangular, obscurely keeled. Nose bovine. Muffle
rather large, bald between and beneath the nostrils, and on a
narrow band up the middle of the hairy upper lip. Neck
with longer hair, forming a mane. Body high. Legs slender.
Hoofs and false hoofs small.

3. TRAGELAPHUS.

Horns conical, tapering, with only one spiral turn, subangular,
very obscurely angular in front at the base, with a keel above
arising from the hinder part of the base. Tear-bag distinct.
Neck and throat with longer hair. Nape and back with a more
or less distinct mane. Legs slender. Hoofs and false hoofs
small. Females hornless. Skull, t. 18. f. 1, 2.

Antilope (Tragelaphus), sp., A. Smith, Griffith A. K. v. 182;

Lesson, N. Tab. R. A. 181.

Tragelaphus, Gray, Ann. fy Mag. N. H. 1846, 230.
Calliope, Ogilby, Proc. Z. Soc. 1836; Ruppell, Verz. Senck.

Samml. 1845, not of Swainson.

a. Horns large, elongate. Face with an arched band between the
eyes. Back cross-banded. Euryceros.

Strepsiceros, sp., Ogilby.
Euryceros, Gray, Knowsley Menag.

1. TRAGELAPHUS EURYCERUS. The BROAD-HORNED ANTE-
LOPE.

Head pale brown. Broad band before the eyes, and two large
spots on cheeks, chin, and front of upper lip, white. Horns



MAMMALIA. 13J

elongate, thick, scarcely bent forward at the tip. Throat with
long black hairs.

Antilope, sp., Afzelius, Nov. Act. Upsal. vii. 269. t. 8. f. 3 ; H.

Smith, G.A.K. v. 361.
Antilope Eurycerus, Ogilby, P. Z. Soc. 1836, 120; Waterhouse,

Cat. Mam'Zool. Soc. 391.
Tragelaphus (Euryceros) Eurycerus, Gray, Knowsley Menag. t. ,

head.

A. Tragelaphus Eurycerus, Lesson, N. Tab. R. A. 181.
Hab. W. Africa.

OSTEOLOGY.

Horns. From Mr. Warwick's Collection.

The horns are very similar to those of T. Angasii, but the
head is considerably larger, nearly as large as that of the Kudu,
and the horns are thicker and larger ; they are 27 inches long in
a straight line from base to tip, and 9 inches in circumference at
the base. The hair of the head is also paler and more uniformly
coloured, and with very large white spots on the cheek, much
larger than those of the Kudu or of T. Angasii. The throat has
a distinct mane of blackish rigid hairs. The muffle is very like
that of T. Angasii, and larger than that of the Kudu. The skull
is imperfect; it has no appearance of any suborbital pit or slit.

Var. 1. Skull about two-thirds the size of the former.

Antilope from Bight of Biafra, Allen, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1848, 88;

Turner, P. Z. S. 1850.
Hab. Bight of Biafra.

A skull, with horns. Bight of Biafra. Presented by Capt.
Allen, R.N. (The specimen noticed in P. Z. S. 1848, 88.)

2. TRAGELAPHUS ANGASII. The INYALA.

Black. Back with a vertebral streak and four or five bands on
each side. Head blackish. Narrow band before eyes and small
spot on cheeks, front of upper lip and chin, white. Forehead
and feet bay. Throat with a mane of long, rigid, blackish hair.
Horns rather slender, elongate, rather bent forward at the tip.
Female bay. with many white bands. Muffle band small, only
extending half-way up between the nostrils and about one-third
the length beneath them, and entirely separated from the edge
of the upper lip by a broad, hairy band (with a slight central
groove). The horns are 8 inches in diameter at base, rather
slender, elongate, black with white tips, rounded in front, with
a very obscure indication of a keel, and with a keel arising from
the back edge of the horns, on the inner side of the upper part,
rather bent forwards in front.



138 MAMMALIA.

Tragelaphus Angasii, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1848, 89. t. 4, 5.
Hob. S. Africa ; Port Natal ; Angas, Proudfoot.

A skin of male and female without feet. S. Africa; Port
Natal. Mr. Proudfoot's Collection.

The slenderness of the horns and smaller size of the head, and
the dark colour and small size of the bands and spots on the head,
chiefly distinguish the head of this species from T. Euryceros.

b. Horns moderate, rather short. Face without any cross band.
Tragelaphus.

f Back with cross bands and lateral streaks.

3. TRAGELAPHUS SCRIPTA.

Pale bay. Back with four cross bands and a central white
streak. Haunches white spotted. Cheek with two white spots.
Spot on chest, nose, feet, and spots on the legs, blackish. Dor-
sal streak and end of tail black. Adult : chest, outside of
shoulder, and haunches and legs, black.

The adult males (four years old) have a high ridge of long,
coarse, white hair extending the whole length of the back to the
tail. Diet. Sci. Nat. t. ; Knowsley Menag. t.

Antilope scripta, Pallas, Misc. 8 ; Spic. i. 15, xii. 18.

A. vera scripta, Licht. B. M. vi. 169; Gmelin, S. N. i. 191;

Schreb. Saugth. 1212. t. 258.
A. (tragelaphus) scripta, Blainv. B. S. Phil. 1816, 75; Desm.

Mam. 470; H. Smith, G. A. K. v. 859; Fischer, Syn. 473.

640.
Tragelaphus scriptus, Gray, Cat. Mamm. B. M. 160; Cat.

Osteol. B. M.; Knowsley Menag. t. $ ?; Ann. & Mag. N. H.

x. 267, 1843.

Antilope maculata, Thunb. Mem. A. Petersb. iii. 313.
Antilope (Tragelaphus) phalerata, H. Smith, G. A. K. v. 860;

Fischer, Syn. 640.

Calliope scripta, Ruppell, Verz. Senck. Samml. 182, 1845.
Guib, Negro at Senegal-, Buffon, H. N. xii. 305, 307. t. 40, jun.,

41. f. 1, horn; F. Cuvier, Mam. Lithog. t. ; Diet. Sci. Nat.

t. $ adult.
Harness Antelope, Penn. Syn. 27; Quad. i. 81; Shaw, Zool. ii.

322. t. 186.

Bontebock, Dutch in Africa.
Oualofes or Zalofes, Negro in Gambia.
Hab. West Africa; Senegal and Gambia.

Female. W. Africa. Presented by the Earl of Derby.



MAMMALIA. 139

OSTEOLOGY.

Guib, Daub, in Buffon Hist. Nat. xii. t. 41. f. 1.

Skull of female with the intermaxillaries reaching to the nasal.
Suborbital pit none. Nasals, slit up each side in front.

Varies, some having seven, and others nine white cross bands,
and some are spotted and others not. They breed together at
Knowsley, and produce specimens different in these respects
from their parents.

4. TRAGELAPHUS DECULA. The DECULA.

Grey brown. Back with three or four indistinct cross bands.
Arched streak on upper part of side, a few spots forming an arch
on the haunches, dorsal line, streak on nose and on front of fore
legs, blackish.

Antilope Decula, Ruppell, Fauna Abyss, t. 4.
Calliope Decula, Ruppell, Verz. Senck. Samml. 182, 1845.
Tragelaphus Decula, Gray, Cat. M. B. M. 160; Knows. Menag.
Hab. Africa; Abyssinia.

Male. Abyssinia. From the Frankfort Museum.

Var. Back without the cross bands.
Hab. Africa; Abyssinia; Ruppell.

ft Back without any cross bands or lateral streaks.

5. TRAGELAPHUS SYLVATICA. The BOSCH Boc.

Blackish brown. Head pale brown. Band across forehead
black. Small spot on haunches, larger spot on insides of legs
and on feet white. Dorsal line longly crested, black, white va-
ried. Female paler brown. Young pale bay.

Antilope sylvatica, Sparrm. Act. Holm. 1780, iii. 197. t. 7; Gme-

lin, S. N. i. 192.
A. (Gazella) sylvatica, Licht. Berl. Mag. vi. 173; Schreb. Saugth.

1209. t. 257; Thunb. Mem. Petersb. iii. 315; H. Smith, G. A.

K. v. 858.
A. Tragelaphus sylvatica, Blainv. B. S. Phil. 1816, 75; Desm.

Mam. 469 ; Fischer, Syn. 472. 640; Harris, W. A. Afr. t. 26.
Tragelaphus sylvaticus, Gray, Cat. Mamm. B. M. 160; Cat.

Osteol. B. M. 59 ; Knowsley Menag.

Calliope sylvatica, Ruppell, Verz. Senck. Samml. 182, 1845.
Bosbok, Allam, Buff. H. N. v. 35. t. 15 ; Supp. vi. t. 25 ; Shaw,

Zool. ii. 348.

Forest Antelope, Penn. Quad. i. 86.
Bosch bock, Dutch at Cape.
Hab. South Africa.



140 MAMMALIA.

Skin (bad state). S. Africa. Presented by W. Burchell, Esq.,
LL.D.

Female and males. S. Africa.

Young. From M. Verreaux's Collection.

Half-grown female. S. Africa.

Var. 1. Smaller. Horns shorter, less diverging and more

ascending.
Serolomootlooque (Antilopus Roualeynei), Roualeyn Gordon

Gumming, Hunter's Life S. A. ii. 168, 178, 179.
Hob. Limpopo. Head Mus. Gumming.

OSTEOLOGY.

Base of skull, with horns.

Pair of horns, separate.

Horns. S. Africa. From Mr. Warwick's Collection.

The two pairs of horns, named by Colonel H. Smith Bosela-
phus canna (a, b, in the List of Mamm. Brit. Mus. 155) ; one,
presented by Dr. W. Burchell, is certainly the horns of this spe-
cies, and the other appear to be those of a young male, Strepsi-
ceros Kudu.

II. In the Asiatic Strepsiceres the horns are short, conical, an-
gular, subspiral, with an obscure oblique ridge. Tear-bag deep,
longitudinal. The hind leg much shorter than the fore ; shoulder
higher than rump. The nose bovine, with a large moist muffle.
Skull with " the nasal opening rather small, with the nasal bones
small and narrow ; a minute suborbital fissure ; no fossa, but a
smooth line upon the lacrymal bone; the masseteric ridge not
extending high; the auditory bulla moderate, bulbous, com-
pressed ; the basioccipital bone with the posterior tubercles mo-
derately developed, the anterior ones scarcely at all ; the molars
with supplemental lobes. The smooth line upon the lacrymal
bone terminates in a small foramen, but one side is continued for
some distance forwards upon the maxillary bone, where it ter-
minates in the same way." Turner.
Asiatic Strepsiceres, Gray, Knowsley Menag. ; Proc. Zool. Soc.

1850, 146.

4. PORTAX.

The Character of Section.

Damalis (Portax), H. Smith, Griffith A. K. v. 182; Fischer, Syn.

625; J. Brookes, Cat. Mus. 64, 1828.
Portax, Gray, Ann. % Mag. N. H. 1846, 230.
Antilope Boselaphus, sp., Blainville, Butt. Soc. Phil. 1816.



MAMMALIA. 141



Antilope Bubalides, Licht. Berl. Mag. vi. 164.
Tragelaphus, Ogilby, P. Z. Soc. 1836.



Fig. 2.




Skull of Portax Tragocamelus.

1. PORTAX TRAGOCAMELUS. The NILGHAU.

Grey. Rhombic spot on the forehead and above the hoofs
black, and white ringed; tail end black. Female browner. Young
dull reddish fawn. Lower part of legs brighter. Under lip,
spot on jaw, and line along the belly, on outside of leg, and fore
part of hock, white. Tip of tail, line on back, of nose, and on
front of legs, black.

Antilope Tragocamelus, Pallas, Misc. Zool. 5 ; Spic. Zool. i. 9,

xii. 13; Gmelin, S. N. i. 184.
Antilope picta, Pallas, Spic. xii. 14; Gmelin, S. N. i. 184;

Schreb. Saugth. 1159. t. 262, 263 A, 263 B ; Desm. Mam. 471 ;

Wolf. Abbild. ii. 57. t. 16; F. Cuvier, Mam. Lithog. t. ;

Fischer, Syn. 476. 645; Bennett, P. Z. S. 1831, 37.
A. Boselaphus picta, Blainv. B. S. Phil. 1816, 75.
Antilope albipes, Erxl. Mam. 280 ; Zimmerm. Geog. Gesch. ii. 113.
A. Bubalides Tragocamelus, Licht. Berl. Mag. vi. 164.
Portax Tragocamelus, Gray, Knowsley Menag. 28. t. 29.



142 MAMMALIA.

Damalis picta (Nylgau), J. Brookes, Cat. Mus. 64, 1828.

Antilope leucopus, Forst. MSS.; Zimmerm. Zool. 541.

Portax Tragelaphus, Sundevall, Pecora.

Damalis (Portax) Risia, H. Smith, G. A. K. v. 884.

Portax picta, Gray, Cat. Mamm. B. M. 154; Cat. Osteol. B. M.

59.

Tragelaphus Hippelaphus, Ogilby, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1836, 138.
The Nyl ghau, Hunter, Phil. Trans. Ixi. 170. t. 5 <J, cop. Naturf.

vii. 236. t. 2.

Neelghau, Antilope Hippelaphus, Ogilby in Royle's Himal. i. 73.
Hippelaphus, Aristotle, Hist. Anim. ii. c. 5.
Nilghau, Shaw, Zool. ii. 32?. t. 189.
Neel ghae, Ogilby, P. Z. S. 1836, 338.
Nilghaut, Buffon, H. N. Supp. vi. 101. t. 10 <?, t. 11 $, jun. ;

Cuvier, R. A. i. 264; F. Cuvier, Mam. Lithog. t.
White-footed Antelope, Penn. Syn. 29. t. 6. f. 1, 2; Quad. i. 83.

t. 13.

Biggel, Mandelslo Itin. i. 122, 1658.
Tragelaphus Caii, Ray, Quad. 82?
Quadruped from Bengal, Parson, Phil. Trans, xliii. 465. t. 3.

f. 9.
Hindostan Antelope, Penn. Syn. 29 ; Quad. i. 83 ; Shaw, Zool.

ii. 329. t. 190.
Hob. India.

Young. India. Presented by the Zoological Society.
Skin of head. India.

OSTEOLOGY. Skull, fig. 2. p. 141.
Skull. India.

ICON.

Neelghau, Hardw. Icon. ined. B. M. n. 10,975. 1. 149 ? , n. 10,974.
t. 90, 96.

Subtribe IV. Caprece. Forehead convex, elevated behind.
Chin of males bearded. Suborbital sinus none. Horns erect,
compressed, curved backwards and rather outwards, and fur-
nished with a longitudinal keel in front, deeper than wide at the
base, and with transverse ridges in front. Hoofs four -sided,
scarcely higher before than behind. The skull has " a small
suborbital fissure, no fossa ; the masseteric ridge ascending high
before the orbit ; the auditory bulla prominent and compressed ;
the basioccipital flat, with its processes developed ; the middle
incisors not expanded ; the molars without supplemental lobes."
Turner.

" The occipital plane of skull forms an acute angle with fron-



MAMMALIA. 143

tal plane. Cores of horns thick, porous, cellular. Horns seated
superiorly on the crest of the forehead, and by their union co-
vering the top of the head. Canines wanting. Teats 2, rarely 4."
Hodgson.

The males have a strong stench ; they butt first raising them-
selves on their hind-legs and then coming down sideways against
their enemies.

Caprese, Gray, Ann. fy Mag. N. H. 1846, 230.

Capridse et Bovidse, part., Ogilby, P. Z. S. 1836.

Ovesidese, part., Lesson, Nov. Tab. R. A. 182.

Hircidaj, J. Brookes, Mus. Cat. 72, 1828.

Hircus, Rqfin. Anal. Nat. 56, 1815.

Capra. Blainv. Bull. Soc. Phil. 1816, 76; Sundevall, Pecora,90.

Bos, part., Wagler, N. Syst. Amp. 32, 1830.

Mr. Hodgson, in his remarks on the Craniological character
of Oms and its allies, observes, " That the great depth or extent
of the posteal plane of the skull (comprehending half the frontal
and all the parietal bones), and the acute angle it forms with the
anteal plane in the genus Ovis, will be found to be characters of
more permanence and moment in separating this genus and Capra
from the nearest adjacent groups of Ruminants, than most of the
diagnostics now employed. I subjoin an outline of the typical
Antilopine and Cervine form of skull on one hand, and that of
the normal form of Ovis and Capra. Of these forms, Cervus and
Ovis represent the extremes, and Antilope and Capra the means ;
but there is a regular gradation from Cervus to Antilope, from it
to Capra, and from it again to Ovis." J. A. S. B. x. 234. t. 2.

Mr. Hodgson, in his remarks on the genera Capra and Oms,
observes, " The males not being odorous is one of the best cha-
racters to separate the Sheep from the male Goats, which are
always odorous." J. A. S. B. iv. 491, 1835 ; x. 234, 1841.

The horns of some domestic varieties have an inclination to
twist more or less spirally, like some varieties of Sheep and Strep-
siceres.

The keel of the horns of the Sheep, and especially of the
Goats, is on the inner part of the front edge of the horns ; but in
the Marbur or Snake-eater of Afghanistan the strongest keel
which forms the spiral ridge arises from the hinder part of the
inner side of the horns, the front one being obscure.

The hybrid produce of the Sheep and Goat are fertile, black-
faced, and differ little in form from the black-faced Sheep, The
intercourse is stated to be common. $uirhead, Statistical Ace.
Parish of Urr. xi. 66; Fleming, Phil. Zool. ii. 198; see also
Cuvier, R. A. i. 267.



144 MAMMALIA.

SYNOPSIS OF GENERA OF CAPRE.E.

A. Muffle naked.

1. HEMITRAGUS. Horns trigonal, compressed, and knotted in

front.

2. KEMAS. Horns square, flat, and cross-ridged in front.

B. Muffle hairy.

3. JEcocEROS. Horns roundish, conical.

4. CAPRA. Horns square, flat, and nodose in front.

5. HIRCUS. Horns trigonal, compressed, sharp-edged, and

knotted in front.

A. Muffle naked.

1. HEMITRAGUS.

Nose cervine. Muffle small, moist between the nostrils. Horns
short, recurved, compressed, triangular, shelving on the outer
side, and nodose in front. Intel-digital and suborbital pores none.
Tail very short. Female : horns smaller. Teats 4. Male not
bearded, neck maned ; odour like the Goats.

Hemitragus, sp., Gray, Ann. fy Mag. N. H. 1846, 230 ; Knows-

ley Menag.; Sundevall, Pecora, 101.
Kemas, Ogilby, P. Z. Soc. 1836.
Kemas, sp., Lesson, Nov. Tab. R. A. 182.
Hemitragus, b, Gray, Knowsley Menag. 31 .

1. HEMITRAGUS JEMLAICUS. The JHARAL or TEHR.
Brown or ashy. Dorsal streak and feet black.

Capra Jemlaica, H. Smith, G. A. K. iv. . t. ; Gray, Cat.

Mamm. B. M. 168.
Capra Jemlahica, H. Smith, Griff. A. K. iv. 308. t. , v. 8?2;

Fischer, Syn. 649.
Capra Jharal, Hodgson, Asiat. Res. 1833, t. c?; Journ. Asiat.

Soc. Beng. i. 347; iv. 1835, 491; v. 259; P. Z. S. 1834, 99-

106; Schinz, Verz.il 462.
Capra quadrimammis vel Jharal, Hodgson, J. A. Soc. Beng. 1836,

254. x. 913; Calcut. Journ. N. H. iv. 291.
Hemitragus Jemlaicius, Hodgson, Zool. Nep. ined.; Gray, Knows.

Menag. 32; Cat. Osteol B. M. 60; Hodgson, Coll. B. M. 28.
Hemitragus iharal, Sundevall, Pecora, 101.
Hemicapra Jemlaicus, Hodgson, Zool. Nep. ined. t.



MAMMALIA. 145

Semicapra Jemlaicus, Hodgson.

Kemas Jemlaica, Waterh. Cat. Mm. Z. S. 43, 1838,

Kemas Jemlaicus, Blyth, Ann. N. H. vii. 259, note.

Kemas iharal, Lesson, N. Tab. R. A. 182.

Capra ^Egagrus var., Hodgson, P. Z. S. 1833, 105.

Capra ^Egagrus tubericorms (part.), Schinz. Verz. ii. 4(>7; Wagn.

Supp.

Thar, Ogilby in Royle's Flora, i. 73.
Hob. India; Nepal, the Kachar, or northern hilly region.

An adult specimen, blackish.

An adult specimen, reddish brown, long hair of neck and back
whitish.

A half-grown specimen, pale brown.

A young specimen.

Male, in winter fur. Nepal. Presented by B. H. Hodgson,
Esq.

OSTEOLOGY.

Head and horns. Nepal.

Base of skull, with horns. Nepal.

Skull and horns. Nepal.

Basal part of skull, and horns of female. Nepal.

Skull of a young female. Nepal. Presented by B. H. Hodg-
son, Esq.

Broken skull of a young male. Nepal. Presented by B. H.
Hodgson, Esq.

Bones of body. Nepal. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

Bones of body, young. Nepal. Presented by B. H. Hodg-
son, Esq.

ICON.

Drawing of male, female and young. Hodgson, Icon. ined. B.
M. t. 165.

Drawing of male and female. Hodgson, Icon. ined. B. M.
t. 166.

Drawing of male. Hodgson, Icon. ined. B. M. t. 167.

Drawing of male, with details of head. Hodgson, Icon. ined.
B. M. t. 168; copied with more details of head, t. 1/0.

Drawing of male. Hodgson, Icon. ined. JB, M. t. 169.

Drawing of skull of young female. Hodgson, Icon. ined. B. M.
t. 187. f. 1, 2.

" The Jharals inhabit the loftiest mountains of India, in the
most inaccessible bare crags beyond the forest, close to the per-
petual snows. They feed in the open glades below such crags at
early morning and evening, returning in the day to their awful
fastnesses. They are gregarious, in flocks of twenty or thirty,



146 MAMMALIA.

but sometimes of forty or fifty. If alarmed when feeding, they
go off at speed with a noise like thunder, but anon halt to gaze
on the intruder, whose shot sends them off again under the gui-
dance of an old male, whom they follow blindly. They rut in
winter, and the female gestates six months, producing one young
in June or July. They are more dauntless and skilful climbers
than the Wild Sheep. If they can but touch a rough edge or
crevice now and then, they will run up nearly perpendicular pre-
cipices of many feet elevation, and they will stand on a bit of
rock not larger than one's palm, looking confidently down over
sheer space, with not a shrub to break the awful absence of rest
for the foot.

"The Jharal breeds with the domestic Goat, and perhaps
more nearly resembles the ordinary model of the tame than any
wild species yet known." Hodgson, J. A. S. B. iv. 491, 1839.

" I never could get any progeny from the Goats by the Jharal,
though my male had commerce with Goats of several breeds re-
peatedly during the six years he lived with me, quite tame and
going abroad with the Sheep and Goats." Hodgson.

" In February 1842, a male Jharal in possession of the Court
of Nepal had intercourse with a female Cervus Axis, which in
July produced a young hybrid of mixed appearance, but more
like the mother than the father, which lived and grew up a fine
animal; I saw it last in October 1843. I note the circumstance
as a strong corroboration of the affinity of the Hemitragus to the
Deer, which is indicated by the four teats and moist muzzle." -
Hodgson.

2. KEMAS.

Nose cervine. Muffle small, moist between the nostrils.
Horns short, recurved, thick, subquadrangular, flat in front, and
rounded on the outer side, closely ringed. Interdigital pores and

suborbital pores none. Hair short, adpressed. Tail . Male

bearded. Odour like Goats. Female : horns smaller, very like
male.

Hemitragus (part.), Gray, Ann. fy Mag. N. H. 1846, 230; Sun-

devall, Pecora, 101.

Hemitragus, a, Gray, Knowsley Menag. 31.
Kemas, part., Ogilby, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1837, 81.

1. KEMAS WARRYATO. The WARRYATO or JUNGLE KEMAS.

Brown, yellow grisled. Male: back with a dirty white patch.
Female paler. Young ashy grey.

Capra (Ibex) Warryato, Gray, Mag. N. H. x. 267, 1843, 3 and .
Capra Warryato, Gray, List Mamm. B. M. 168.



MAMMALIA. 147

Kemas hylocrius, Ogilby, P. Z. Soc. 1837, 81 (female only);

Waterh. Cat. Mus. Z. S. 43; Blyth, Ann. fy Mag. N. H. vii.

259, note ; Wagner, Supp. 503 ; Lesson, Nov. Tab. Reg. A. 182.
Capra hylocria, Schinz, Verz.

Hemitragus Warryato, Gray, List Osteol. E. M. 60.
Warryato, Hardw. MSS.
Hemitragus hylocrius, Sundevall, Pecora, 101; Gray, Knowsley

Menag.

Wild Sheep of Tenasserim, Low, Journ. Roy. Asiat. Soc. 1836, 50.
Hob. India; Neilgherries.

OSTEOLOGY.

Head and horns of male and female. Neilgherries. Presented
by Richard Partridge, Esq.

Head of female, without the sheath to the horns. Nepal ?

ICON.

Warryato or Hill Goat of the Tamooleans, Hardw. Icon. ined. B.

M. n. 10,9/5. t. 192 (sketch improved from former by Col.

H. Smith, t. 193).

B. Muffle hairy, ovine.

Hircus, Brisson, R. A. i. 38, 1762.

Capra, sp., Pallas ; Illiger, 1811; Linn. S. N.; Desm. N. D. H.

N. 1804.
Capra, Gray, Ann. fy Mag. N. H. 1846, 230.

3. ^EGOCEROS.

Nose ovine, hairy, without any muffle. Horns (of male) very
large, spirally curved, flat, and with nodose tubercles in front ;
base very thick, roundish, then conical, attenuated, with sharp
and strongly converging tips ; of females smaller. Tear-bag and
inguinal pores none. Ears densely pilose. Hair of forehead
simple. Tail very short, flattened. Chin bearded.

JEgoceros, sp., Pallas, Act. Petrop. 1779; Zool. Ross. Asiat. i

224.

Capra, a, Sundevall, Pecora, 91.
Capra (sect. Turs), Gray, Knowsley Menag.

* Horns keeled behind.

1. ^EGOCEROS PYRENAICA. The PYRENEAN TUR.

Face black in front, paler on the sides. Horns keeled behi
flat on the inner side.



148 MAMMALIA.

?Capra Ibex, Linn. S. N. i. 95, part, (see Sundevall, Pecora,

115).
Capra Pyrenaica, Schinz, Nov. Mem. Soc. Helv. Sci. Nat. ii. 1. 1.

f. 1, 2, skull; 1836, t. 2, animal and horns; t. 3, skull; t. 4,

young ; Verz. Syst. ii. 457 ; Sundevall, Pecora, 91 ; Brehm, Isis,

1844, 481; Wiegmann, Arch. 1845, ii. 41.
Hab. Pyrenees.

Male and female. Pyrenees.

OSTEOLOGY.

* Skull, female. Pyrenees.

Var. 1. Legs paler, only black up the centre of the front.

Adult. Spain. Presented by R. Owen, Esq., from Professor
Grael's Collection-

** Horns not keeled behind.

2. JEoocERos CAUCASICA. The TUR or ZACK.

Wool chestnut-brown. Beard of male long. Horns black,
wrinkled, moderately thick, semicircular behind and descending
externally, the tip turning upwards and inwards ; the base almost
triangular ; middle roundish and compressed. Female with no
beard. Horns small, with a slight curve.

Capra Caucasica, Guldenstddt in Pallas, Act. Petrop. 1/79, ii. 273.
t. 17 a, female, b, head, male; cop. Schreb. v. t. 281 B;
Gmelin, S. N. i. 197 ; Meyer, Zool. Ann. i. 398 ; Desm. Mamm.
487 ; Keyserling et Blasius, Wirbelth. Europas, 28 ; Nord-
mann, Iter Demidojf, in. 58 ; Fischer, Syn. 485, 648 ; H.
Smith, G.A.K.v.871.

^Egoceros ammon, Pallas, Zool. Ross. Asiat. 229. 1. 17, 1. 18. f. 6.

^Egoceros Pallasii, Rouillier, Bull. Moscou, 1841, 110; Wagner,
Supp. 497 ; Schinz, Nov. Mem. Soc. Helv. Sci. Nat. ii. t. 1,
animal ; Verz. ii. 459 ; Ray Soc. i. 64.

Ovis Cylindricornis (Caucasian Argali), Blyth, P. Z. Soc. 1840,
68.

?Ovis ammon var., H. Smith, G. A. K. iv. 317; Ainsworth, Tra-
vels Assyria, 42.

Caucasian Ibex, Shaw, Zool. ii. 367.

Bouquetin du Caucase, Cuv. R. A. i. 266.

Hab. Caucasus.

Male and female. Aladagh. From Mr. Warwick's Collection.

" They live in droves of five or six females and their young,
under the care of an old male."



MAMMALIA. 149

4. CAPRA.


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