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Catalogue of the specimens of Mammalia in the collection of the British Museum (Volume 3) online

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c. The Elaphine Deer have a distinct, anterior basal snag to the

horns, the muffle broad and separated from the lip by a
hairy band, and the tuft of hair on the outside of the hind
leg above the middle of the metatarsus, as Cervus and Dama.

d. The Rusine Deer have a distinct, anterior basal snag to the

horns, the muffle very high and not separate from the edge
of the lips, and the tuft of hair on the outside of the hind
leg above the middle of the metatarsus, as Recervus, Pa-
nolia, Rusa, Axis, HyelapJius, Cervulus.

e. The Capreoline Deer have no basal anterior snag to the horns,

the first branch being some distance above the bur, the cru-
men (and pit in the skull) generally small, as Capreolus>
Cariacus, Blastocerus, Furcifer, Coassus, and Pudu.



186



MAMMALIA.



The Alcine and Rangerine Deer are confined to the northern
part of both continents ; the Elaphine and Rusine Deer to the
Eastern World (the latter almost exclusive to the warmer part
of Asia). All the Capreoline Deer are peculiar to America. The
only exceptions to these rules are, the Wapity Deer of the Ela-
phine group is found in Northern America, and the Roebuck and
Ahu of the Capreoline group are found in Europe and North
Asia.

I. The Deer of the Snowy Regions. Muzzle very broad, entirely
covered with hair. Fawns not spotted. Horns expanded and
palmated. Tail short. Skull : nose-cavity very large. In-
termaxillaries not reaching to the nasals.

Deer of the Snowy Region, Gray, Ann. fy Mag. N. H. 1850;

Gleanings Knowsl. Menag.
Cervus 1, Blainv. Bull. Soc. Phil. 1816, 74, note.

1. Alcine Deer (Alcece}. Horns without any basal snag near the
crown. Muzzle with a small bald muffle between the nos-
trils.

Alcine Deer, Gray, Ann. fy Mag. N. H. 1850 ; Knowsl. Menag.

Anoglochis, sp., Bravard.

Alcedze, J. Brookes, Mus. Cat. 61, 1828.

1. ALCES.
Alee, H. Smith.

Muzzle very broad, produced, and covered with hair, but there
is a small, moist, naked spot in front of the nostrils. Neck
short and thick. Hair thick and brittle. Throat rather maned
in both sexes. Hind-legs have the tuft of hair rather above the
middle of the metatarsus. Males have palmated horns, subcy-
lindrical at the base, expanded and palmated above, without any
basal snag. The nose-cavity in the skull is very large, reaching
behind to a line over the front of the grinders. The intermax-
illaries are very long, but do not reach to the nasal. The nasals
are very short. See Cuv. Oss. Foss. iv. t. 9. f. 49.

They live in woods in the northern parts of both continents.

Cervus 1. Alces, H. Smith in Griffith A. K. v. , 1827.
Alces, Gray, L. Med. Repos. 1821 ; List Mamm. B. M. ; Lesson,

Mamm. i. 259; N. Tab. R. A. 269, 1842; Ogilby, P. Z. S.

1836, 135; Sundevall, Pecora, 54.
Elans, Blainv. in Desm. Mamm. ii. 448, 1822.
Cervus, sp., Fischer, Syn. 441.



MAMMALIA. 187

I. ALCES MALCHIS. The ELK or MOOSE.
Dark brown. Legs yellower.

Alces antiquorum, Ruppell, Verz. Senck. Samml. 183, 1845.
Cervus Alces, Linn. S. N. i. 92; Gmelin, S. N. i. 175; Brisson,

R. A. 93; Pallas, Zool R. A. i. 201; Zimm. Geog. Gesch.ii.

127 ; Schreb. Saugth. 968. t. 246 a, b, c, d; Desm. N. Diet.

H. N. v. 519; Mamm. 430; F. Cuvier, Diet. Sci. Nat. vii.

461 ; Davelli, K. Sv. Vet. Handl. 1819, 207; Desmoul D. Class.

H. N. iii. 374; Fischer, Syn. Mam. 441. 613; Richardson,

Fauna Bor. Amer. 232.

Cervus Alces Alces, H. Smith, Griffith A. K. v. 771.
Alces (Cervus) Alces, Sundevall, Pecora, 54.
Alces Malchis, Ogilby, P. Z. S. 1836, 135.
Alces palmatus, Gray, List Mamm. B. M. 182; Cat. Osteol. B.

M. 70.

Alces Europeus, J. Brookes, Mus. Cat. 61.
Moose Deer, Dudley, Phil. Trans, n. 368. 165 ; Dale, Phil. Trans.

n. 444. 384.

Moose or Elk, Catesby, Carol. App. 27.
Elk, Laws. Carol. 123 ; Penn. Syn. 40. t. 7 ; Quad. i. 105. 1. 17;

Shaw, Mus. Lever, i. 33. t. 8; Gen. Zool. ii. 261. t. 174, 175;

Knight, Mus. A.N.L 585, 586, 605.
Elan, Buffon, H. N. xii. 79. t. 7 ; Supp. vii. 318. t. 80 ; Perrault,

Anim.i. 179. t. 25; Cuvier, R. A. i. 254; Oss. Foss. iv. 64.
Orignal, Lu. Houtan, Voy. 72; Charlev. Nouv. France, iii. 126;

Dierville, Acad. 122; Allam, Buff. H. N. xv. 50. t. 2; Buffon,

Supp. iii. 133; Fischer, Syn. 441. 613.

American Black Elk(C. Alces ft.), Ham. Smith, Griffith A.K.v. 771.
Elch, Wangenheim, Neu. Schrift. Berl. Naturf. Fr. i. 1. t. 1.
Loss, Russians in Siberia.
Flat-horned Elk, Jeffers. Notes Virginia, 49.
Cervus palmatus Alee, Klein, Quad. 577- t. 28 $ .
Alces, Caesar, Bell. Gall. vi. c. 27 ; Gesner, Quad. i. fig. 2. fig. ;

Jonston, Quad. 92. t. 30, 31.

Alee, Plin. Hist. Nat. viii. c. 15; Heinsii Dissert, de Alee, 1767.
Hab. The Northern Regions of America and Europe.

Female, adult. N. Europe. Presented by the Earl of Derby.
Head, stuffed, with horns. Russia. Presented by Edward
Cayley, Esq.

OSTEOLOGY.

Elan, Daub. Buff. H. N. xii. t. 8, 9; Cuvier, Oss. Foss. iv. 64.

t. 4. f. 22-29, t. 6. f. 8, t. 5. f. 49, th.
Moose Deer, Dale, Phil. Trans, n. 444. 384. fig.
C. alces, Schreb. Saugth. t. 246. f. b.



188 MAMMALIA.

Horns. Sweden. Presented by the College of Surgeons. From
the Leverian Museum. Fig. Shaw, Mus. Lev. t. 8.

Skeletons of male and female. From the Zoological Society's
Collection.

Two skulls. From the Zoological Society's Collection.

Several pair of horns.

Two single horns of young.

Single horn. Udoholm, Sweden. Presented by the Earl of
Selkirk.

ICON.

American Moose Deer, drawing of horns in India ink, by S.
Parkinson. Bank. Icon. ined. B. M. Mammalia, t.

Several naturalists, especially Colonel Hamilton Smith, thought
they had observed a difference in the horns of the Russian and
American Elks ; I "have compared numerous specimens from both
countries, but can discover no appreciable distinction between
them.

The Elks, like most of the other Deer, and especially of the
animals which inhabit the cold and mountain regions, present a
very considerable difference in size, according to the scarcity or
abundance of the food which the locality they inhabit affords;
and the development of the horns appears to be greatly influ-
enced by this cause, so that the horns of the animal inhabiting
the more barren districts are much less developed than those
found in more fertile situations, and I think I have observed this
to be the case with both the Russian and the American horns ;
but on this head naturalists are likely to be much misled, as the
horns which are imported are generally chosen for their size and
perfect development, and the small and less-developed speci-
mens are only to be observed in the cargoes of horns which are
imported for economic purposes.

These observations are equally applicable to the Rein Deer,



2. Rangerine Deer or Reins. Horns with a large, basal, ante-
rior branch on the crown. Muzzle entirely hairy, without
any naked muffle.

The Rangerine Deer, Gray, Ann. fy Mag. N. H. 1850; Knows-

ley Menag.

Catoglochis, sp., Bravard.
Rangiferinidse, J. Brookes, Mus. Cat. 61, 1828.

1. TARANDUS.
The muzzle is entirely covered with hair. Crumen small, co-



MAMMALIA.



ift



vered with a pencil of hairs. The fur brittle, in summer short,
in winter longer, whiter ; of the throat longest. The hoofs are
broad, depressed, and bent in at the tip. The external metatarsal
gland above the middle of the leg. Horns in both sexes, elon-
gate, subcylindrical, with the basal branches and tip dilated and
palmated ; of the females smaller. Skull with rather large nose-
cavity, at least half as long as the distance to the first grinder ;
the intermaxillary moderate, nearly reaching to the nasal; a
small, very shallow suborbital pit; a very large, oblong, deep
fissure. They live in the arctic regions in both hemispheres,
migrating in flocks, and eating lichens.

Cervus 2. Rangifer, H. Smith in G. A. K. iv. ,1827; in

Fischer, Syn. ii. 612.
Rangifer, Lesson, Mamm. i. 260 ; N. Tab. R. A. 169, 1842 ; Gray,

List Mamm. B. M. 181 ; Cat. Osteol. B. M. 69 ; Sundevall,

Pecora, 64, 113, 131.
Tarandus, Ogilby, P. Z. S. 1836, 134.
Rennes, Blainv. Desm. Mam. ii. 448, 1822.

1. TARANDUS RANGIFER. The CARIBOU REIN DEER.

Dark brown in summer ; grey in winter. Young, brown yel-
low varied.

Cervus Tarandus, Linn. S. N. i. 93 ; Gmelin, S. N. i. 177 ; Am&n.

Acad. iv. 144. t. 1; ErxL Syst. 305; Retz. Fn. Suec. i. 42;

Fab. Faun. Grcenl.16', Schreb. Saugth.lS2S, t.248 A,B,C,D,E;

Desm. N. Diet. H. N. ii. 521 ; Mamm. 431 ; Ency. Meth. t. 58.

f. 3, 4 ; F. Cuvier, Diet. Sc. Nat. vii. 463. fig. ; Mam. Lithog.

t. ; Desmoul. Diet. Class. H. N. iii. 375 ; Fischer, Syn. 443.

631; Pallas, Zool. Ross. A. i. 106; Eversmann, Bull. Soc.

Imp. Nat. Mosq. 1?40, 59 ; Cuvier, Mam. Lithog. t. ; Bennett,

Gard. Z. S, 241. fig.; Richardson, F. Bor. Amer. 238.
C. Tarandus sylvestris (Woodland Caribou), Rich. F. B. A.

250.

Tarandus rangifer, Bonap. Index Mamm. Europ. 35, 1845.
Cervus rangifer, Rail Syn. 88 ; Klein, Quad. 23. t. 1 ; Brisson,

R. A. 92.

Caprsea Grrenlandica, Raii Syn. 90.
Cervus Grcenlandicus, Brisson, Reg. Anim. 88.
Cervus platyrhynchos, Vrolich, Rendier, t. 2, 1828.
Cervus coronatus, Geoff. MSS. in Schreb. Saugth. 1135; Desm.

Mamm. 439; Fischer, Syn. 613; H. Smith, Griffith A. K. v.

772; iv. 95. t. .f. 4.
Rangifer Tarandus, Gray, List Mamm. B. M. 181 ; Cat. Osteol.

B. M. 69 ; Sundevall, Pecora, 54.
Cervus mirabilis, Jonston, Quad. t. 36.



iO MAMMALIA.

Cervus palmatus, Jonston, Quad. t. 37.

Cervus cornibus rectis, &c., Caribou, Brisson, R. A. 91.

Tarandus, Plin. Hist. Nat. viii. c. 34 ; Aldrov. Eisulc. 859. fig.

861 ; Scheff. Lapp. 321. fig. p. 327.
Rangifer, Gesner, Quad. 950. fig. ; Hulden. Util. Rangifer Jena,

1694.
Renthier, Strals. Magaz. i. 394. t. 1; Wildung, Taschenb. f.

1805.
Renhirsch, Mellin, Schrift. Berlin Naturf, Fr. i. 1. 1. 2; iv. 128.

t. 5.

Rendier, Camp. Natursk. Verhand. 193. t. 1.
Tarandus borealis, Ruppell, Verz. SencJc. Samml. 183, 1845.
Tarandus Rangifer, T. Spitzbergensis, T. Norvegicus, T. Grcen-

landicus, T. Sibiricus, T. nodosus, et T. Canadensis, J. Brookes,

Mus. Cat. 61, 1828.
Rein Deer, Penn. Syn. 46. 36. t. 8. f. 1 ; Quad. i. 99. 1. 10. f. 2 ;

Knight, M. A. N. f.. 587-590; Shaw, Zool ii. 269. t, 176;

Brooke, Edinb. New Phil. Journ. 1827, 30.
Caribou, Sagard. Theodat. Canad. 751 ; Buffon, H. N. xv. 50. t. 3.
Renne, Buffon, H. N. xii. 79. 1. 10, 11, 12; Supp. iii. t. 18*.
Renn Thier, Eversmann, Bull, de Moscou, 1840, 58.
Rhenne, Cuvier, R. A. i. 254; Oss. Foss. iv. 61. t. 4. f. 1-18,

t. 5. f. 47.

Ren, Hollstein, K. Svensk. Vet. Handl. xxxv. 124.
Caribou or Carreboeuf, French Canadians.
Oleen, Russians in Siberia.

Greenland Buck, Edwards, Birds, i. t. 51, young.
Hirsch, Martin, Spitzb. 72. t. O. f. 2, young,

Var. Smaller. Horns more slender, less palmated. Hair short,
smooth, close, brown, with throat and belly white ; in summer
hair very close, thick, waved, brittle and erect, and white in
winter.

Cervus Tarandus Americanus, H. Smith, Griffith A. K.v. 773? ;
Fischer, Syn. 615 ?

Cervus Tarandus a. Arctica, Barren Ground Caribou, Richard-
son, Fauna Bor. Amer. 241. fig. 240, horns.

Common Deer, Hearne, Journ. 195. 208.

1. "Woodland Caribou, Richardson.
Caribou des Bois, H. Smith, G. A. K.

Tarandus nemoralis, Ruppell, Verz. Senck. Samml. 183, 1845.

2. Great Caribou of the Rocky Mountains, H. Smith.

3. Labrador or Polar Caribou, H. Smith.

4. Siberian Rein Deer (ridden by the Tungusians).



MAMMALIA. 191

5. Newfoundland Caribou.

Hob. Arctic Circle, America and Europe.

Male, horns half grown. North Europe. Presented by the
Earl of Derby.

Foetus, in spirit. Greenland. From Dr. Holler's Collection.

Adult, white (no skull nor horns). Presented by the Earl of
Derby.

Adult male, dark brown, Hudson's Bay. Presented by the
Hudson's Bay Company.

Male, nearly white. Hudson's Bay. Presented by the Hud-
son's Bay Company.

Female, dark brown. Hudson's Bay. Presented by the Hud-
son's Bay Company.

Female, nearly white. Hudson's Bay. Presented by the Hud-
son's Bay Company.

Two, very young. Hudson's Bay. Presented by the Hud-
son's Bay Company.

Female, dark brown. Sweden. Presented by Sir T. Wilson.

Young. Bred at Charlton. Presented by Sir T. Wilson.

Young. Bred at the Zoological Gardens.

OSTEOLOGY.

Renne, Daub. Buff. H. N. xii. t. 10, 11, 12; Cuvier, Oss. Foss.

iv. 61. t. 4. f. 1-18, t. 5. f. 47, skull .
C. Tarandus, Schreb. SaugtJi. t. 248 A, c, D.
C. rangifera, Klein, Quad. t. 1. fig.

Skeleton. Norway. Presented by Sir T. M. Wilson, Bart.

a. Skull, large ; horns small, slender branches small subulate,
middle branch largest.

b. Skull and horns large, long, slender (Cuv. Oss. Foss. t. 4.
f. 20) ; no basal branch to right horn.

c. Skull and horns; horns large, long, slender, apex broad,
branched behind, no basal branch to right horn.

d. Horns, middle-sized, the lower branch of left elongate,
forked; of right horn very broad, palmated. North America.
Presented by Captain Sir John Franklin, R.N.

e. Horns, small ; the lower and middle branch of right horn
confluent, palmated. North America. Presented by Captain
Sir John Franklin, R.N.

/. Horns, large (Cuv. Oss. Foss. t. 4. f. 17); basal branch of
left horn large, palmated ; of right smaller, lobed.

g. Horns, large (Cuv. Oss. Foss. t. 4. f. 9); basal branch of
left horn very large, palmated ; of right simple, subulate. Siberia?

h. Horns, long, elongated, slender, erect ; lower branches elon-
gate, lobed, top broad, lobed.



192 MAMMALIA.

i. Horn, middle-sized (Cuv. Oss. Foss. t. 4. f. 8) ; lower branch
of left horn simple ; of right broad, palmated. North America.
Presented by Captain Sir John Franklin, R.N.

j. Horns, large, long, slender, upper back branches recurved.
North America. Presented by Captain Sir John Franklin, R.N.

k. Horns, large, long, slender (Cuv. Oss. Foss. t. 4. f. 13).
Presented by Captain Sir John Franklin, R.N.

/. Horns, very small, basal branch subulate, upper and medial
branch bifid.

m. Horns, large, with the basal branch of each horn dilated,
palmated (Cuv. Oss. Foss. t. 4. f. 17). From Mr. Brookes's Mu-
seum.

n. Horns of the year (Cuv. Oss. Foss. t. 4. f. 1). Knowsley.
Presented by the Earl of Derby.

Horns of the year.

Horns, very large, with the head stuffed. Newfoundland.

Five pairs of horns. N.W. Coast of America. Presented by
Lieut. Wood and Capt. Kellett, R.N.

Varies exceedingly in size. In the British Museum there are
specimens varying from 41 to 50 inches high at the withers.

Dr. Richardson observes, " There are two well-marked and
permanent varieties of Caribou that inhabit the fur countries :
one of them (Woodland Caribou) confined to the woody and
more southern district ; and the other (Barren Ground Caribou)
retiring to the woods only in the winter, but passing the summer
on the coast of the Arctic Seas, or on the Barren Grounds so often
mentioned in this work." Faun. Bor. Amer. 299.

The large Siberian variety is ridden on by the Tungusians;
they also use them for draught, as the Laplanders do the smaller
variety.

They have a large variety in Newfoundland nearly as large as
an heifer. They have very large and heavy horns. There are
some horns of this variety in the British Museum. Dr. Midden-
dorf informed me that the horns of the large Siberian variety
were as large and greatly resembled the horns from Newfound-
land (Nova Scotia) in the Museum Collection.

Pallas observes, " Americae forte continua, gregatim verno tern-
pore per glacies admigrant, paulo diversi a Siberise inquilinis et
verosimillime Americani." Zool. Ross. Asiat. i. 208.

In winter the hair of the Rein Deer is long, thick, grey-brown ;
neck, rump, belly, ring round the hoof, and end of nose, white. In
summer the same animal has short, dark sooty-brown hair, with
the parts which are white in winter being rather paler grey-
brown.



MAMMALIA. 193

U. The Deer of the Temperate or Warm Regions. Muzzle ta-
pering, ending in a bald, moist muffle. Fawn (and sometimes
the adult) spotted. Skull with a moderate nose-hole. Inter-
maxillaries reaching to the nasal. Tail well developed. Cru-
men and suborbital pit in skull distinct. The spots of the
young generally disappear in the adult, or are only to be
seen when the animals are in high condition. The fur is
shorter and brighter in summer, and greyer in winter.

Deer of Temperate and Warm Regions, Gray, Ann. fy Mag. 2V.

H. 1850; Knowsley Menag.
Cervus, Sundevall, Pecora, 54.

3. The Elaphine Deer. Horns with a distinct anterior basal
snag close on the crown. Muffle broad, shallow, separated
from the upper lip by a hairy band, with only a narrow in-
terruption in front. External metatarsal gland above the
middle of the bone. Skull with a large, deep suborbital pit.

Elaphine Deer, Gray, Ann. fy Mag. N. H. 1850; Knows. Menag.
Catoglochis (part.), Bravo -d, Foss. du Dome.
Cervus 1. (C. Veteris orbis), Sundevall, Pecora, 54.
Elaphida?, J. Brookes, Mus. Cat. 61, 1828.

1. CERVUS.

Horns round, erect, with an anterior basal snag, a medial an-
terior snag, with the apex divided into one or more branches,
according to the age of the animal. Crumen well- developed.
Hoofs narrow, triangular, compressed, covered with brittle, opake
hair. The rump is generally ornamented with a pale mark. Skull
with a large, deep suborbital pit. Horns with one or two branches
on the middle of the front of the beam.

Cervus ( 4. Elaphus), H. Smith, Griffith A.K.v. . 1827 ; in
Fischer, Syn. 612; Lesson, Mamm. i. 262; N. Tab. R.A. 169.
Cervus (Elaphus), Ogilby, P. Z. S. 1836, 135.
Cervus 1. a. (C. nobilis), Sundevall, Pecora, 55.
Cerfs, Blainv. Desm. Mamm. ii. 448, 1822.
Elaphus, J. Brookes, Cat. Mus. 61.

a. Hoofs rather broad, semicircular. Tail very short. Hair in
winter soft. America. STRONGYLOCEROS.

1. CERVUS CANADENSIS. The WAPITI.

Red brown. Rump with a very large, pale disk extending far
above the base of the tail, and with a black streak on each side



194 MAMMALIA.

of it. Male with hair of throat elongated, black, with reddish
tips.

Stag, Dale, Phil. Trans, n. 444. 384.

Cerf de Canada, Perr. Anim. ii. 55. t. 45? (no rump disk); Cu-

vier, R. A. i. 256; Oss. Foss. iv. 26. t. 3. f. 13-22.
Cervus Canadensis, Brisson, R. A. 88; Schreb. Saugth. 990.

t. 246 ; Gray, List Mamm. B. M. 177 ; Cat . Osteol B. M. 65 ;

Desm. Nouv. D. H. N. v. 546 ; Mam. 433 ; Ency. Meth. t. 58.

f. 2 ; F. Cuv. Diet. Sc. Nat. vii. ; Desmoul. Diet. Class. H. N.

iii. 377 ; Fischer, Syn. 442.
Elaphus Canadensis, J. Brookes, Cat. Mus. 62.
Cervus Elaphus var. Canadensis, Erxl. Syst. 305 ; Gmelin, S. N.

i. 176.
Cervus Strongyloceros, Schreb. t. 247; Rich. Faun. Bor. Amer.

251 ; Sundevall, Pecora, 55.
C. Major, Ord in Desm. Mam. 432.
Cervus Wapiti, Leach,Journ. Phys. Ixxxv. 66 ; Mitchell, Mam. N.

York; Barton, Journ. ii. Supp. 36; F. Cuvier, Mam. Lithog.

t. ; Desmoul. Diet. Class. H. N. iii. 377 ; Blyth, J. Asiat. Soc.

Beng. x. 750. t. . f. 1-6, horns.
American Elk, Bewick, Quad.
North-western Stag, C. occidentalis, H. Smith, G. A. K. iv. 101.

t. . f. 2, horn; Fischer, Syn. Mam. 614, not Syn.
Wapiti, Warden, Etats Unis, v. 638; Wied, Voy. Amer. Sept. iii.

302; Knight, Mus. A. N. f. 607, 611, 580.
Stag of Carolina, Lawson, Carol. 123.
Stag of America, Catesby, Carol. App. 28.
Alces Amer. corn, teretibus, Jeffers. Notes Virginia, 57, 1788.

Far.? Smaller.

Red Deer (or Canadian Stag), Warden, Etats Unis, v. 637.

Elk, Lewis fy Clerk.

Stag, Penn. Act. Zool. i. 27.

Wewaskiss, Hearne, Journ. 360.

Hob. North America.

Young. N. America. Born at the Surrey Zoological Gardens.

Male, adult. N. America. Born at Windsor Park. Presented
by Edward Cross, Esq.

OSTEOLOGY.

Cerf du Canada, Daub. Buffon H. N. vi. t. 26 ; Cuvier, Oss. Foss.

iv. t. 3. f. 13, 17-20, 22.
Cerf, Perrault, Anim. ii. 65. f. 45.
C. Strongyloceros, Schreb. Saugth. t. 247 G.

Horns, large. St. Diego. California. Presented by C. Pent-
land, Esq.



MAMMALIA. 195

Horns, long, two lower branches near together. North Ame-
rica.

Horns, small, two lower branches rather near. North America.

Horns, large, beams without the upper frontal branches, the
tip of right horn subpalmate (perhaps a different species).

The American Elk still exists on the upper branches of the
Susquehanna River, and thence westward may occasionally be
found in all favourable situations to the Pacific Ocean. Those
observed on the mountains south of the Columbia River were of
unusual size. Peale.

Var. Smaller.

Hab. Plains of California and the upper parts of the Missouri
River, in large herd*

The Elks in California are very abundant ; they are not gene-
rally so large as those inhabiting the mountain districts, but we
can find no specific character to separate one from the other.
Peale.

b. Hoofs narrow, triangular. Tail moderate. Covered with harsh
hair. Western World. CERVUS.

2. CERVUS ELAPHUS. The STAG.

Brown. Rump with a pale spot extending rather above the
upper surface of the base of the tail.

Cervus Elaphus, Linn. S. N. i. 93; Gmelin, S. N. i. 176; Erxl.

Syst. 301 ; Schreb. Saugth. 996. t. 247 A, B, c, D, E ; Desm.

Mam. 434 ; Ency. Meth. t. 57. f. 3, 4 ; F. Cuvier, Mam. Li-

thog. t. ; Blyth, J. Asiat. Soc. Beng. x. 750. t. . f. 10, 1 1 (12?);

Sundevall, Pecora, 55; Gray, List Mamm. B. M. 177; Cat.

Osteol. B. M. 65; Knowsley Menag.; Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850.
Cervus vulgaris, Linn. Mus. Ad. Frid. i. 11.
Elaphus communis, J. Brookes, Cat. Mus. 61, 1828.
Cervus nobilis, Klein, Quad. 23.
Cervus, Plinii Hist. Nat. viii. c. 32; Gesner, Quad. 354. fig.;

Agricola, des Hirchen, fyc. 1603; Aldrov. Bisulc. 769. fig. 774 ;

GrabcR ElaphographicB, 1667; Hill, Animal. 577- t. 28; Bris-

son, JR. A. 86.
*E\a(f)os, Aristot. Hist. Anim. ii. c. 7. n. 37 ; ^Elian, Anim. vi.

c. 11, 15; Oppian, Cyneg. ii. 176.
Stag or Red Deer, Penn. Brit. Zool. i, 34 ; Syn. 49 ; Quad. i.

114; Shaw, Zool. ii. 276. t. 117.
Biche, Buffon, H. N. vi. t. 10.
Faon du Cerf, Buffon, H. N. vi. t. 12.
Cerf, Buffon, H. N. vi. 65. t. 9.

i2



196 MAMMALIA.

Cerf commun, Cuvier, E. A. i. 255 ; Oss. Foss. iv. 24. t. 3. f. 1-

12; F. Cuv. Mam. Lith. t.
Hirsch, Riding, Jagdb. Th. t. 4, 5 ; Meyer, Thiere, i. t. 22; Wil-

dunger, Taschenb. 1794, i. t. 1. f. 2, 3 ; Schrank, Faun. Boic.

i. 41.

Rothhirsch, Bechstein, Naturg. DeutsM. 453.
Cervus Elephas Hippelaphus, Erxl. Syst. 304 ; Fischer, Syn. 447

(Old male. Neck rather maned).
C. Elaphus ft Gmelin, S. N. i. 176.
Cervus Germanicus, Brisson, R. A. 87.
Tragelaphus, Gesner, Quad. 296 c. fig.
Hippelaphus, Jonston, Quad. t. 35.
Brandhirsch, Gesner, Thier. 119. fig.
Pferdhirsch, Gesner, Thier. 210. fig.
Cerf d'Ardenne, French Authors.
Hab. Europe.

Male (not good state). Knowsley. Presented by the Earl of
Derby.

Adult female. France.
Fawn. France.

OSTEOLOGY.

Cerf, Buffon, H. N. vi. t. 13, 14, 18-25 ; Cuvier, Oss. Foss. iv.
t. 2.f. ll-20,t. 3. f.1-12.

Horns, with two frontal antlers. England.

Horns ; left divided into four long cylindrical branches ; right
with two frontal antlers, tip subpalmate ; perhaps of C. Cana-
densis ?

Horns, deformed. Germany.

Horns, deformed. Germany.

Horns, with a third horn on the right side. Germany.

Single horns, apex much branched. Germany.

Single horn, adult. Germany.

Single horn, adult. Germany.

Single horn, deformed, with only three branches. Germany.

Single horn, simple, compressed, notched at the tip. Ger-
many.

Single deformed stunted horn. Germany.

Skull and horns. Presented by the Earl of Derby.

Skeleton. From the Zoological Society's Collection.

Two pairs of horns. From Mr. Leadbeater's Collection.

Horns. From a bog. Presented by Jabez Allies, Esq.

Horns. From Mr. Argent's Collection.

Var.1 Hungarian Stag, Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 1841,
750. t. . f. 11, horns.



MAMMALIA. 19?

Var. ? Horns very large, larger than those of the Wapiti.
Hob. Assyrian Mountains ; Lord Arthur Hay.

Var. ? Half-fed specimens.

Cerf de Corse, Buffon, H. N. vi. 95. 1. 11; Cuvier, Oss. Foss. iv.

53.

Cervus Elaphus Corsicanus, Erxl., from Buffon.
Elaphus Corsicanus, J. Brookes, Cat. Mus. 61.
Cervus Mediterraneus, " Blainv."; Pucheran, Comptes Rendus,

1849, 779.

Cervus Corsicus, Bonaparte-, Gervais.
Hab. Corsica.

Buifon observes, of the Cerf de Corse, which has been regarded
as a variety to be distinguished by the smallness of its size, that
he " believes the size to depend on the scarcity of nourishment ;
for when moved to better pastures, in four years they become
higher, larger, and stouter than the Common Stag." Buffon,
Hist. Nat. vi. 95.

Var. Algeria. Caudal disc to base of the tail pale brown. Horns


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