British Museum (Natural History). Dept. of Zoology.

Catalogue of the specimens of Mammalia in the collection of the British Museum (Volume 3) online

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Nose ovine, hairy, without any muffle. Horns (of male) very
large, elongate, recurved, curved nearly on the same plane ; base
subquadrangular, broad, flattened, and with broad cross ribs in
front ; outer side rather compressed and rounded ; tip com-
pressed, broad; of female smaller. Hair of forehead elongate,
whorled. Crumen and inguinal pore none. Chin bearded.

Ibex, Gray, Ann. & Mao. N. H. 1846, 230; List Osteol. B. M.


Capra, 1. Ibex, Gray, Knowsley Menag.
^Egoceros, sp., Pallas, Zool. Ross. Asiat. i. 228.
Capra, sect, ft Sundevall, Pecora, 93.

* Ears densely villose.


Ears small, acute, not one-fourth the length of the head.
" Horns of the male very strong, thick, subquadrangular, trans-
versely rugose, flattish and nodose in front; of female small,
compressed, slightly nodose. Fur in summer short, adpressed,
without any under coat, ashy grey. In winter, elongate, fulvous
brown, with long, dense, intermixed under-fur. Beard short,
brown, in summer wanting." Schinz.

Capra Ibex (part.), Linn. S. N. i. 95; Gmelin, S. N. i. 19G ;

Meyer, Zool. Ann. i. 397; Desm. Mam. 480; Fischer, Syn.

483, 647 ; H. Smith, G. A. K. iv. 300. t., v. 868 ; Griffith, A.

K. v. t. ; Gray, Cat. Mamm. B. M. 167; Schinz, Nov. Mem.

Soc. Helv. ii. t. 2, horns, 1838.
Capra alpina, Girtanner, Journ. Phys. xxviii. 224.
Ibex alpinus, Gray, List Osteol. B. M. 59.
Ibex, Plin. Hist. Nat. viii. 53; Gesner, Quad. 351, fig.; Brisson,

R. A. 64; Shaw, Mus. Lever, iii. 105. t. 2; Zool. ii. 364.

t. 198 ; Knight, Mus. Anim. Nat. f. 667, 668, 669, bad.
Wild Goat, Penn. Syn. 13.
Bouquetin, Buffon, H. N. xii. t. 13, 14; Cuvier, R. A. i. 266;

Mam. Lithog. t.
Knorr, Delic. ii. t. K. 5. f. 2.
Capricornis, Gesner, Quad. 1099. fig.
Hab. Europe, Alps,

Male. Europe, Alps. Presented by Mrs. A. G. Campbell.
Male. Europe, Alps. Presented by Messrs Murray and Brocke-

Male. Europe, Alps,



Bouquetin, Daub. Buff. H. N. xii. t. 14.

C. Ibex, Schinz, Nov. Mem. Soc. Helv. N. S. ii. t. 2, horns.

Base of skull and horns, very large.

Two skulls and horns.

Single horn, rather compressed.


Pale grey. Ears oblong. Beard of both sexes dependent.
Lower maxilla of male, and spot on each side of the jaw in the
female, black brown.

Ibex Sibiricarum (Der Sibirische Steinbok), Pallas, Spic. Zool. xi.

32, 53. t. 3. t. 5. f. 4, horns.
Capra Sibirica, Meyer, Zool. Ann. i. 397. 4 ; Schinz, Nov. Mem.

Soc. Helv. ii. t. 2, horns, 1838; Sundevall, Pecora, 94; Gray,

List Mamm.B. M. 16?.

Capra Ibex, Schreb. Saugth. t. 281, from Pallas.
Capra Pallasii, Sehinz in Cuvier, Thierr. iv. 511.
^Egoceros Ibex, Pallas, Zool. Ross. Asiat. i. 224.
Capra Ibex /3. Sibiricus, Fischer, Syn. 485.
Hob. Siberia.

Male and female. Siberia. From the St. Petersburg Academy.


Brownish grey. Tail, beard, dorsal stripe, band on shoulders,
anterior part of limbs, black or dark brown.

Capra Ibex, Hodgson, Journ. A. S. Beng. x. 913, xi. 183.

Capra Sakeen, Blyth, J. A. S. Beng. xi. 283, not described.

Capra Ibex Himalayanus, Hodgson, Calcutta Journ. N. H. ii.
414, iv. 291.

Himalayan Ibex or Skeen, Hutton, Calcutta Journ. N. H. ii. 542 ;
Kennedy, J. Asiat. Soc. Beng. v. 242.

Himalaya Ibex, Blyth, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1840, 81.

Capra himalayanus, Schinz, Syn. 463 ?

Skyn, Skeen, Saken, Sikeen, or Kyi, Vigne, Travels, i. 311.

Skin, Herbert, Asiat. Res. xv. 397.

Skvn $ , Damma $, Moorcroft, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 1839,

Capra (^Egoceros) Skyn, Wagner; Sundevall, Pecora, 94.

Capra JEgagrus, Hutton, Calcutta Journ. N. H. ii. 521. t. 19.

Ibex (from Simla), Ogilby in Royle's Himal. i. 75.

Hob. Himalaya; Little Thibet; Mountain districts of Afghan-
istan, called Borz by the Afghans.

Probably not distinct from Ibex Sibirica.


" The Tekr or Wild Goats of the Himalaya (of Simla and Mus-
euri) have the anterior edge of the horns decidedly nodose, though
less so than the Jharal" Hodgson, J. A. S. B. iv. 491, 1835.

" Horns of the Ibex are attached to the Zearuts and places of
sacred note in Afghanistan." Bengal Journ. 1841, 978.

" The Ibex is so abundant in Thibet, as to be killed for their
potham or fine wool, which is used to make shawls. They sur-
round them when the mountains are covered with snow. The
horns are slit down longitudinally, and formed into bows for
archery." Lord A. Hay.

In the Collection from Thibet in the India House Museum
there are the skins and skulls of what appear to be two species
of Capra, but the skulls and skins are not attached together, and
the horns of both are very similar. One has short hair and a
black beard, and the skull has an elongated face. The other has
a black, abundant beard, and very elongated soft fur, like Capra
Sibirica, and the skull which appears to belong to it has a short
face, very broad at the orbits.


Grey brown. Feet, head, large beard, dorsal and posterior
ventral line, black. Nose pale. Anal disk small, white. Lateral
streak none. Horns very long, curved, smooth ; base rounded,

Capra Ia3vicornis, Sundevall, Pecora, 95.

Hab. ? Menagerie of the French Museum. Two males.

The horns are intermediate between C. Ibex and C. hircus;
they are probably hybrids. The smoothness of the horns of the
specimens in the Paris Museum (1851) appears to arise from the
animal having rubbed them against the wall and bars of his pad-

** Ears very shortly pilose.


Fulvous grey (in winter brown). Dorsal line and sides of tail
blackish, beneath white. Feet black and white spotted. Ears
three-streaked. Male bearded, beard black. Horns very long,
subtriangular above, knotted, reclinate on the base. Female
beardless. Horns slender, smooth, rather compressed, apex
slightly inclined.

Capra Ibex (Baeden), Forsk. Faun. Arab. iv.

Capra Nubiana (Boue de la Haute Egypte), F. Cuvier, Mam.

Lithog. 1825 ; Gray, Spic. Zool. t. 9 ; Cat. Mamm. B. M. 168:

Fischer, Syn. 483, 648,


Ibex Nubiana, Gray, List Osteol. Spec. B. M. 60.

Capra arabica, Mus. Vindob.

Capra Jaela, H. Smith in G. A. K. v. n. 869 (not figure at iv.

Capra Sinaitica (Sinaica), Ehrenb. Sym. Phys. 1. 18; Gene, Mem.

Turino, xxxvii. t. ? .

"Capra Beden, Forsk." Wagner; Sundevall, Pecora, 95.
Cretan Wild Goat, Belon, fig.
Hab. Egypt; Arabia; Crete.

Young female. Gray, Spic. Zool. t. 6. f. 1. N. Africa. Pre-
sented by James Burton, jun., Esq.

Adult male, young male, and younger male. N. Africa.


Five pairs of horns. Egypt. Presented by James Burton,
jun., Esq.

Pair of horns, separate. North Africa.

Pair of horns, half- grown.

Skull and horns. Mount Sinai.

Skull. N. Africa. Presented by Major Macdonald.

Far. 1. Legs less black.
Hab. Senegal. Mus. Paris.


Brown, beneath whitish. Feet white. Legs and feet with a
black mark in front. Beard moderate. Horns thick, nodose,
subrhomboidal at the base. Forehead with a protuberance in

Capra Walie, Riippell, Fauna Abyss, t. 6.

Capra Valie, Sundevall, Pecora, 95.

Hab. Abyssinia. Male, Mus. Frankfort. Female unknown.

OSTEOLOGY. Ruppell, Abyss. Fauna, t. , skull.


Horns compressed, with a narrow, thin, nodose or torn keel
in front ; outer side convex, rounded behind. Ears covered
with short, adpressed hairs. Hair of forehead like back, rather

Hircus, Wagner, Supp.

Hircus, sp., Brisson; Rafin. Anal. Nat. 56, 1815.

Capra ., Sundevall, Pecora, 96.

JEgoceros, sp., Pallas, Zool. Ross. Asiat. 224.

Tragus, Klein, Quad. 15 ; Schrank, Fauna Boic. i, 45.


** Goats are distinguished by the horns being inclined very ob-
liquely, not angular, compressed, and presenting a sharp keeled
edge to the front, whereby they may be distinguished at once
from all kinds of Sheep and Ibexes. They have usually a true
beard, common to both sexes, not present in the Sheep. They
have callosities on the knees, and sometimes also on the chest."


Capra Hircus, Linn. Faun. Suec. 15; S. N. i. 94; Gray, List

Mamm. B. M. 168 ; List Osteol. Spec. B. M. 60; List Hodgson

Coll. B. M. 28 ; Sundevall, Pecora, 96 ; Fischer, Syn. 484. 648.
Capra caucasica, H. Smith in G. A. K. ; Gray, List Mamm. B.

M. 168.

-^Egoceros Capra, Pallas, Zool. Ross. Asiat. ; Wagner, Supp.
Capra ^Egagrus, Gmelin, S. N. i. 193 ; Meyer, Zool. Ann. i. 396;

Schreb. Saugth. t. 282; Cuvier, Menag. Mus. R. A. i. 267;

Desm. Mam. 483; Fischer, Syn. 484. 646; F. Cuvier, Mam.

Lithog..t.; Sundevall, Pecora, 97-
^Egagrus, Pallas, Spic. Zool. xi. 45. t. 5. f. 2, 3.
Ziege, S. G. Gmelin, Reise, iii. 493.
Capra Hircus vulgaris, Schreb. t. 283.

C. ^Egagrus /3. Hircus, Gmelin, S. N. i. 193; Desm. Mamm. 483.
C. Capricornus, Meyer, Zool. Ann. 39.
Tragus JEgagrus, Schrank, Fauna Boic. i. 45.
Capra, Plinii H. N. vi. 50 ; Gesner, Quad. 270. fig. ; Hodgson,

J. Asiat. Beng. xvi. 1847,1017.
Hircus, Gesner, Quad. 301. fig.
Hircus vel Capra domestica, Brisson, R. A. 62.
Tragus domesticus, Klein, Quad. 15.
Pasen, K'dmpf. Amosn. Exot. 398. fig. at p. 407. n. 2.
Capra bezoartica, Linn. S. N. i. 96, part, from K'dmpf er.
Gazella bezoartica, Brisson, R. A. 69, part, from Kdmpfer.
Goat, Penn. Brit. Zool. 13.
Domestic Goat, Penn. Syn. 14.
Common Goat, Shaw, Zool. ii. 369. t. 199.
Capricorne Goat, Penn. Syn. 16; Shaw, Zool. ii. 377.
Bouc et Chevre, Buffon, H. N. v. 59. t. 8, 9.
Capricorne, Buffon, H. N. xii. 146. t. 15, skeleton.
Hab. Domesticated.

Stuffed, ears pendent.

Stuffed. (Africa.) Presented by Miss Inglis.
Adult, stuffed. From the Zoological Society's Collection.
Half-grown male. From the Zoological Society's Collection.
Cashmere Goat. India. From Capt. Boys's Collection.

G 5


Hybrid Goat, male and female, between Common Goat and
European Ibex ; bred in the Zoological Society's Gardens.
Young. From Riddle Museum.


Chevre, Daub. Buffon H. N. v. t. 13.

Capricorne, Daub. Buff. H. N. xii. t. 15.

Capra hircus, Schinz, Nov. Mem. Soc. Helv. Sci. Nat. ii. 1. 1, skull.

Bouc de Juda, Daub. Buff. H. N. xii. t. 22.

Skull. England.

Skull, with horns. India. From Mr. Argent's Collection.

Horns. India. From Mr. Argent's Collection.

Horns, elongate, erect.

Horns, expanded on the side.

Three skulls, var. Sinai, with the horns regularly bent back.
Nepal. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

Skull, with horns, var. Changra or Shawl Goat. Thibet.
Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

S' 11 and horns of adult. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

^ 11, with horns, var. Chappoo, Capra Chungra. Thibet.
Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

A young skull of same. Thibet. Presented by B. H. Hodg-
son, Esq.

A pair of separate horn-sheaths. Thibet. Presented by B. H.
Hodgson, Esq.

Two skulls and horns. (The specimens described (Capra Cau-
casica) by Col. H. Smith.)

Single horns, in bad state, with only three very distant knots
on front keel. Specimen described as Capra Caucasica by Col. H.

Capra Caucasica, H. Smith, Griffith A.K.v.; Gray, List Mamm.
B. M. 167; Cat. Osteol. Spec. B. M. 60, not Guldenst.


1. The Maykay or Maycay, Buchanan, Mysore, i. 120. t. 5. f. 10.
Hob. India; Mysore; kept with sheep.

2. The Sircenagur Goat, Hardw. Icon. ined. B. M. n. 10,974.

t. 110,112, 113.
Hob. India.

3. Jamnapari, C. JEg. Arietinus, Desm. Mam.
Bouc de Nepaul, F. Cuv. Mam. Lith. t. c? ? .

Goat of the country west of the River Jumna, Hardw. Icon.

ined.B.M. 10,974. t. 111.

Jamnapari, Hodgson, Journ. Asiat. Beng. xvi. 1847, 1024, note.
Hab. India, bred in Nepal.


4. The Bukee, or Goat of the Dukhun, Sykes, P. Z. S. 1831.
Hab. Dukhun.

5. Egyptian Goat, H. Smith, Griffith A. K. v. 307.
Capra J3g. Thebaica, Desm. Mam. 848.

C. JEg. Thebaicus, Fischer, Syn. 493.

C. Indica, Gesner, Jonst. Quad. t. 26.

Bouc de la Haute Egypte, F. Cuv. Mam. Lithog. t.

Adimain, Nieremb. H. N. 183. fig.

C. zEg. JSgyptiacus, Fischer, Syn. Mam. 649.

Hab. N. Africa.

6. TheDoogoo,iM#sow,J.^.S.B.x.913; Icon.ined. t.ljl. ?_.
Capra hircus var. Doogoo, Gray, Cat. Hodgson Coll.B. M. 27 .
Capra Dugu, Hodgson, J. A. S. B. xvi. 1024.

Hab. Central Hill, Nepal ; common, domesticated.

7. The Sinai, Hodgson.

C. hircus var. Sinai, Gray, Cat. Hodgson Coll. B. M. 28;

Hodgson, Icon. ined. 1/2; J. A. S. B. i. 347, xvi. 1022. t.,

xx. 913.
Hab. Nepal; Central Mountain region; domesticated, with

hair and shorn.

Three skulls, with the horns regularly bent back.

A skin, with skull and horns.

Drawing of varieties. Hodgson, Icon. ined. B. M. t. 172.

" A tall, largish species, with ordinary horns, long, flowing,
straight hair, drooping, longish ears, and semi-erect short tail."-
Hodgs. I. c. i. 347.

8. The Cossia Goat. White. Feet pale brown. Horns short,


Capra ^Eg. Cossia, Buchanan,Hamilton,MSS. ii. 9, and horn,t.
C. JEg. Cossus, Blainv. Bull. Soc. Phil. 1816, 21.
C. Aries Cossus, Fischer, Syn. 493.
C. tubericornis, part., Schinz, Verz. 467.
Hab. High Mountain districts; called Cossea in the East of


They are bred by the middling and lower classes of the inha-
bitants of the highest Cossia mountains. Neither the skin nor
hair is applied to any use. The hair is coarse and straight, long
and pendulous, and has no wool mixed with it, by which it is
easily distinguished from the Shawl Goat. Ears spread, covered,
like the legs, with short hair. Tail small and short.

" The female long-haired Goat is said sometimes to produce
at a birth one kid like itself, and another short-haired, like the
Common Goat of Bengal/' Buchanan, Hamilton, MSS.


9. Greater Shawl Goat or Changra.

Capra JEgagrus Changra, Buchanan, MSS. Icon. ined. 1. 11;
Hodgson, Icon. ined. t. 173. f. 1, t. 174. f. 1; Journ. Asiat.
Eeng. xvi. 1017.

Changra, Ogilby in Royle's Himal. i. 75.

Changra or Shawl Goat, Hodgson, J. A. S. B. i. 347, x. 913,
xi. 283.

Hab. Nepal and Thibet.

A skull with horns.

An adult skull with horns.

Drawing of male. Hodgson, Icon. ined. B. M. 1. 173. f. 1, and
t. 174. f. 2.

Drawing of horns. Hodgson, Icon. ined. B. M. 1. 175. f. 1, 2.

Chungra, Paruttes-, Cholay, Newars; Camgoo, Thibetians-,
Shawl Goat, English.

" Domesticated in Thibet ; wool exported to Cashmere, where
it is manufactured into cloth and felts. Many castrated speci-
mens are brought to Nepal for food. Manners exactly like com-
mon Goat, and thrive best in a very cold climate."

" Hair of body, neck, and upper part of head remarkably long,
especially that arising from the spine, pendulous, straight and
rather harsh, and intermixed with remarkably fine and soft short
wool, which alone is used by the manufacturer ; hair on legs and
face rather short, and not mixed with wool. Ears very short.
Nose straight. Horns longer than the head, much compressed,
inner edge sharpest, approach at the base and diverge at the
summit with a twist round ; they are nearly straight, and stand
on the plane of the forehead. Tail short."

" The drawing from a castrated male (made by Mr. Burton).'"
Buchanan, Hamilton MSS.

10. Lesser Shawl Goat, Capra ^Egagrus Chapu, Buchanan, Icon.

ined. t. ; Hodgs. Journ. Asiat. Beng. xvi. 1020. t.

Capra Hircus Chappoo, Gray, Cat. Hodgson B. M. 28.

Chappoo, Hodgson, Journ. A. S. B. x. 913.

Bouc de Cachemire, F. Cuvier, Mam. Lith. t.

Cashmir Goat, Knight, Mus. Anim. Nat. f. 664, 665.

White, black varied. Horns suberect, subspiral.

Hab. Cashmere; Buck. Tibet; Hodgson.
Stuffea. India. From Capt, Boys's Collection.
A skull with horns.
A young skull.

A pair of separate horn-sheaths.

Drawing of male. Hodgson, Icon. ined. B. M. t. 173. f. 2, and
t. 174. f. 1.

Drawing of horns. Hodgson, Icon. ined. B. M. 1. 1/5. f. 3, 4.


11. Khassia Hill Goat, Robinson, Assam, 99.
Hair long, rather coarse, white.

Hab. Assam.

12. Berbura Goat.

Capra imberbis Berbura, Hamilton, MSS. ii. 10, and Icon. t.

C. Mg. imberbis Barbara, Blainv. Butt. Soc. Philom.1816, 61.

C. Aries Barbarus, Fischer, Syn. 493.

C. Jemlaica var., H. Smith, G. A. K.

Hab. India; West of the Jumna; called Berbura <J , Berburi 9 ,

and Ram Sagul, Eengalese.

The horns of the male hear the ear at the base, inclining a
little back and spread out laterally near the tip, much com-
pressed at the root, convex before, concave behind, and having
a spiral turn, not remarkably wrinkled. Ears short. Forehead
prominent, covered with longish hair. No beard. Throat of
males with a deep dewlap. Fur smooth. Hair harsh, of the
spine forming an erect mane, and on fore-part of hind thighs
long. Male : scrotum divided into two distinct bags. Female :
want the long hair on spine, thighs, and the dewlap.

They differ from the common Indian Goat by the want of the
beard and the length of the legs ; and from the May cay of My-
sore by the shortness of the ears. They are white, variegated
with black and reddish brown. Length from nose to horns 9 in. ;
from horns to tail 3 ft. 4 in. ; height at shoulders 2 ft. 9 in.

" They are said by Mr. Fleming to have been introduced from
Abyssinia by an ambassador from that country." Hamilton, I. c.

13. Naga Goat.

" Body marked with beautiful streaks." Robinson, Assam, 99.
Hab. Assam.

14. Whidaw Goat, Penn. Syn. 16.
Capra reversa, Linn. S. N. 95.
C. /Eg. reversa, Gmelin, Desm.

C. H. reversus, Schreb. S. t. 206 a; Buffon, H. N. xii. 154.
Bouc de Juda, Buffon, H. N. xii. t. 20, 21, 22 ; Suppl. iii. 1. 13.
Hab. Whidaw.

15. African Goat, Penn. Syn. 16.
Capra depressa, Linn.

C. H. depressa, Schreb. t. 287.

Bouc d'Afrique, Buffon, H. N. xii. 154. t. 18.

Chevre nain, Buffon, H. N. xii. 154. 1. 19; F. Cuv.Mam. Lith.t.

Hab. Africa.

16. Common Goat, Shaw.
Capra hircus, Linn.

Capricorne, Buffon, H. N. xii. 146. t. 15, skeleton.


Capra capricornus, Meyer, Ann. 39.

C. J^gagrus capricornus, Gmelin, S. N. i. ; ErxL 364.

C. Hircus capricornus, Fischer, Syn. 486.

Capricorne Goat, Penn.

Goat, Low, Dom. Anim. B. I. ii. 73.

Bouc et Chevre, Euffon, H. N. v. t. 8, 9.

Hab. Europe.

17. Thibet Goat, C. H. Thibetanus, Desm. 484.
Chevre de Thibet, F. Cuv. Mam. Lith.
Bouc de Cachemere, F. Cuv. Mam. Lith. t.
Hab. Thibet.

18. Angora Goat, Penn. Syn. 15; Shaw, Zool. ii. 275. t. 200.
C. Angorensis, Linn.

C. Hircus Angorensis, Erscleb.: Schreb. Saugth, t. 234 A, B.

C. ^Eg. Angorensis, Gmelin, Desm.

C. Angolensis, Hasselq. N. Palcest. 285.

Chevre d' Angora, Tour. Voy. ii. 185. fig.; Buffon, H. A T . v.

71. t. 10, 11 ; F. Cuv. Mam. Lith. t.
Hab. Angora.

19. Syrian Goat, Penn. Syn. 15. t. 5. f. 1, 2.
Capra Mambrica, Linn.

C. Hircus Mambrica, Schreb. t. 285; Desm.

C. Mambrine ou de Levant, Buffon, H. N. xii. 152. t. 10.

C. auribus demissis, Aldrov. Bisulc. 769. fig.

C. Syriaca, Brisson.

Long-eared Syrian Goats, Knight, Mus. Anim. Nat. f. 661,

662, 663.
Hab. Syria.

20. Persian Goat, H. Smith, Griffith A. K. v. 306.
C. Mg. Persicus, Fischer, Syn. Mam. 648.
Hab. Persia.

21. Indian Goat, H. Smith, G. A. K. v. 307.
C. JEg. Indicus, Fischer, Syn. Mam. 649.

Indian Goats (various), Capra JSgagras var., Hardw. Icon.

ined. B.M. n. 10,974. t. 114, 115. t. 189, 190, 191.
Hab. India.

22. Spanish or Hornless Goat, C. Hircus ecornis, Schreb. Saugth.

i. t. 287 B.
C. ^E. acera, Desm.

Chevre sans comes, F. Cuvier, Mam. Lith.
Hab. Spain.

23. Caschmere Goat, C. JEg. lanigera, Desm. Mam.


Chevre de Cachemere, F. Cuv. Mam. Lith. t. ; Desmoul. Did.

Class. H. N. in. 578.
Hab. Thibet.

24. Jamaica Goat, C. Hircus Jamaicensis, Fischer, Syn. 486.
Hab. Jamaica. ,

25. South American Goat, Capra ^Egagrus, Renger, 366.
Hab. S. America.

Dr. Gardiner observes, " Goats in Brazil lose the long hair
natural to them in cold countries, which proves how much the
ceconomy of animals can suit itself to change nf circumstances."
Travels, 163.

Var. 1 . Horns very large, more or less twisted, varying from the
curvature of those of the Koodoo (A. Strepsiceros), only in an
opposite direction, to the straight with spiral keel of the 1m-
poofo (Antilope Oreas). Size large. Brown, like Domestic Goat.

Aigoceros Falconeri, Wagner, Murch. Gel. Anzeig. 1839, ix. 430;
Wiegm. Arch. 1841, 54.

Capra Falconeri, Hugel; Wagner in Hugel Kaschmir, iv. 579.
tab. , 1844; in Wiegmann, Arch. 1845, ii. 7-

Markhur, Vigne, Ghuzni, Kabul, Afghanistan, 1840, p. 86; Tra-
vels in Kashmir, 279; Lord in Burns' Cabool (1842), p. 386.

Wild Goat, Blyth, Proc. Zool. Soc. viii. 88.

Capra magoceros, Huffon, Calcutta Journ. N. H. ii. 521. t. 20.

Markbur, Blyth, Ann. N. H. vii. 196, note.

Capra ^Egagrus, var., Blyth, P. Z. S. 1840, 80.

Markhor, Ray Soc. i. 65.

Capra hircus y. asiatica, Sundevall, Pecora, 97.

Hab. India; Mountains of Cashmere; Dr. Falconer. Called
MarJchore or Snake-Eater by the Afghans, and " Marbul at
Cabul," Blyth. Rewachi of Little Thibet.

Mr. Blyth justly observes, that the horns of all domestic Goats
have a tendency to assume the spiral form, especially at the tip,
and he has never observed this in the wild kinds. He further
remarks, that he has never seen two specimens of the Markbur
with the horns alike.

Mr. Blyth says, " I consider the Markbur to be a feral race
of domestic Goats of remarkable large size, but otherwise not
essentially different from the Shawl Goats of the same countries."
Ann. N. H. vii. 196, note.


Skull, with horns. India. Presented by the E. I. Company.
Single horn. India. Presented by H. Falconer, M.D.


Doubtful species.

1. Capra?

Antilope torticornis, Herm. Obs. Zool. i. 87.
A. (Tragelaphus) torticornis, Fischer, Syn. 4/3.

2. Antilope? grandicornis, Herm. Obs. Zool. 87; Fischer, Syn.

466. 633.
A. ^Egocerus grandicornis, H. Smith, G. A. K. v. 812.

Subtribe V. Ovece. Forehead flat or concave. The horns are
more or less spiral, wider than deep at the base, and slightly aii-
nulated in front. The females are often hornless. The skull has
a more or less deep rounded suborbital pit, without any fissure ;
the masseteric ridge ascending high before the orbit ; the audi-
tory bulla small; the basioccipital flat, more or less expanded
anteriorly by the extension of the anterior pair of tubercles, the
posterior ones small; the cutting-teeth are nearly equal- sized
and shelving ; and there are no supplemental lobes to the grind-
ers. The hoofs are triangular, and being shallow behind, they
have distinct interdigital fossae. Males emitting no stench.

Ovis, Linn. S. N. ; Desm. 1804.

Aries, Brisson, R. Anim. i. 48, 1/62.

Capra, sp., Illiger, 107, 1811.

Ovis, Raii Syn. Quad. 73; Gray, Ann. fyMag. N. H. 1846, 230.

Ovis, part., Wagler, N. Syst. Amph. 32, 1830.

Ovejfi, Gray, Ann. $ Mag. N. H. 1846, 230.

Ovidze, J. Brookes, Mus. Cat. 72, 1828.

Capridse, part., Oailby, P. Z. S. 1836, 137.

Ovesidese, part., Lesson, Nov. Tab. R. A. 182.

Sheep, Penn. Hist. Quad. i. 32.

Ovis v. Ammon, Blainv. Bull. Soc. Phil. 1816, 76.

Aries, Rafinesque, Anal. Nat. 56, 1815.

In fighting they run a- tilt, adding hither the force of impulse
to that of weight; incurious and timid; rarely bark trees.

Pallas, and more lately Gene, Hodgson, Blasius, and Blyth,
have pointed out the characters that define the limits of this genus,
which Desmarest, Fischer, and several other authors are inclined
to place with the Goat.

The females are sometimes hornless. Gmelin noticed this with
respect to O. Ammon, Blyth. 0. Nahor and the female Corsi-
can O. Musimon are generally hornless.

Blasius has remarked that the right horn of 0. Argali, 0. mon-
tana, O. Nahor, O. Aries, O. Musimon and 0. Vignei, winds to
the left, but in the two latter species only slightly, while in O.
Tragelaphus, 0. orientalis, O. Burhel and 0. Cyprius, the right
horn winds to the right.



1. Ovis. Crumen distinct. Tail elongated. Skin covered with

wool or adpressed hair.

2. CAPROVIS. Crumen distinct. Tail very short. Skin covered

with thick hair, covering the wool.

3. PSEUDOIS. Crumen none. Tail rather elongated. Forehead

convex. Skin covered with thick hair.

4. AMMOTRAGUS. Crumeu none. Tail rather elongated. Fore-

head concave. Skin covered with short hair, and elongated
tuft of hair.

a. Crumen distinct. Infraorbital pit distinct.

1. Ovis.

Forehead convex. Horns more or less spiral, bent inwards at
the tips, varying greatly in size and form. Crumen distinct.
Tail more or less elongated. Body covered with wool or close-

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