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Catalogue of the specimens of Mammalia in the collection of the British Museum (Volume 3) online

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Hodgson.

3. RUSA HIPPELAPHUS. The MIJANGAN BANJOE.

Greyish brown. Tail not floccose, brownish at the tip. Anal
region not pale. Cheeks and upper part of the neck of the males
maned. Young : hair smooth.

Rusa ubi, R. saput et R. Tunjuc, Raffles, Linn. Trans, xiii.

268.
Cervus hippelaphus, Cuvier, Oss. Foss. iv. t. 5. f. 31, 34, 42; F.

Cuvier, Mam. Lithog. t. ; Raffles, Mem. 645.
Cervus Tunjuc, Vigors in Raffles Memoir, 645 ; Gray, P. Z. S.

1836, 67.
Greater Muntjac, Waterhouse, Cat. Mus. Zool. Soc. 1828, 13.

n. 302, 303 <? ?; 1839,39.
Cervus Rusa, S. Mutter, Nederl Verh. 45. t. 43.
Cerf Noir de Bengal, F. Cuv. Mam. Lithog. t. 2, in summer.
Rusa Hippelaphus, Gray, Knowsley Menag. 62 ; Proc. Zool. Soc.

1850.
Cervus Leschenaultii, Cuvier, Oss. Foss. iv. 508. t. 39. f. 9, from

horns only.



210 MAMMALIA.

Far. Smaller.

Cervus Molluccensis, Quoy fy Gaim. ; Eydoux, Guerin Mag. Zool.

1836, 26; Sundevall, Pecora, 56.
Cervus Rusa Molluccensis, S. Muller, Nederl. Verh. t. 43 $ , t. 35.

f. 1-4 ; Mus. Leyden, 1845.
Cervus Rusa Timorensis, Mus. Leyden, 1845.
Hob. Java.

Female. Java. From Gardens Zool. Soc.

This species was living some time at Knowsley and bred there.
In all its states was very distinct from the Samboor of continental
India.

The horns are similar to those of R. equina, but the body and
horns are smaller, and the hair of the young is smoother.

OSTEOLOGY.

Cervus Hippelaphus, Cuvier, Oss. Foss. iv. 40. t. 5. f. 31, 34, 35

(C. auritust), t. 5. f. 42.
Cervus Leschenaultii, Cuvier, Oss. Foss. iv. 508. t. 39. f. 9, horns

only.

Cervus Rusa, Mutter, Verh. I. A. t. 43. f. 1, 4.
Cervus (Rusa) Molluccensis, Muller, Verh. I. A. t. 43. f. 5.
Cervus Rusa Timorensis, Muller, Verh. I. A. t. 43. f. 6.

The specimen at Knowsley, received from Amsterdam, in sum-
mer had the fur formed of thick, rigid, waved quills. The fur
is reddish brown, minutely punctated ; on the head, neck, dorsal
line and shoulders blacker ; the orbits yellowish ; the lips, chin,
gullet, edge of nose, whiskers, and inside of the ears, white,
without any black spot on the side of the lower lip.

4. RUSA EQUINUS. The SAMBOE.

Brown, not spotted. Tail rounded, floccose, black at the tip.
Young very obscurely spotted. Hair rigid and rough. Skull :
suborbital pit moderate, oblong, narrow.

Rusa, Raffles, Linn. Trans, xiii. 263.

Cervus equinus, Cuvier, Oss. Foss. iv. 44. t. 5. f. 30, 37, 38.

f. 42; H. Smith, Griffith A. K. iv. 112. t.; Sundevall, Pecora,

55 ; S. Muller, Nederl. Verh.
Eland or Elk, of the Dutch Sportsmen.
Hob. Sumatra; Borneo.

OSTEOLOGY.

C. equinus, Cuv. 0. F. v. t. 5. f. 30, 42.

The specimens received from Amsterdam in the Knowsley Me-
nagerie had the hair short, rigid, close-pressed, not waved ; dull
blackish brown ; the lips, chin, and spot above each eye, white ;



MAMMALIA. 211

lower lip with a black spot in the middle of each side ; whisker
black; ears nearly naked; inside and large spot at the upper
inner part of the base whitish.

Size smaller. Mane none. The peduncle of the horns rather
elongated^ and covered with hair.

5. RUSA PERONII. The SMALLER RUSA.

Brown, pale beneath. Hair rigid, thick, ringed. Muzzle dark.
Tail brown, floccose. Anal disk white. The hind part of the
feet hairy. The horns are thick and heavy. Skull : suborbital
pit large and deep. Cuvier, fig.

Cervus Peronii, Cuvier, Oss. Foss. iv. 46. t. 5. f. 41, horns, f. 45,

skull ; Sundevall, Pecora, 56.
Cervus Kuhlii, S. Mutter, Nederl Verh. 45. t. 44 ; Sundevall,

Pecora, 56.
Rusa Kuhlii, Gray, List Osteol. Spec. B. M. 68; Knowsley

Menag. ; Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850.
Hob. Timor and Luboc ; Bavian and Ternate.

Male. Timor. From the Ley den Museum.

OSTEOLOGY. Cuvier, Oss. Foss. iv. 46. t. 5. f. 41-45 ; S. Muller,
Nederl. Verh. t. 43. f. 12, 14.

Femur and tibia. Timor.

6. RUSA PHILIPPINUS. PHILIPPINE RUSA.

Forehead brown. End of nose and eyebrows brownish. Hair
rigid, rather short. Neck not maned. Feet naked behind.

Cerf de Philippine, Desm. Mam. 442.

Cervus (Muntjac) Philippinus, H. Smith, Griffith A. K. iv. 147.

t. 164. f. 5 (head), v. 803; Fischer, Syn. 622.
C. (Hippelaphus) Philippinus, Sundevall, Pecora, 56.
Cerf de Manille, Cuvier, Oss. Foss. iv. 46.
Rusa Philippinus, Knowsley Menag. 63 ; Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850.

Var. ? Tail black, dependent. Front of face dark.

Cervus Marianus, Cuvier, Oss. Foss. iv. 45. t. 5. f. 30, 37, 38, 46 ;

H. Smith, Griffith A. K. iv. 115. t., from Mus. Paris; Fischer,

Syn. 453 ; Sundevall, Pecora, 57.
Hab. Philippines.

OSTEOLOGY. Cuvier, Oss. Foss. iv. 45. t. 5. f. 39, 40, f. 46, skull.

Horns. Philippines. Presented by Capt. Sir Edward Belcher,
K.C.B. &c.



212 MAMMALIA.

This species has the horns or elongated peduncles like the
Muntjacs, but it is easily distinguished from them by the absence
of the ridge, and of the grooves on the face.

7- RUSA LEPIDA. SUNDEVALL RuSA.

Reddish brown. Back and sides varied, with pale spotted hair.
Vent disk small, white, black edged above. Tail longly hairy,
white, above black. Face brown, with a roundish white spot in
front of the usual oral black spot. Horns smooth, slender, nearly
straight, elongate, the basal snag bent down on the forehead.

Cervus (Hippelaphus) lepida, Sundevall, Pecora, 57.

Rusa lepida, Gray, Knowsley Menag. 63; Proc. ZooL Soc. 1850.

Hob. Java ? Young male specimen in Mus. Frankfort.

Scarcely as large as a Roebuck.

4. Axis.

Fur formed of thick polished hairs, fulvous, and beautifully
white spotted at all seasons. Face elongate, narrow. Ears large,
rather elongate and acute. Tail rather elongate. Legs nearly
equally long slender. The horns are placed on moderately long
peduncles. The skull is elongate, narrow, with an oblong, rather
small, deep suborbital pit.

Axis, Hodgson, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng. 1850, 7 ; Gray, Knows-
ley Menag. 64 ; Proc. ZooL Soc. 1850.

Cervus Axis, H. Smith, Griffith A.K.v. 182? ; Lesson, Mamm.
i. 267; N. Tab. R. A. 1?2, 1842.

Cervus Hippelaphus * * *, Sundevall, Pecora.

Axis tachetee, Blainv. Desm. Mam. ii. 448, 1822.

1. Axis MACULATA. The Axis or CHITTRA.

Fulvous, with a black dorsal streak ornamented, and two series
of white spots. Sides with many white spots in oblique curved
lines, and with a short white streak obliquely across the haunches.
Young fawn spotted exactly like the adult.
Axis, Pliny ; Buffon, H. N. xi. t. 38, 39; Cuvier, Menag. Mus. t. ;

Oss. Foss. iv. 38. t. 5. f. 24, 29.

Cervus Axis, Erxl. Syst. 312; Schreb. t. 250; H. Smith, Griff.
A. K. v. 786; Cuvier, Oss. Foss. iv. 39. t. 5. f. 29, horns;
Ogilby in Royle's Himal. 73 ; Bennett, Gard. Z. S. 253 ; Sun-
devall, Pecora, 57-

Axis maculata, J. Brookes, Cat. Mus. 62, 1828; Gray, List
Mamm. B. M. 178; Cat. Osteol. Coll. B. M. 178; Cat. Hodg-
son Coll. B. M. 32; Knowsley Menag. 63; Proc. ZooL Soc. 1850.



MAMMALIA. 213

Axis major, Hodgson, J. A. S. B. x. 914; Calcutta Journ. N. H.

iv. 292.

Axis minor, Hodgson, J. A. S. B. x. 914.
Axis medius, Hodgson, Icon. ined.
Cerf Cochon, Buffon, Hist. Nat. Supp. iii. 122. t. 18.
C. axis Ceylonensis, H. Smith, Griffith A. K.
Spotted Axis or Chittra, Hodgson, J. A. S. Beng. i. 346.
The Chittra or Axis, Hodgson, Mam. Icon. ined. n. 204. 1.
Langna, or Pada, or Spotted Porcine Deer, Hodgson, J.A. S.B.

i. 346.
The Thou or Spotted Porcine Axis, Hodgson, Mam. Icon. ined.

n. 204. 2 (horn smaller).
Axis medius, or Spotted Hog Deer, or Thou Langna of the Tarai,

Hodgson, I. c. 205, horns smaller.
Axis Deer, Knight, Mus. Anim. Nat. f. 614.
Hob. India; Ceylon.

Male. India. Presented by P. Ducane, Esq.

Var. 1. Blackish.

Cervus nudipalpebra, Ogilby, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1831, 136; 1839,
150; Sundevall, Pecora, 57. 131.

Female. India. Presented by Edward Cross, Esq.

Male and female. India.

Young. India.

Young? (yellow). India.

Foetus from spirits ? India.

Var. Smaller. Fulvous ; spots and a streak across the haunch

and along the lower part of side, white.

Axis minor, Hodgs. J. A. S. B. x. 914; Calc. J. N. H. iv. 292.
Axis medius, Hodgs. Icon. ined. 205.
Lesser Spotted Deer, Hodgs.
? Langna, or Puda, or Spotted Porcine Deer, Hodgs. J. A. S. B.

i. 346.
Hab. Nepal; Tarai.

OSTEOLOGY.

Axis, Daub. Buff. H. N. xi. t. 40; Cuvier, Oss. Foss. iv. 38. t. 5.
f. 24-29.

Cerf Cochon, Buffon, H. N. Supp. iii. t. 18 (not Pennant) ; Cu-
vier, Oss. Foss. iv. t. 5. f. 29.

Horns on frontal bone, slender, elongate, warty. India.
Horns on frontal bone, slender, elongate. India.
Horns on frontal bone, slender, elongate, simple. India.
Skull and horns of the normal state. Nepal. Presented by
B. H. Hodgson, Esq.



214 MAMMALIA.

Horns of the usual form, with two snags near the base of the
right, and one on the left side. Nepal. Presented by B. H.
Hodgson, Esq.

Horns, with three small snags near the base, and a short ter-
minal beam. Nepal. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

Horns on frontal bone, elongate, and very warty. Nepal. Pre-
sented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

Skull and horns. India.

Horns on frontal. India.

Horns on frontal. India.

Horns on frontal, India.

Horns on frontal, smooth. India.

Horns on frontal, very warty. India.

Horns on frontal bone, with two snags near the base of the
left, and one on the right side. Nepal. Presented by B. H.
Hodgson, Esq.

Horns on frontal bone.

Skull of male. Nepal. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

Horns on frontal bone. India.

Horns, very long, thick, with very short, thick frontal and
submedial branch on one.

Axis Pennantii.- Gray, Cat. Osteol. B. M. 180.

ICON.

Drawing of male. Hodgson, Icon. ined. B. M. t. 204. f. L
Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

Drawing of horns. Hodgson, Icon. ined. B. M. t. 212. f. 22.
Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

Drawing of male. Hodgson, Icon. ined. B. M. t. 204. f. 2.

Drawing of male and female. Hodgson, Icon. ined. B. M.
t. 205.

Drawing of horns. Hodgson, Icon. ined. B. M. t. 212. f. 33?

Large Axis. Hardw. Icon. ined. B. M. n. 10,975. t.126, t.127,
horns.

The horns of this species vary greatly in size.
Pennant describes two Deer, under the names of

1. Greater Axis, Penn. Syn. 52; Quad. 106=C. Axis y. Gmelin;

2. Middle-sized Axis, Penn. Quad. 106 = C. Axis /3. Gmelin;

from the horns alone. These are probably only large-horned
examples of the common species.

The Chitals inhabit the plains of India ; gregarious, the herds
being often very large. Tail elongate, reaching to the hocks,
ending in a point. The fur smooth and spotted, without any
mane. They rut in December and breed in May, and gestate
six months.



MAMMALIA. 215

3. Axis PSEUDAXIS. The SPOTTED Axis.

Fulvous, white spotted, a series of spots on the lower part of
each side, and an oblique series of spots on the haunches.

Cervus pseudaxis, Gervais, Voy. Bonite, 64. 1. 12; Institute, 1841,

419; Sundevall, Pecora, 57.
Hob. . Mus. Paris.

This species chiefly differs from Axis maculata in having a se-
ries of spots in the place of the oblique streak on the haunches.

Mule between Cervus Axis and C. pseudaxis, Pucker an, Compt.
Rendus Acad. Sci. 1849, 774.

M. Pucheran considers these two species to belong to differ-
ent sections of the genus! Compt. Rendus, 1849, 77.

5. HYELAPHUS, Sundevall.

Fur of moderately thick, palish hair, fulvous, and spotted in
the summer. Tail rather elongate. Legs rather short, the front
being rather the shortest. Face short, broad, and arched in front.
Ears short and rounded. Horns placed on moderately elongated
peduncles.

Hyelaphus, Gray, Cat. Osteol. B. M. 67; Knowsley Menag. 64;

Proc. Zoo/. Soc. 1850.
Cervus Hyelaphus, Sundevall, Pecora.
Axis, sp., Blainv. Desm. Mam. ii. 448, 1822 ; Lesson, Mamm. i.

268; H. Smith, G. A. K.

1. HYELAPHUS PORCINUS. The LUGNA PARA or SHGORIAH.

Brown or yellowish brown, with an indistinct, darker dorsal
streak, and with obscure whitish spots, but without any white
streak on the sides or haunches ; in the winter brown and spot-
less. Forehead, face and front of legs darker. Line down the
front of and the inside of the thighs white.

Porcine Deer, Penn. 42. t. 8. f. 2.

Cervus Hippelaphus var., Cuvier, Oss. Foss. iv. 43. t. 5. f. 31,

horns.
Cervus porcinus, Zimmer. Schreb. t. 251 ; Horsf. Proc. Z. Soc.

1839, 150; F. Cuvier, Mam. Lithog. t.; Ogilby in Royle's

Himal. 72; Proc. Z. Soc. 1839, 150.
Cervus (Hyelaphus) porcinus, Sundevall, Pecora, 58.
Axis porcinus, J. Brookes, Cat. Mus. 62, 1828 ; Hodgson, J. A.

S. B. x. 914; Calcutta Journ. N. H. iv. 292; Gray, Cat.

Hodgson Coll. B. M. 33.
Cervus niger, Hamilton, Icon. ined. ; Blainv. Bull. Soc. Philom.

1816, 76; Fischer, Syn. 454; Sundevall, Pecora, 60. 132.



216 MAMMALIA.

Brown Porcine Axis, Hodgson, Journ. A. Soc. Eeng. i. 346.
Hyelaphus porcinus, Gray, Cat. Osteol. E. M. 67 ; Knowsley

Menag. 64. t. 42; Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850.
Cervus Hippelaphus, var. 3, Cuvier, Oss. Foss. iv. 43 (for C. niger}.

Var. Albino, McClelland, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1839, 150.
Hob. India; Plains of Hindostan; Ceylon; Assam and Tarai
of the Kemaon Mountains; McClelland.

Male. India.

A flat, imperfect skin of young, with horns. Nepal. Presented
by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

? A flat skin of female, greyish, with broad dorsal streak ; fur
rough; head imperfect. Nepal. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

A flat skin of female, reddish, with narrow dorsal streak. Ne-
pal. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

OSTEOLOGY.

Porcine Deer, Penn. Hist. Quad. t. 19. n. 59, not Buffon, Supp.

Cervus niger, Blainv. Bull. Soc. Phil. 1816, 76. fig.

Skull of the female. Nepal. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

Skull, with horns. Nepal. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

Horns, separate. Nepal. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

Skull, with horns.

Skull, with horns. India.

Horns on frontal bone. India.

Horns, separate. India. Presented by General Hardwicke.

Horns, separate. India. Presented by General Hardwicke.

Horns, separate. India. Presented by General Hardwicke.

Two horns, single, not forked at the tip.

Skull and horns, var. frontal snag elongated and thick.

Four pair of horns. India. From Mr. Argent's Collection.

ICON.

Hog Deer, Cervus porcinus (head of female). Forster, Icon,
ined. B. M. 1. 14, from India.

Porcine Deer. Hardw. Icon. ined. B. M. n. 10,975. 1. 121 <?,
1. 122, head <?, t. 123 ?; n. 10,974 (t. 84). t. 99.

Drawing of male in winter, and female in summer. Hodgson,
Icon. ined. B. M. t. 201. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

Drawing of female in young and adult age. Hodgson, Icon,
ined. B. M. t. 202. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

The tail bushy and often carried erect. The males and females
in summer are reddish brown, with numerous white spots ; the
middle of the back rather darker. In winter the whole fur be-
comes blackish brown, and the spots disappear.

The Para live in families or small herds on the plains. They



MAMMALIA. 217

rut in December or January and breed in May, whence they
gestate six months. Hodgson.

Do not ascend the mountains. Ogilby.

Easily known from the Axis by being lower on its legs, and
there is no distinct black dorsal streak, nor white streak on
haunches. The horns are generally short, with only short snags
or branches, but they are sometimes as large as those of the Axis
Deer.

The Cervus Dodur, Royle, HimaL t. 5. f. 1, and Ogilby in
Royle, i. 73, of the Himalayas, " of an ashy grey colour, the size
of the female Antilope Cervicapra, and more graceful than the
Hog Deer," is only known from the above description and figure
of a female. As Hog Deer are said not to ascend the mountains,
it is probably a distinct species.

Cervus Pumilio, H. Smith, Griffith A. K. v. n. 788; McClel-
land, P. Z. Soc. 1839, 150, is perhaps only a variety of the Hog
Deer.

6. CERVULUS.

Horns on elongated pedicels, supported by longitudinal ridges
on the face, which have a naked moist groove on their side.
Canine teeth exserted. Crumen large and deep. Tail elongate
and tufted. Hoofs triangular and partly united in front by a
web; the false hoofs are small and transverse. Fur of thin,
shining hair, and not spotted. They have no tuft of hair on the
outside of the hind legs. Skull with a very large, deep, nearly
hemispherical suborbital pit. The young, before the horns ap-
pear, have a bald groove on the head.

Muntjacus, Gray, Lond. Med. Repos. 1821 ; Cat. Mamm. B. M.

xxvii.

Muntiacus, Rafinesque, Anal. Nat. 56, 1815.
Stylocerus, H. Smith, G. A. K. iv. 182; Lesson, Mamm. i. 273;

Nov. Tab. Reg. Anim. 174.
Prox (Moschatus), Ogilby, P. Z. S. 1836, 135; Sundevall, Pe-

cor a, 61.

Cervulus, Gray, Knowsley Menag. 65 ; Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850.
Cervus Cervulus, Blainv. Bull. Soc. Phil ,1816, 74.
Cerf, Les Cervules, Blainv. Desm. Mam. ii. 44 9, 1822; Lesson,

Mam. 368.

Cerf a longues canines, Lesson.
Stylocerinidte, J. Brookes, Mus. Cat. 62.
Dioplon, J. Brookes, Mus. Cat. 62.

1. CERVULUS VAGINALIS. The KIJANG or MUNTJAC.

Dark reddish brown. Narrow streak on the front edge of the
thigh white.



218 MAMMALIA.

Kijang, Marsden, Sumatra, 94.

Cervus Muntjac, Zimm. Schreb. t. 254 ; Horsf. Java, vi. t. 1 ;

Raffles, Mem. 645.

Dioplon Muntjak, /. Brookes, Mus. Cat. 62, 1828.
Prox muntjac, Sundevall, Pecora, 61.
Cervus vaginalis, Bodd. Elenc. i. 136.

Cervus (Cervulus) subcornutus, Blainv. Schreb. t. 254 B. f. 2.
Cervus plicatus, Forster, MSS. Icon. ined. Mus. Banks.; H.

Smith, Griffith A. K. iv. 147.

Muntjacus vaginalis, Gray, Cat. Mamm. B. M. 173.
? Cervus (Muntjac) aureus, H. Smith, Griffith A. K. iv. 148.

t. 176 ?,v. 805.
Ribbed-face Deer,, Penn.
Chevreuil des Indes, Allam, Buff. Supp. v. 41. 1. 17, vi. 195. t. 26;

Cuvier, Oss. Foss. iv. t. 5. f. 48, t. 3. f. 49, 54.
Cervulus vaginalis, Gray, Knows. Men. 65; Proc. ZooL Soc.

1850.
Hab. Sumatra; Java.

OSTEOLOGY.

Cervus Muntjack, Horsf. Java, t. ; Anat. 6. f. A, B.

Muntjak of Sumatra, H. Smith in G. A. K. iv. 1. 164. f. 7, jun.,

1. 175, adult <*.
Muntjak of Java, H. Smith in G. A. K. iv. 1. 164. f. 9 < .

ICON.

Cervus Muntjac, Desch. MSS. Icon. ined. B. M. t. 35.

This chiefly differs from the following in being darker-coloured.

2. CERVULUS MOSCHATUS. The KEGAN or KAKER.

Bright reddish yellow. Streak on front of the thigh and under
part of the tail white. Chin and gullet whitish. Hair not ringed.
Var. With a triangular white spot on each side of the chest.

Musk Deer of Nepal, Ousley, Orient. Collect, ii. t., 1798.
Cervus Cervulus moschatus, Blainv. Bull. Soc. Phil. 1816, 77 ;

Schreb. Saugth. t. 254 B. f. 1.
Cervus Moschus, Desm. Mam. 441.
Cervus Ratwa, Hodgson, J. A. S. B. i. 346. t., head; P. Z. S.

1834.
Cervus Rutwa, Royle, Himal. t. 5. f. 2 ; Ogilby in Royle's Himal.

73.
Cervus moschatus, Nepal Muntjak, H. Smith f G. A. K. iv. 149.

t. 177, v. 806; Hodgson, Journ. A. S. B. i. 346.
Stylocerus Ratwah, Hodgson, J. A. S. B. x. 914 ; Calcutta Journ.

N. Hist. iv. 292.
Cervus Muntjac (Kacher), Ogilby in Royle's Himal. i. 73.



MAMMALIA. 219

Muntjacus vaginalis, part., Gray, List Hodgson Coll. B. M. 173;

Cat. Osteol. B. M. 68; Cat. Hodgson Coll. B. M. 31.
Prox Ratwa, Sundevall, Pecora, 62.
Prox albipes, Wagner, Suppl. ; Sundevall, Pecora, 62.
Prox stylocerus, Wagner, Suppl. ; Sundevall, Pecora, 62, 64.
Cervulus moschatus, Gray, Knowsley Menag. 65; Proc. Zool.

Soc. 1850.

Jungle Sheep, India.
Hob. India.

Deep chestnut, becoming browner as the animal grows. Elliot.

Far.? " Entirely black."

Cervus melas, Ogilby, P. Z. Soc. ; in Royle's HimaL 73.

Prox melas (Ogilby), Sundevall, Pecora, 62.

Hob. Continental India; Ogilby.

Male. India.

Female. India.

Head of male, with horns. India ; Northern Circars.

Head and horns of male. India ; Deccan. Presented by Colonel
Sykes, F.R.S. &c. Deccan.

A male. Nepal.

An adult. Nepal. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

A female ; dorsal streak none. Nepal. Presented by B. H.
Hodgson, Esq.

A foetal specimen, with an obscure, dark dorsal streak. Nepal.
Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

OSTEOLOGY, t. 32. f. 2.

Chevreuil des Indes, Bujfon, Supp. iii. t. 36 ; Cuvier, Oss. Foss.

iv. t. 3. f. 49-53, t. 5. f. 48.
Cervus moschatus, Blainv. Bull. Soc. Phil. 1816, 77; Schreb.

Mam. t. 254 B. f. 1.

Two skulls, half-grown, and young. Nepal. Presented by
B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

*Skull.

Head of male and horns. Northern Circars.

Head and horns of male. Deccan. Presented by Colonel
Sykes, F.R.S.

Skull and horns. Nepal. Northern Circars.

Skull and horns. Nepal. Presented by B. H. Hodgson,
Esq.

Base of skull and horns. Nepal.

Skull.

Two skulls of a male, with horns, differently developed. Pre-
sented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

Skull, female. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

K2



220 MAMMALIA.

A pair of large horns on shortish peduncles. Nepal. Pre-
sented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

A pair of small horns on very long, slender peduncles. Nepal.
Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

Vertebra, pelvis, and leg bones. Nepal. Presented by B. H.
Hodgson, Esq.

ICON.

Drawing of skull. Hodgson, Icon. ined. B. M. t. 187. f. 14.
Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

Drawing of male and female. Hodgson, Icon. ined. B. M.
t. 193, 194. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

Drawing of head of male. Hodgson, Icon. ined. B. M. 1. 195.
Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

Drawing of horns of different ages. Hodgson, Icon. ined. B.
M. t. 196. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

Drawing of head in pencil, Cervus plicatus, Bank. Icon. ined.
B. M. i. t. 6.

Drawing of Kaleeatoo or Stag Deer of the Tamouleans.
Hardw. Icon. ined. B. M. n. 10,975. t. 145, copied n. 10,9/4.
t. 88; n. 10,975. 1. 146, 147, copied n. 10,974. t. 87.

Drawing of Chickera or Mountain Deer. Hardw. Icon. ined.
B. M. n. 10,975. t. 144, copied n. 10,974. t. 89 ; n. 10,975. 1. 162,
163.

The Ratwa live in the mountains, or the forests at their bases ;
they live six or eight together, preferring dell and close cover.
They bark all the year, but particularly in winter, when the males
are wanton. The horns fall in May, and are perfect again in
August. They rut in January or February and breed in June or
July, gestating six months. The females have bristly tufts, end-
ing in a knob, instead of a horn. The fascial creases are large,
mobile, glandular, placed above the inner side of the horn pedicels.

See also

1. Muntjak of Ceylon, H. Smith, G. A. K. iv. 1. 164. f . 8 ? .

2. ? Muntjak, H. Smith, G. A. K. iv. t. 164, f. 10 9 .

3. CERVULUS REEVESII. The CHINESE MUNTJAC.
Greyish brown. Hair short, pale, ringed.

Cervus Reevesii, Ogilby, P. Z. Soc. 1838, 105.

Prox Reevesii, Wagner ; Sundevall, Pecora, 62.

Cervulus Reevesii, Gray, Knowsley Menag. 65 ; Proc. Zool. Soc.

1850.
Hob. China.

Mr. Ogilby observes, " This species has a longer head and tail
than the common Indian Muntjac, also has less red and more



MAMMALIA. 221

blue in the general shades of colouring, and is readily distin-
guished by the want of the white over the hoofs, which is so ap-
parent in its congeners. The fawn is spotted."

The Earl of Derby has these three kinds at Knowsley, but
they breed together, and it has hence become impossible to dis-
criminate the mules from the original species.

5. The Capreoline Deer. Horns without any anterior, basal snag,
the first branch being considerably above the burr, very
shortly peduncled. Crumen very small. Muffle broad and
naked. Suborbital gland and pit in the skull generally small
and shallow, except in the genus Pudu. The tuft of hair on
the inside of the hock distinct. The tuft on the outer side
of the tarsus sometimes present.

Capreoline Deer, Gray, Ann. fy Mag. N. H. 1850 ; Knows. Menag.
Anoglochis, Bravard, Foss. Puy du Dome ; Lesson, Mam. 259.
Cerfs (Les Chevreuils et Les Daguets), Blainv. ; Lesson, Mam.

365, 367.
Capreolidie, J. Brookes, Mus. Cat. 62, 1828.

A. Horns branched.
a. Tarsal tuft above middle of bone. Old Continent.

Caprsea, Ogilby.

Les Chevreuils, Blainv. in Desm. Mam.

Capreolidse, J. Brookes, Cat. Mus. 62, 1828.

1. CAPREOLUS.

Horns nearly erect, small, cylindrical, slightly branched, with
a very short peduncle. Tail none, but a large, white anal disk.
Crumen very indistinct. Hoofs narrow, triangular. The tuft on
the hind-legs rather above the middle of the metatarsus. Fur
of thick, brittle hair in winter, and thinner and more flexible hair
in the summer. The adults are not spotted, and have a black
spot at the angle of the mouth. The skull has a very small,
shallow, suborbital pit. Intermaxillary nearly to the nasal. In-
fraorbital impression very slight, rather deeper in the middle.
Nasal not dilated behind. Two central lower cutting-teeth di-
lated above, outermost very narrow.

Found in Europe and North Asia.


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