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Catalogue of the specimens of Mammalia in the collection of the British Museum (Volume 3) online

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OSTEOLOGY. Tilesius, I. c. xii. t. 23 ; Bojanus, I. c. xii. t. 24, 25.

Var. 1. Musimon, Steller, Kamtsch. 127.

Ovis Nivicola, Eschsch. Zool. Atlas, t. ; Lesson, Comp. Buffon,

x. 313.

Argali seu Belier sauvage, Wangl. Nord Siberie, ii. 158, 168.
Hab. Kamtschatka.

Var. 2. Ovis Argali, Hodgson, J. A. S. Beng. i. 347.

Ovis Ammon var., Hodgson, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1833, 105; 1834,

99; Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng. xi. 283; Institute, n. 101, 102;

Blyth, J. A. S. Beng. x. 863; Lesson, Compl. Buffon, x. 313.
Ovis Bambhera, Hodgson, Cat. MSS. ; Institute, n. 101, 102.



MAMMALIA. 175

Nahoor Sheep (young male), Hodgson, Asiat. Research, xviii. t.
Ovis Ammonoides, Hodgson, J. A. S. Beng. x. 1841, 236. t. 1.

f. 1, skull; x. 913, xi. 283; Calcutta Journ. N. Hist. iv. 291;

Gray, Hodgson Coll. B. M. 29.
Ovis Hodgsonii, Blyth, Proc. ZooL Soc. 1840, 65 ; Ann. fy Mag.

N. H. xii. 199. t. 5. f. 9; Journ. A. S. Beng. x. 284. 863.
Bambhera (or Ovis Ammon), Ogilby in Royle's Himal. 75.
Bambhera or Bhaaral, Hodgson, MSS.
Hob. Himalaya; Nepal.

Fragments of the skin of a male.
A flat skin of a young male.
A flat skin of a female.

Skin of young, without head. Northern hill region of Nepal.
Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

Male. Ladank. Presented by the East India Company.

OSTEOLOGY. Hodgson, J. A. S. Bengal, x. 1. 1. f. 1; Blyth, Ann.

$ Mag. N. H. xii. t. 5. f. 9.

Pair of horns of adult. Nepal. Presented by B. H. Hodgson,
Esq.

Pair of horns, adult. Nepal. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

Pair of horns of young ram. Nepal. Presented by B. H.
Hodgson, Esq.

Skull and horn of a half-grown ram. Nepal. Presented by
B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

Skull, with horns. Nepal. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

Two skulls. Ladank. Presented by the East India Company.

ICON.

The Bhaaral. Drawing of skull of young male. Hodgson,
Icon. ined. B. M. t. 186. f. 1, 1. 187- f. 9, 10.

Drawing of male, female and young. Hodgson, Icon. ined. B.
M. 1. 176, with details of the head, t. 177-

Drawing of head of adult. Hodgson, Icon. ined. B. M. 1. 178.

Drawing of skull of old male. Hodgson, Icon. ined. B. M.
1. 186. f. 3, 4.

Drawing of skull of female. Hodgson, Icon. ined. B. M.
t. 187. f. 3, 4.

" The Wild Sheep inhabit the snowy barriers of High Asia,
Ammon of Siberia being confined to the remoter, and Ammo-
noides of Thibet to the nearer ranges. They are distinguished by
their angular, compressed, nearly wrinkled horns, turned almost
into a perfect circle, and their flat points directed forwards and out-
wards, the short-disked tail, and absence of a beard." Hodgson.

The Wild Sheep proper, or Nyens of the Thibetans, never mix
with the Nahoors. They are far more hardy, active and inde-



176 MAMMALIA.

pendent than any tame breeds of their kind, as may well be sup-
posed from their terrific abode amid the snowy peaks of He-
machal. They are gregarious, feed in the glens, seek refuge on
the tops, and leap and run with deer-like power, though as climb-
ers inferior to the Jharal (Hemitragus), or as leapers to the Musk.
They are often snowed up for days without perishing, unless
their breathing-holes betray them to man, a more terrible foe
than the direst inclemency of the season. They rut in winter,
gestate about 160 days, or perhaps six months, and breed early
in summer.

The Nyens or Bambheras, or Wild Sheep, seldom or never
cross the Hemachal, the Indian side of which range is the spe-
cial habitat of the Nahoors, while to the north and west beyond
Thibet our animal is replaced by other species, so that Thibet
may be considered as the special habitat of one species (O. Am-
monides), and the plateaux north of Thibet as far as the Altai
of another (0. Ammon), cited as types of the true ovine form;
and it may be added, that the six sorts of tame Sheep of Thibet
and the sub-Himalayas, all without exception exhibit the essen-
tial characters of that form.

There are several species that may be confounded under this
head ; the Siberian Argali is found in the most northern part
of that country, and it is probably different from the Himalayan
animal ; but I have not been able to discover any difference be-
tween the specimen received from Mr. Hodgson and those which
were sent from Siberia by the Russian naturalist.

Pallas regards this and the next as one species, and observes :
" Nobilissimum et statura et agilitate animal ab Altaico et Me-
dio Asiss alpestri jugo ; per omnem orientalem montium tractum
usque in Peninsulam Camtschatcam imo verosimillime in Conti-
nente Americae locis maxime desertis vagatur, parvis gregibus
hominis frequentiam fugiens, frigoris patiens, montibus apricis
gaudens et asperrima loca frequentans. In occidentem vix pro-
cessit, ubi prsecedenti speciei (Caprovis orientalis), australiores
situs amanti, locum concessit." Pallas, Zool. Ross. Asiat. 232.

5. CAPROVIS (ARGALI) CANADENSIS. The TAYE or BIG

HORN.

Grey-brown. Hair thin (in summer). Rump with a very large
white disk, with a narrow vertical line to the base of the tail, it
and the very short tail grey-brown like the back. Horns of male
very large, subtrigonal at the base, ringed, nearly equilaterally
triangular, bulging a little between the angles ; the inner front
angle obtusely prominent, the hinder double, forming a second
plane at a slight angle with the superior one, and the inferior
angle much rounded off.



MAMMALIA. 177

Ovis montana, Geoff. Ann. Mus. ii. 351. t. 60; Schreb. Saugth.

t. 294 B., cop. Desm. E. M. t. . f . ; Desm. Mamm. 486 ;

Richardson, Fauna Amer. Bor. ; Gray, List Mamm. B. M. 169.
Ovis Ammon, Harlan, Fauna Amer. 259.
Ovis Pygarga, H. Smith, Griffith A. K.
Ovis cervina, Desm. N. Diet. Hist. Nat. xxi. 553.
Big-homed Sheep, Ord in Blainv. Journ. Phys. 1817, 146.
Ovis Canadensis, Shaw, Nat. Misc. xv. t. 610, cop. E. M. t. 14.

f. 4; Schreb. Saugth. t. 214; Richardson, Fauna Bor. Amer.

t. 23; Lesson, Compl. Buffon, x. 311.
The Argali, Godman, Nat. Hist. ii. 329. t. 1 ; Cook, Voy.
Rocky Mountain Sheep, Richardson.
White Buffalo, Mackenzie.
Big Horn, Lewis fy Clerk, Travels.

Var. 2. Ovis Californiana, Douglas, Zool. Journ. iv. 332; Blyth,
P. Z. S. 1840, 65 ; Ann. $ Mag. N. H. vii. 199. t. 5. f. b,
horns; Feruss. Bull. Sci. Nat. xviii. 447; Lesson, Compl.
Buffon, x. 213.

Berindo, Forbes, California.

Wild Sheep, Venegos, California.

Missiliones, M. A. Pigafette in Ramusium, i. 354 b, iii. 361 b.

Hob. N. America ; California.

Male. California. Presented by Capt. Fitzroy, R.N.
Male and female. California. Presented by the Hudson's
Bay Company.

Probably the same as the Ammon of Northern Siberia.

b. Crumen none. Skull without infraorbital pit. Tail moderate.

3. PSEUDOIS.

Horns smooth, subcylindrical, directed towards the sides
(nearly at right angles with the axis of the body), and recurved
backwards at the tip, with a distinct longitudinal ridge on inner ?
side. Forehead convex. Neck not maned. Tear-bag none. Inter-
digital pores distinct. Body covered with hair, dark lateral streak
distinct. Tail well developed, not tufted at the end. Skull with-
out any infraorbital pit or fissure. Females sometimes hornless.

Pseudois, sp., Hodgson, Var. Gen. Ruminants, 1846; Journ.

Asiat. Soc. n. 173.
Ovis ft Sundevall, Pecora, 90.

1. PSEUDOIS NAHOOR. The NAHOOR or NERVATE or SNA.
Ovis Nahura, Hodgs.; Gray, Cat. Mamm. 170.
O. Nayaur, Hodgs. J. A. S. B. i. 347.

H 5



178 MAMMALIA.

O. Nahoor, Hodgs. P. Z. S. 1834, 107; J. A. S. B. iv, 1835,

492; x. 1840, 231. t. 1. f. 2, t. 2; Blyth, Proc. Zool Soc.

1840, 66 ; Ann. N. H. vii. t. 5. f. 6, 7, x. 913, xi. 283; J. A.

S. B. x. 867; Sundevall, Pecora, 90.
O. Nahur, Hodgs. Calc. J. N. H. iv. 291.
O. Thur, non var., Hodgs. P. Z. S. 1833, 105; 1834, 99?
Nepal Ram or Nervate, Hardw. Icon. ined. B. M. 10,975. t. 194,

horns.

Ovis Ammon (part.), Richardson, Fauna Bor. Amer. i. 274.
Ovis Bun-hell, part., Blyth, P. Z. S. 1838, 79.
Burrhal or Nahoor, Ogilby in Royle's Himal. i. 75.
The Nahur or Nahoor, Gray, List Hodgson Mamm. fyc. B. M.
Hob. Nepal, Northern hilly region.

Female. Nepal.

Female, horns directed on one side. Nepal.

Horns of male on base. Nepal.
> Horns of male on base. Nepal.

Male, skin in fragments. Nepal. Presented by B. H. Hodg-
son, Esq.

Male. Ladank. Presented by the East India Company.

OSTEOLOGY.

Base of skull of male, with horns. Nepal.

Skull of a young male. Nepal. Presented by B. H. Hodg-
son, Esq.

Various separate bones of body and limbs. Nepal. Presented
by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

Skull. Nepal. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

Skull, female. Nepal. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

Horns.

Skull. India. From Mr. Argent's Collection.

Horns. India. From Mr. Argent's Collection.

Two single horns. India. From Mr. Argent's Collection.

Var. 1. Smaller, more robust, with shorter ears and very dark

horns, without white.
Burul, Hutton, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng. 1839, 994 ; 1840, 568 ;

Bengal Sporting Mag. 1839, 295.
Ovis Bhurrel (Bhurrell Sheep), Ogilby, P. Z. S. 1838, 79 ; Wa-

terhouse, Cat. Zool. Soc. Mus. Supp. 9. n. 406, 1839.
Ovis Burrhel, Blyth, P. Z. S. 1840, 67; Ann^fy Mag. N. H. vii.

248. t. 5. f. 7, horns; Sundevall, Pecora, 90.
Pseudois Burhal, Hodgson, J. A. S. Bengal, 1846, 308.
Hob. Barenda Pass.

The Nahoor inhabit the Himalayas; they are distinguished
from the Sheep by the want of the eye-pits ; the rounded, uncom-



MAMMALIA. 179

pressed, smooth horns, directed upwards and backwards with
great divergency, and with their round points again hent inwards;
by their short, deer-like tail, which is rather longer than that of
the Wild Sheep and not disked. They rut in winter, gestate 5
months, and breed in the summer.

Their habits resemble those of the Nyens or Wild Sheep, but
the two never commingle nor approach each other, nor will the
male, however long and completely they are tamed, have sexual
commerce with domestic Sheep. Ribs 13 pair. Hodgson.

The Nahoor is much less easily acclimatized in foreign parts
than the Jharal, in confinement more resigned and apathetic.
I have tried in vain to make the Nahoor breed with tame Sheep,
because he will not copulate with them. Hodgson, J. A. S. B.
iv. 493.

4. AMMOTRAGTJS.

Forehead concave. Crumen none. Horns subcylindrical,
turning outward backward, with the tips inward towards each
other. Chin not bearded. Neck maned beneath. Tail rather
elongate, tufted at the end. Skull with no suborbital pit nor
fissure.

Pseudois, sp., Hodgson.

Ammotragus, Blyth ; Gray, Knowsley Menag.

Ovis y, Sundevall, Pecora, 90.

1. AMMOTRAGUS TRAGELAPHUS.

Ovis Tragelaphus, Desm. Mamm. 480. 1 ; Blyth, Ann. N. H. vii.

258.261; Gray, List Mamm. B.M.169; List Osteol. B.M. 61.
Ovis ornata, Geoff. Egypt, t. ; I. Geoff. Diet. Class. H. N. xi.

264; Lesson, Comp. Buffon, x. 312.
Capra Jaela, H. Smith, Griffith A. K. t. 192, not text.
Ammotragus Tragelaphus, Gray, Knowsley Menag. 40.
Mouflon d'Afrique, Cuv. R. A. i. 268 ; F. Cuvier, Mam. Lithog. t.
Mouflon a manchettes, Explor. Sci. Alger. Mam. t. 7-
Bearded Sheep, Penn. Quad. i. 46.
Siberian Goat, Penn. Syn. Quad. i. 18 (the skin described as

from India, nofsynon.).
Tragelaphus seu Hircocervus, Can Opusc. 59.
Aoudad, Jackson, Morocco; Knight, Mus. Anim. Nat. f. 671.
Fichtall or Lerwea, Shaw, Trav. 243.
Antilope Lervia, Pallas, Spic. xii. 12; Gmelin, S. N. i. 182;

Fischer, Syn. 480.
Hab. N. Africa.

Bad state. North Africa.
Male, adult. North Africa.



180 MAMMALIA.

OSTEOLOGY.

Horns. North Africa.
Horns. North Africa.
Horns. North Africa.
Horns.

Pennant, in his Synopsis, i. 18, confounded this animal with
the Musimon ; and Pallas (Zool. Ross. Asiat. i. 230) on his au-
thority gave India as the habitat of the latter, hut the subgenus
was not known to inhabit the Himalaya at that period.

Tribe 2. GIRAFFINA.
Horns covered with a hairy skin, with a tuft of hair at the tip.

Camelopardina, Gray, Ann. Phil. 1825; Cat. Mamm. B.M. xxvi.

Camelopardalis, Cuv. Tab. Elem. 1798.

Giraffidse, Gray, L. M. Rep. xv. 307, 1821 ; H. Smith, Griffith

A. K. v.; J. Brookes, Cat. Mus. 63, 1828.
Devexa, Illiger, Prod. 104, 1811.
Plenicornia b, Latr. Fam. Nat. 1821.
Camelopardalidas, Selys Long champs, 1842.
Elaphiens, part., Pomet. I. c. 184.

Ruminalia stereoceria, part., Rafin. Anal. Nat. 56, 1815.
Ruminantia B. Pygnocerate, part., Bronn, Index Pal&ont. ii. 709.
Cameli /3, Wagler, N. Syst. Amph. 4-31, 1830.
Cervidse (part.), Ogilby, P. Z. S. 1836, 134.
Cervicornia , Sundevall, Pecora, 52.
Unguligrada, part., Sundevall, Pecora, 52.
Ossicomia, Ruppell, Verz. Senck. Samml. 183, 1845.
Camelopardalina, Sundevall, Pecora, 52.
Cainelopardinese, Lesson, N. Tab. R. A. 168, 1842.
Les Girafes, F. Cuvier, D. Sci. Nat. lix. 513.

1. GlRAFFA.

Lip not grooved, entirely covered with hair, much produced
before the nostril. Tongue very extensile. Neck very long. Body
short. Hinder legs short. False hoof none. Tail elongate, with
a tuft of thick hair at the end. Africa. Living in families on
the leaves of trees and shrubs.
Giraffa, Brisson, R. A. i. 37, 1763; Storr, 1780; Scopoli; Ra-

finesque, Anal. Nat. 56, 1815.

Cervus, sp., Linn. S. N. ed. 12. 92; Erxleb. S. A. 294, 1777.
Camelopardalis, Ray, Syn. 90; Aldrov.-, Cuvier, Tab. Elem.

1798; Schreb. Saugth.-, Lesson, N. Tab. R. A. 168; Desm.

1804; Illiger, 1811; Ogilby, P. Z. S. 1836, 134; J. Brookes,

Cat. Mus. 63 ; F. Cuvier, D. S. N. lix. 513 ; Fischer, Syn. 455.



MAMMALIA. 181

Camelopardalus, Charlet.
Giraffe, Penn. Hist. Quad. i. 58.

1. GIRAFFA CAMELOPARDALIS. The GIRAFFE or CAMEL-
LEOPARD.

Cervus Camelopardalis, Linn. S. N. i. 92 ; Erxleb. Syst. 294.
C. Capensis, Geoff. ; Ogilby, P. Z. S. 1836, 134 ; Lesson, N. Tab.

R. A. 168.

Camelopardalis Giraffa a, Sundevall, Pecora, 52.
Giraffa Camelopardalis, Brisson, R. A. 61 ; Zimm. Geog. Gesch.

ii. 125.
Camelopardalis Girafa, Gmelin, S. N. i. 181 ; Schreb. Saugth.

1140. t. 255-255*; Desm. N. Diet. xiii. 165. t. B. 6; Mamm.

449 ; F. Cuv. Diet. Sci. Nat. xviii. 555 ; Lesson, N. Tab. R. A.

168; Gray, List Mamm. B. M. 170; List Osteol. B. M. 62;

Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. ii. t. 40; Thunb. Mem. Petersb. iii.

311; J. Geoff. Diet. Class. H. N. vii. 354; Cretzschm. in

Ruppell, Zool. Atlas, 23. t. 8, 9; Fischer, Syn. 455. 623; H.

Smith, G. A. K. v. 80?.

Var. 1. Paler.

Camelopardalis Girafa |3. JSthiopica, Sundevall, Pecora, 52; Act.

Stockh. 1842, 244.
Camelopardalis Sennaarensis, Geoff.
Camelopardalis ^thiopicus, Ogilby, P. Z. S. 1836, 134.
Camelopardalis, Plin. H. IV.viii.; Gesner, Quad. 160. fig.; Alpin.

Mg. i. 236. t. 14. f. 4.
Camelo-pardalus, Jonst. Quad. t. 39 ; Cateret, Phil. Trans. Ix.

27. t. 1.

Camelus Indicus, Jonst. Quad. t. 40.
Gyraife, Belon. Obs. 118. fig. 119.
Tragus Giraffa, Klein, Quad. 22.
Camelopard, Penn. Syn. 10; Quad. i. 65. f. 11.
Kamel paard, Vosmaer. Besch. t. , 1787.
Giraffe, Thevet. Cosmogr. i. 388. fig. 389; Buffon, H. N. xiii. 1;

Supp. iii. 320. t. 64, 65; vii. 345. t. 81; Levaill. Trav. t ;

Shaw, Zool. ii. 303. 1. 181, 182; Lichtenst. Reise, ii. 451,463;

Clot Bey, Acad. Sci. Petersb. vi. 6 (anat.).
Giraffe or Cameleopard, Harris, W. A. S. A. t. 11, and head;

Thibaut, Proc. Z. S. 1836.
Hab. Africa ; Cape of Good Hope ; ^Ethiopia ; Sennaar. West

Africa; Senegal and Bornou.

Male (16 feet high) and female. S. Africa. Presented by W.
Burchell, Esq., LL.D.

Male (in bad state). S. Africa. Presented by the College of
Surgeons. Col. Paterson's specimen.



182 MAMMALIA.

Young male. Central Africa. Presented by Capt. Clapperton,
R.N., and Col. Denham.

Male (18 feet high). S. Africa. Presented by the Earl of Derby.
Male. N. Africa. From the Zoological Society's Collection.

OSTEOLOGY. Alton, Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. xii. 332. t. 36 ; Owen,

Trans. Zool. Soc. ii. t. 40 ; Ruppell, Zool Atlas, t. 9 ; Geoff.

Ann. Sci. Nat. xi. 210; Salze, Mem. Mus. xiv. 68; Owen,

Trans. Zool. Soc. ii. t. 40.

Skull of male. South Africa. Presented by Dr. Burchell.

Skull of male. Presented by Dr. Burchell.

*Skeleton. N. Africa. From the Zoological Society's Col-
lection.

ICON.

Cervus camelopardalis, Linn. G. Forster, Icon. ined. B. M.
t. 15, from a painting of Baron de Flettenberg, improved from a
dry head; t. 16, a head.

" Mr. Wahlenberg has seen the dark and light coloured varie-
ties mixed together in the same herd in tropical parts of Africa.
The males are generally dark and the females pale, but this is
not always the case. He has sent to Stockholm the skin of a
female from Caffreland, which is as pale as the specimens from
Sennaar." Sundevall in a Letter, 1850.

Subfamily II. Horns deciduous, covered when young with a
deciduous hairy skin, or entirely wanting.

Tribe 3. CERVINA.

Cutting-teeth none in upper jaws. Horns deciduous, often
wanting in the females. Tarsus hairy on the hinder side. False
hoofs distinct.

Cervus, Linn.; Cuv. T. E. 1798.

Cervidae, Gray, Lond. Med. Rep. xv. 307 ; Hodgson, Journ. Asiat.

Soc. Beng. 1850.

Cervina, Gray, Ann. Phil. 1825; Cat. Mamm. B. M. xxvii.
Plenicornia a, Latr. Fam. Nat. 63, 1825.

Cervidje, H. Smith, Griff. A.K.v. 182 ; Selys Longchamps, 1842.
Cervina, Selys Long champs, 1842 ; Wiegm. ; Cabals in R. Schom-

burgle, Reisen in British Guiana, iii. 784.
Elaphiens, Pomet. I. c. 184.
Les Chevrotains et Les Cerfs, F. Cuv. 1829.
Ruminantia B. Pygnocerate, part., Bronn, Index Palceon. ii. 709.
Capreoli, Illiger, Prod. 104, 1811; Ruppell, Verz. Senck. Samml.

183, 1845.



MAMMALIA. 183

Les Cerfs (Cervus), F. Cuvier, Diet. Sci. Nat. lix. 513, 1829.
Cervidae seu Ceratoenta, /. Brookes, Mus. Cat. 61, 1828.
Les Cerfs, Lesson, Mamm. i. 259.

Blainville proposed to divide the species thus : A. Horns
sessile, a. Horns divided. 1. Elans. 2. Rennes. 3. Daims.

4. Cerfs. 5. Axis. 6. Chevreuils. b. Horns simple. 7- Da-
guets. B. Horns pedicelled. 8. Cervules. In the same note
he divides the species according to their geographic distribution.
Desm. Mamm. 449, 1822.

M. Bravard divides the Fossil Deer of Puy du Dome into two
subgenera, thus: 1. Catoglochis, with the lower anterior snag
on the crown. 2. Anoalochis, with it above the crown. Fide
Lesson, Hist. Nat. Mamm. 1836, p. 259.

Lesson, in the Manuel de Mammalogie, 1827, p. 355, thus
arranges the species of the genus Cervus : A. 1 . Elans.
B. 1. Rennes. 2. Daims. 3. Cerfs propr. dit. 4. Axis * ta-
chetees, ** sans taches. 5. Chevreuils * ancient continent,
** nouveau continent. 6. Daguets. 7- Cervules.

Colonel Hamilton Smith has adopted the section proposed by
De Blainville ; he regarded them as sections or subgenera, and
gave them the following Latin names : 1. Alces. 2. Rangifer.
3. Dama. 4. Elaphus. 5. Rusa. 6. Axis. 7- Capreolus. 8.
Mazama. 9. Subulo. 10. Stylocerus. Griffith, A. K. v. 1827;
translated Fischer, Syn. Mam. ii. 612, 1830; and Lesson, Compl.
Buffon Mamm. x. 259, 1836.

Professor Sundevall proposed the following genera and sub-
genera: 1. Alces. 2. Rangifer. 3. Cervus. A. a. Cervus.
. Hippelaphi. y. Hyelaphus. d. Dama. B. a. Mazama.
/3. Blastoceri. y. Furciferes. S. Subulones. 4. Capreolus.

5. Prox. (6. Moschus. 7. Tragulus.)

Mr. Gray, in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society (1836,
67), proposed to arrange the species of Deer into three sections,
according to the position of certain tufts of hair on the hind-legs,
thus : 1. A tuft of hair below the middle of the outside of the
metatarsus. 2. Above the middle of the outside of the meta-
tarsus ; and 3. With a tuft of hair on the inside of the hock.
Dr. Sundevall in his Pecora has adopted these divisions. These
tufts have the advantage of being found in all ages and in both
sexes, so that they can be consulted when the horns are deficient.

M. Pucheran (Diet. Univer. Hist. Nat. iii. 314, 1843) divides
the Deer as follows: A. With flat horns. 1. C. Dama (and
var. mauricus). B. With round horns, a. With more than two
andouilleres. 1. C. Virginianus. 2. C. Duvaucellii. 3. C. Wal-
lichii. 4. C. Elaphus. 5. C. Wapiti. 6. C. macrotis. 7. C.
macrurus. 8. C. occidentalis. 9. C. Elaphoides. b. With only
two andouilleres. 10. C. Hippelaphus. 11. C. Aristotelis. 12.



184 MAMMALIA,

C. equinus. 13. C. marianus. 14. C. Peronii. 15. C. uni-
color. 16. C. Axis. 17. C. porcinus. 18. C. nudipalpebra.
19. C. Leschenaultii. 20. C. Capreolus. 21. C. Mexicanus.
22. C. paludosus. 23. C. campestris. c. Cerfs daguets. 24.
C. Nemorivagus. 25. C. rufus. This essay is a mere compila-
tion without any examination.

M. Pucheran, in his " Monographic des especes du Genre
Cerf " (Comptes Eendus Acad. Sci. 1849, ii. 775), divides the
tribe Cerviens into four genera: 1. Alces. 2. Tarandus. 3.
Cervulus; and 4. Cervus.

Since the publication of Cuvier's Essay on Deer (Ossemens
Fossiles, iv.), where he exhibited the development of the horns
of several species, and in which he described several species from
the study of the horns alone, many zoologists have almost entirely
depended on the horns for the character of the species ; and Mr.
Hamilton Smith has been induced to separate some species on
the study of a single horn. But the facilities which menageries
have afforded of studying these animals, and watching the va-
riations which the horns of the species present, have shown that
several most distinct but allied species, as the Stag of Canada
and India, have horns so similar, that it is impossible to distin-
guish them by their horns. On the other hand, it has shown
that animals of the same herd, or even family, and sometimes
even the same specimen, under different circumstances, in suc-
ceeding years have produced horns so unlike one another in size
and form, that they might have been considered, if their history
was not known, as horns of very different species. These obser-
vations, and the examination of the different cargoes of foreign
horn which are imported for the uses of the cutler, each cargo
of which is generally collected in a single locality, and therefore
would most probably belong to a single species peculiar to the
district, have proved to me that the horns afford a much better
character to separate the species into groups than to distinguish
the allied species from one another.

Colonel Hamilton Smith, in his Monograph of the Genus, se-
parated them into genera according to the form of the horns.

In the Proceedings of the Zoological Society for 1836 I drew
attention to the glands on the hind-legs, as affording very good
character to arrange the genera proposed by Colonel Smith into
natural groups, which in most particulars agreed with the geo-
graphical distribution of the species.

Dr. Sundevall, in his Essay on Pecora, has availed himself of
the characters suggested in my paper, and has also pointed out
some other external characters, such as the form and extent of
the muffle, which afford good characters for the distinction of
these animals, characters which, I firmly believe, are much more



MAMMALIA. 185

important for the distinction of the genera and species than those
derived from the form of the skull or the modifications of the
teeth, or the form and size of the horns, as they are not, like
those parts, so liable to alteration from age, local circumstances,
and other changes during the growth of the animal; and the
characters derived from these parts can be seen in the females as
well as the males, which is not the case with the horns, as they
can only be observed in the male sex.

These examinations have shown that the form and extent of
the muffle, the position and presence of glands on the hind-
legs, the general form of the horns, and the kind of hair which
forms the fur, taken together, afford the best characters for the
arrangement of the species into natural genera, and these genera
into groups. And I believe that the progress of zoology, and
the natural arrangement and affinities of animals, are best pro-
moted by the general study of all the parts of the animal taken
together, rather than confining one's attention to any set of charac-
ters, and believing them as much more important than the others.

The Deer may be thus divided :

A. The Deer of the Snowy Regions have a very broad muzzle en-

tirely covered with hair. The horns are expanded and pal-
mate ; and the fawns are not spotted.

a. The Alcine Deer have no basal anterior snag to the horns,

and a small bald muffle between the nostrils, as the genus
Aids.

b. The Rangerine Deer have a large, basal anterior snag to the

horns, close on the crown or bur, and no muffle, as Tarandus.

B. The Deer of the Temperate or Warm Regions have a tapering

muzzle ending in a bald muffle. The fawns, and sometimes
the adults, are spotted.


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