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Catalogue of the specimens of Mammalia in the collection of the British Museum (Volume 3) online

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loniscus. 3. Xenurus. 4. Euphractus. 5. Dasypus. 6. Toly-
peutes. 7- Orycteropus.

Order XVIII. GLOTTIDES. 1. Manis. 2. Uroleptes. 3. Myr-
mydon. 4. Myrmecophaga.

He forms a new class called GRYPHI, containing

Order I. ORNITHORHYNCHI. Fam. 1. Glossilepti. 1. Tachy-
glossus. Fam. 2. Autarchoglossi. 1. Ornithorhynchus, arranged
with the fossil Ichthyosaurus, Plesiosaurus and Ornitho-


Latreille (Fam. Nat. Reg. Anim. 596. in 1830) divides the
Hoofed quadrupeds (UNGULATA) thus :

Order IX. PACHYDERM A. Fam. 1. Pentadactyla. Elephas.
2. Tridactyla. Tapirus, Rhinoceros. 3. Fissipedes. Hyrax,
Dicotyles, Sus, Hippopotamus. 4. Solipedes. Equus.

Order X. PECORA. Fam. 1. Inermia. Camelus, Moschus.
2. Plenicornia. Cervus and Giraffa. 3. Tiibicornia. Antilope,
Bos, Capra, Ovis.

M. Lesson (Nouveau Tabl. du Regne Animal, 1842) arranges
the Hoofed quadrupeds in the following orders :

Suborder III. HETERODONTA. Cutting teeth none ; teeth
sometimes quite wanting.

Suborder IV. EDENTATA, a. Terrestria. Fam. 41. Dasypo-
dincB. 206. Dasypus. 1. Dasypus. 2. Tatusia. 3. Priodontes.
4. Chlamyphorus. 42. Myrmecophaginece. 207. Myrmeco-
phaga. 1. Myrmecophaga. 2. Tamandua. 3. Cyclothurus.
43. Orycteropidece. 208. Orycteropus. 44. Manisidce. 209.
Manis. 1. Pangolinus. 2. Phataginus.

Tribe 5. UNGULIGRADA. 1. Pachydermata. 1. Gravigrada.
Fam. 46. Elephasidce. 212. Elephas. 47. Hippopotamisidece.
213. Hippopotamus. 48. Rhinocerosidece. 214. Rhinoceros-
2. Fissipeda. 49. Susidecs. 215. Tapirus. 216. Phacochcerus.
217. Babirusa. 218. Sus. 219. Dicotyles. 50. Hyraxinea.
220. Hyrax. 3. Solidungula. 52. Equidece. 221. Equus.
a. Equus. b. Asinus. 11. Pecora. 53. Camelesidece. 222. La-
ma. 223. Camelus, 54. Camelopardinece. 224. Camelopardalis.
55. Cervisidece. 225. Cervus. 1. Alces. 2. Rangifer. 3. Dama.
4. Elaphus. 5. Rusa. 6. Axis. 7. Capreolus. 8. Cariacus.
9. Cervequus. 10. Subula. 11. Stylocerus. 56. Moschesidece.
226. Moschus. 1. Moschus. 2. Memina. 3. Napu. 57. An-
tilopece. 227. Antilope. 1. Antilope. 2. Gazella. 3. Dama.
4. Redunca. 5. Tragulus. 6. Raphicerus. 7- Tetracerus. 8.
Cephalophus. 9. Spinigera. 10. Neotragus. 11. Nemorhedus.
12. Rupicapra. 13. Capricornis. 14. Dicranocerus. 15. Pan-
tholops. 16. Anoa, I/. ^Egocerus. 18. Oryx. 19. Alcelaphus.
20. Tragelaphus. 21. Boselaphus. 22. Orcas. 58. Ovesidece.
228. Kemas, 229. Antilocapra. 230. Capra. 231. Ovis.
232. Ovibos. 59. Bovesidea. 233. Catoblepas. 234. Bibos.
235. Bos. 1. Bison. 2. Bubalus. 3. Taurus.

Order III. ORNITHODEPHIE. 1. Insectivora. Fam. 69.
Echidnece. 260. Echidna. 2. Vermivora. Fam. 70. Para-
doxidecs. 261. Ornithorhynchus.

Mr. Richard Owen ( Odont ograpky, 1840-1845) divides the

I. Isodactyle. " Hoofed quadrupeds with toes in even number,


as two or four, and which have a more or less complicated stomach
with a moderate-sized simple caecum, as Ox, Hog, Peccary, and

II. Anisodactyle. " Hoofed quadrupeds with toes (on the hind
feet at least) in uneven number, as one, or three, or five, the latter
number being manifest in the Proboscidians. All these have a
simple stomach and an enormous caecum, as Horse, Tapir, Rhi-

III. Proboscidians. " Resembling the preceding in having toes
in uneven number, in having a comparatively simple stomach and
an enormous caecum, but combining with a long proboscis so
many other peculiarities of structure as to merit the rank of a
distinct group of Ungulata."

In the Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society for 1848,
p. 131, with his usual fondness of renaming old groups, Mr. Owen
proposes to change the name he has given to the above group
to 1. Artiodactyla, 2. Perissodactyla, and 3. Proboscidia.
In this paper the recent genera are arranged in the following
order :

I. ARTIODACTYLA. * Ruminantia. 1. Moschus. 2. Antilope.
3. Ovis. 4. Bos. 5. Cervus. 6. Camelopardalis. 7- Camelus.
** Non- Ruminantia. 1. Hippopotamus. 9. Dicotyles. 10. Pha-
eochaerus. 11. Sus.

II. PERISSODACTYLA. 12. Tapirus. 13. Equus. 14. Hy-
rax. 15. Rhinoceros.

III. PROBOSCIDIA. 16. Elephas.

This arrangement is only founded on the consideration of the
osteological conformation of the foot, and has the disadvantage of
most artificially separating a very natural group recognized by
Aristotle, Ray, Linnaeus, Illiger, Cuvier, and all recent authors,
between two divisions of the order. Cuvier, Fleming, Blainville
and others properly used the character here adopted to the whole
group for the division of the Pachydermata into subdivisions.

Prince Charles Lucien Bonaparte (in his Prodromus Systematis
Mastozoologice, 1847) arranges these animals in four orders,
thus :

Subclass I. EDUCABILIA. Ord. V. BELLU^E. Fam. 13. Ele-
phantidcB. Subfam. 23. Elephantina. 24. Rhinocerotina. 25. Hip-
popotamina. Fam. 14. Suidce. 26. Tapirina. 27. Suina. 28.
Anoplotherina. Fam. 15. Hyracidce. 29. Hyracina. Fam. 16.
Equidce. 30. Equina.

Order VI. PECORA. Fam. 1?. Camelida. 31. Camelina.
Fam. 18. Cervidce. 32. Moschina. 33. Cervina. Fam. 19. Came-
lopardalidcB. 34. Camelopardalina. Fam. 20. Bovid<e. 35. An-
tilopina. 36. Bovina.


Subclass II. INEDUCABILIA. Ord. VII. BRUTA. Fam. 21.
Myrmecophagida. 37. Manidina. 38. Myrmecophagina. Fam. 22.
Dasypodida. 39. Dasypodina. 40. Orycteropodina. Fam. 23.
Bradypodidce. 41. Bradypodina.

40. Echidnidce. 74. Echidnina. J?&m.4l. Ornithorhynchinidce.
75. Ornithorhynchina.

Mr. Turner, in his paper on the Skulls of Ungulated Mam-
malia (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1849, 158), adopts Mr. Owen's names for
his orders, and arranges the genera as follows :

I. ARTIODACTYLA. A. Ruminantia. 1. Bovida. Bos, Ovis,
Capra, Antilope. 2. Cervidcs. Cervus and Camelopardalina.
3. Moschida. Moschina, Dichobudina. 4. Camelidce. Ano-
plotheriana and Camelina. B. Non- Ruminantia. 5. Hippopota-
midce. Hippopotamina, Dicotylina. 6. Suidcs.

II. PERISSODACTYLA. A. Typica. 1. Rhinocerotidae, Equina,
Rhinocerina. B. Aberrantia. 8. Elephantidse. 9. Toxodontidse.
10. Manatidae.


I. Two middle toes large, equal. Bones of the metacarpus and

metatarsus united.

1. BOVID^E. Two middle toes separate; cutting teeth f or f ;

grinders f- ; frontal bones generally horned ; gullet with two

2. EQUID^E. Two middle toes soldered into one; cutting teeth

f ; gullet and stomach simple.

II. Toes 3, 4, 5 to each foot, nearly equal. Teeth nearly in one


3. ELEPHANTID^E. Grinders rooted, transversely ridged ; toes

3*3, 3'4 or 5'5, last joint covered with a hoof; skin thick,
nearly naked ; hairs large, rigid ; gullet simple.

4. DASYPID^E. Grinders rootless ; crown flat, sometimes want-

ing; face long, acute; body armed with scales or rigid

5 . BRADYPID^E. Grinders rootless ; crown when young conical ;

face round ; limbs elongate ; hair dry, crisp ; stomach two-
or three-celled.


Or the Families may be arranged according to their teeth,
thus :

I. Teeth well-developed, rooted. Fore-arm constantly prone.

Toes hoofed.

Bovida. Stomach for ruminating ; toes 4, middle large.
Equida. Stomach not ruminating ; toes 3, middle large.
Elephantida. Stomach not ruminating ; toes subequal.

II. Teeth wanting, or imperfect, rootless. Toes longly clawed.
Dasypida. Face elongate.

Bradypidida. Face short.

Section 1. FURCIPEDA.

Two middle toes large, equal ; bones of the metacarpus and
metatarsus united.

Ungulata, Sect. 1, Gray, Ann. Phil. 1825.

Isodactyle, part., and Anisodactyle, part., Owen, Odontography,

Artiodactyla, part., and Perissodactyla, part., Owen, Quart. Journ.

Geol Soc. 1848, 131 ; Turner, Proc. Zool Soc. 1849, 158.
Stereoplia Bisulcia, Rajin. Anal. Nat. 55. 1815.
Pecora, Sundevall, Kongl. Vet. Akad. Hand. 1844 ; Pecora, 1848.

Fam. 1. BOVIDJB.

Two middle toes separate. Cutting teeth eight below ; upper
jaw callous ; grinders 6*6 in each jaw. Frontal bones produced,
generally bearing horns, especially in the males. Gullet with two
long pouches just before the stomach, used for holding and
soaking the food before it is chewed. Using their head and
horns in defence.

Ruminantia, Pallas, Zool. Ross. Asiat. i. 192; Bronn, Ind.

Paleont. ii. 708.

Q. Ruminantia et Q. Camelinum, Ray, Syn. 60. 1693.
Bovidse, Gray, Ann. Phil. 1825; List Mam. B. Mus. xxvi. ;

Storr. Prod. Mam. 1780 ; Lesson in Tab. R. A.16J-, Fischer,

Syn. 1828.
Mam. Pecora, Linn. S. N. ed. 12. i. 90 ; Latr. Fam. Nat. 62.

1825; Wagler, N. Syst. Amph. 431. 1830; Eichwald, Zool.

Sjwc.iii.341. 1831.
Les Ruminans (Ruminantia), Cuvier, Tab. Elem. 1798; Dum.

Z. A. 1806; Cuvier, R. A. i. 246. 1817, ed. 2.i.254; Desm.

N. D. H. N. xxiv. 31, 1804; F. Cuvier, 1829; Dent. Mam.

227; Diet. Sci.Nat.lix. 511.


Bisulca, Illiger,Prod. 102. 1811.

Cameli et Pecora, Wagler, Amph. 1831.

Gravigrades normaux, Elainv.

Q. Hydrophorse et Ruminantes, Gray, L. M. Rep. xv. 307. 1821.

M. Callodactyles, Pomet, Rev. Zool. 1848, 283.

Ruminalia (Stereoceria et Cerynxia), Rqfin. Anal. Nat. 55. 1815.

Ruminantia et Coelocerata, Bronn, Index Palceont. ii. 788.

Cerophorus, Elainv. Bull. Soc. Philom, 1816, 74; Gervais, Supp.

N. Diet. ScL Nat. i.

Pecora unguligrada et digitigrada, Sundevall, Pecora.
Isodactyla, part., Owen, Odontography, 1845.
Artiodactyla Ruminantia, Owen, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. 1848,

31 ; Turner, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1849.

Desmarest in his Tableau Method, des Mammiferes (N. Diet.
Hist, Nat. xxiv. 33. 1804) divides the Ruminants (Pecora) into
the following sections :

1. Camel and Musk. 2. Stags. 3. Giraffes. 4. Antelopes,
Goats, Sheep and Oxen.

M. de Blainville in his Notes on Ruminants (Bull. Soc. Philom.
1816, 76) divides them thus :

No horns 1. Chameaux. 2. Cerfs. Including Cervulus and

With horns 3. Giraffe, and 4. Cerophorus. Including An-
tilope, Capra, Ovis vel Ammon, Ovibos and Bos.

Mr. Gray, in the " Outline of the Distribution of Mammalia "
(Ann. Phil. 1825), proposed to divide the Bovida thus :

I. Horns persistent. 1. Bovina. 2. Camelopardina.

II. Horns none or deciduous. 3. Camelina. 4. Moschina.
5. Cervina.

Colonel Hamilton Smith (Griffith, A.. Kingd. v. .1827;
Fischer, Syn. 609. 1830) proposed to divide them thus :

I. CAMELID^E, containing 1. Camelus. 2. Auchenia.

II. CERVID^E. 1. Moschus. 2. Cervus.

III. GIRAFFID^E. 1. Camelopardalis.

IV. CAPRID^E. 1. Antilope. 2. Capra. 3. Ovis. 4. Damalis.

V. BOVID.E. 1. Catoblepas. 2. Ovibos. 3. Bos.

Mr. Ogilby, in a paper on the genera of Ruminantia (Proc.
Zool. Soc. 1836, 133), proposed to divide them thus :

I. CAMELID^E. 1. Camelus. 2. Auchenia.

II. CERVID^S. 1. Camelopardalis. 2. Tarandus. 3. Alces.
4. Cervus, Capraea (Capreolus), Prox (Muntjac).

III. MOSCHID^B. 1. Moschus. 2. Ixalus. 3. Hinnulus and

IV. CAPRID.E. (Muffle none, browsers.) L Mazama. 2. Ma-



doqua. 3. Antilope. 4. Gazella. 5. Ovis. 6. Capra. 7

V. BOVID^E. (Muffle naked, grazers.) 1. Tragulus (Ant. pyg-
meus). 2. Sylvicapra (A. Mergens). 3. Tragelaphus (A. picta).
4. Calliope (A. Strepsiceros). 5. Kemas (A. Goral). 6. Capri-
oornis (A. Thar). 7. Bubalus (A. Bubalus). 8. Oryx (A. Oryx).
9. Bos.

Lesson (Nov. Tab. Reg. Anim. 167. 1842) divides them into
1. Camelisidae. 2. Camelopardinae. 3. Cervisidae. 4. Mos-
chisidae. 5. Antilopeae. 6. Ovesideae. 7- Bovesideae.

Mr. Hodgson, in an Essay on various genera of Ruminants
(Journ. Acad. N. S. Calcut. 1847; Mission Press, 1847), proposes
to divide them into 1. Cervidce orHaranadi; 2. Mosckiaa or
Mushkadi ; 3. the Cavicornice minor es or Flocks, as Antilopidce
or Sasinadi; 4. Cavicornice majores or Herds, as Bovidceo? Gau-

Professor Carl Sundevall in his Essay on Pecora (Kongl.
Vetensk. Akad. Handl. 1844, 1846 ; and Hornschuch, Archiv,
ii. 1848) proposes the following arrangement :

A. UNGULIGRADA. a. Cervicornia. I. Camelopardalina.

I. Camelopardalis. II. Cervina. 2. Alces. 3. Rangifer. 4. Cer-
vus. 5. Caprcolus. 6. Prox. 7 '. Moschus. 8. Tragulus. b. Bovi-
cornia. III. Sylvicaprina. a. 9. Tetraceras. 10. Tragelaphus.

II. Sylvicapra. 12. Neotragus. 13. Nanotragus. 14. Callo-
tragus. b. 15. Cervicapra. 16. Strepsiceros. 17. Hippotragus.
IV. Bovina. a. 18. Portax. 19. Damalis. 20. Anoa. 21. Bos.
b. 22. Ovibos. 23. Catoblepas. 24. Oryx. V. Antilopina.
25. Bubalis. 26. Antilope. 27. Dicranoceras. VI. Caprina.
28. Ovis. 29. Capra. 29 b. Rupicapra. 29 c. Hemitragus.
30. Nemorhedus. 31. Oreotragus.

B. DIGITIGRADA. VI. Camelma. 32. Camelus. 33. Au-

M. Pucheran (Compt. Rendus Acad. Scien. 1849, 775) divides
the Ruminantes into three families : 1. Les Camelides. 2. Les
Tragulides (Moschus). 3. Les Cervides. The latter is divided
into two tribes : 1. Les Cerviens. 2. Les Boviens.

M. F. Cuvier observes : " Mais tous ces essais ne sont point
encore de nature a satisfaire la methode naturelle, et lesnaturalistes
doivent encore chercher a decouvrir quelles sont les parties qui,
chez ces animaux, sont propres a caracteriser les genres."-
Dict. Set. Nat. lix. 514. 1829.

Mr. Ogilby remarks (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1836, 133) : " The
presence or absence of horns in one or both sexes ; the substance
and nature of these organs, whether solid or concave, permanent


or deciduous ; the form of the upper lip, whether thin and at-
tenuated as in the Goaty or terminating in a broad heavy naked
muzzle as in the Ox, and the existence of lachrymal sinuses and
interdigital pores, are the characters which really influence the
habits and ceconomy of Ruminating animals, and upon which
their generic distinction mainly depends."

He continues : " That the presence or absence of horns in
the female regulates in a great measure the social intercourse
of the sexes ; that upon the form of the lips and muzzle, the
only organs of touch and prehension among the Ruminantia, de-
pends the nature of the food and habitat, making the animal a
grazer or a browser, as the case may be ; and that the existence
or non-existence of the interdigital glands, the uses of which
appear to be to lubricate the hoofs, has a very extensive in-
fluence upon the geographical distribution of the species, con-
fining them to the rich savannah and moist forest, or enabling
them to roam over the arid mountain, the parched karroo, and
the burning desert."

Mr. H. N. Turner observes : " It is certainly remarkable, that
while the teeth have contributed so important a share in the
characters by which the Mammalia have been arranged by va-
rious authors, they should have been so entirely overlooked in
the members of the present division; for notwithstanding the
great uniformity and strongly-marked character pervading the
Ruminant dentition, very decided characters may frequently be
found in the form and direction of the incisors, and in the pre-
sence or absence of the supplemental lobe in the molars ; and it
is the more to be wondered at when we consider that the incisors,
from their position, may often easily be seen in dried specimens,
and that the character alluded to in the molars has been found
of considerable value in the interpretation of fossil remains."
Proc. Zool. Soc. 1849.


I. Horns permanent, covered with a permanent horny coat or
hairy skin. Cutting teeth only in lower jaw.

1. BOVINA. Horns covered with horny sheaths.

2. GIRAFFINA. Horns covered with a hairy skin, with a tuft

of hair at the tip.

IT. Horns deciduous, covered when young with a deciduous
hairy skin, or entirely wanting.

3. CERVINA. Cutting teeth none above. Horns deciduous.

Back of tarsus hairy.


4, MOSCHINA. Cutting teeth none above. Horns none. Back

of tarsus bald.

5. CAMELINA. Cutting teeth 8 above and below. Horns none.

Hoofs small, compressed.

Subfamily I. Horns permanent, covered with a permanent
horny coat or hairy skin. Cutting teeth only in lower jaw ; front
edge of upper jaw callous. Hoofs triangular.

Tribe 1. BOVINA.

Horns expanded from a smooth horny rudiment into a perma-
nent horny sheath to the conical process of the frontal bone.

Bos, Linn, S. N.

Capra, Ovis et Bos, Linn. S. N.

Bovidse, Selys Long champs, 1842.

Bovina, Gray, Ann. Phil. 1825; List Mam. B. M. xxvi.

Q. Bovinum, Q. Ovinum, et Q. Caprinum, Ray, Syn. 60, 1693.

Cavicornia, Illiger, Prod. 106, 184.

Tubicornia, Latr. Fam. Nat. 1825.

Capridce et Bovidse, H. Smith, Griffith, A. K. iv. 182.

Antilopidae, Caprid et Bovidae, Gray, Lond. Med. Rep. xv.
308, 1821.

Les Kinoceres ou Ruminants a comes osseuses (Bos, &c.), Du-
vernoy, Tab. Anim. Vert.

Les Ruminans a cornes osseusse, F< Cuv. 1829.

Antilopiens, Pomet, I. c. 184.

Ruminalia Cerynxia, Rajin. Anal. Nat. 56, 1815.

Pecora Unguligrada Bovicornia, Sundevall, Pecora, 64.

Fam. Sylvicaprina, Bovina, Antilopina et Caprina, Sundevall, Pe-
cora, 64.

Mr. Gray, in his paper " On the Arrangement of the Hollow -
horned Ruminants (Bovidce)" (Annals fy Mag. Nat. Hist. 1849,
xviii. 229), observes, " The systematic arrangement of these
animals has been one of the most difficult subjects for the stu-
dent of mammalia.

"Linnaeus (Syst.Nat. i. 27), in his last edition of the Sy-
stema Nature, divides them into three genera according to the
direction of the horn, which he describes as erect in Capra, re-
clinate in Ovis, and porrect in Bos, and separates these from
Cervus because they have tubular, while that genus has solid
branched and deciduous horns.

" Gmelin in his edition adds to these the genus Antilope, which
had been established by Pallas, and characterizes that genus as
having solid horns like the Cervi, but simple and persistent.
Now I need scarcely observe that these characters will not define


the genera, for all Goats have not erect horns, if any have, and
it is the same with the other genera; and we all know that
the Antelopes have tubular horns, in the sense that word is used
by Linnaeus, as much as the Oxen, Sheep and Goats ; but this
error of Gmelin has had its influence up to this time, for the
horns of Antelopes in Cuvier' s first and last edition of Le Regne
Animal are described as having ' the nucleus of the horn solid,
and without pores or sinuses, like the horns of the Stags/

" M. Geoffroy, perceiving that the characters furnished by Lin-
naeus were not sufficient to separate the Antelopes from the
other genera, examined the structure of the prominences of the
frontal bones which form the core or support of the horns of the
Antelopes, and he describes the core of the horns of the Ante-
lopes to be solid and without sinuses, while he characterizes the
cores of the horns of the Goats, Sheep and Oxen as in great part
occupied with cells which communicate with the frontal sinus,
and Cuvier, Latreille and most authors have without re-exami-
nation adopted these characters.

" Some years ago I examined the cores of the horns of many
species of Antelopes for Colonel H. Smith, and found they were
all more or less cellular within, and these cells had a communi-
cation with the frontal sinus ; certainly the cells are not so nu-
merous as in the thick horns of some Oxen, but they are quite
as numerous for the thickness of the core ; but it is to be remem-
bered that the general character of the horns of Antelopes is to
be slender and elongated, and consequently there is not so much
room for cells, as their presence would destroy the strength of
the core, so as not to form a fit support for the horns ; and thus
this character is merely reduced to one dependent on the small
size or slenderness of the horns, which, though usual, is not uni-
versal in the genus, for example in the A. Oreas and others.

" Colonel Smith, aware of this difficulty, divided these animals
into two families : Capridee, characterized by having the horns
' vaginating upon an osseous nucleus totally or nearly solid,'
containing the genera Antilope, Capra, Ovis, and a new genus
which he called Damalis for the Antelopes with high withers ;
and second, the family Bovidce, with horns * vaginating upon a
bony nucleus not solid, but more or less porous and cellular,'
including the genera Catoblepas or Gnu, Ovibos or Musk Ox,
and Bos*.

" This arrangement shows that much reliance is certainly not
to be placed on M. Geoffrey's character for the genus Antilope,

* I may remark that Cuvier says that the genus Bos has a large naked
muffle, yet two species which he refers to it have a hairy muzzle like
the Sheep, viz. B. moschatus.


for here the Goat and Sheep are said to have the same peculiarity
as he gives to separate the Antelopes from them.

" Several authors after this period considered the subgenera
proposed by De Blainville and Colonel H. Smith as genera, and
grouped them into families.

" Mr. Ogilby, in a theoretical arrangement of Ruminants, pub-
lished in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society for 1836,
divides these animals into two families, characterized thus : Ca-
pridce, ' muffle none ;' Bovida, ' muffle distinct, naked.' Of this
arrangement I need only remark, that he places Ovibos in Ca-
pridce and Bos in Bovidce, Kemas or the Jemla Goat in Bovida,
and Capra in Capridce, thus separating into distinct families
most nearly allied species ; while the genus Ixalus, which is a
sheep or antelope with rudimentary horns, is referred to the fa-
mily Moschidce, and the Gnu is entirely overlooked. I am satis-
fied, if Mr. Ogilby had attempted to arrange a collection by this
system, he must have soon abandoned it.

" Within the last few years Professor Sundevall of Stockholm
has proposed to arrange these animals according to the form of
their hoofs, and he has regarded the subgenera of preceding
authors as genera, and divided them into four families, thus :

1. Caprina, containing Ovis, Capra, Nemorhedus and Oreotragus.

2. Antilopina : Antilope, Dicranoceras and Bubalus. 3. Bovina :
Oryx, Catoblepas, Ovibos, Bos, Anoa, Portax, Damalis. 4. Syl-
vicaprina : Hippotragus, Strepsiceros, Cervicapra, Calotragus,
Nanotragus, Neotragus, Sylvicapra, Tragelaphus and Tetracerus.
In this arrangement he appears to have overlooked the fact,
that the hoofs of these animals are modified according to the
kind of country which the animal is destined to inhabit, and
therefore this arrangement is dependent on that single circum-
stance, and not on the considerations of all the peculiarities of
the species ; hence the species which inhabit rocky pinnacles, as
the Thar and Ghoral (Nemorhedus) and Klipspringer (Oreotra-
gus}, are separated from the other Antelopes and placed with the
Goats, and the large and heavy Antelopes which inhabit the plains,
as the Oryx, Portax and Damalis, are placed with the Oxen.

" If this system is fully carried out, the Rein Deer should be
separated from its allies and placed with the Musk Ox ; and I am
not certain that the Addax Antelope should not be arranged in
the same group, for it has the same shaped hoofs, the sands of
the Desert probably requiring the same structure for progression
as the snow.

" After examining all these arrangements, and after repeated
examinations of the animals, I believe that the form of the horns
affords the most natural character for subdividing them into
groups ; and I think that if the Antelopes are divided into two


groups, which appear to me natural, then there is no difficulty in
finding neat characters for the definitions of the families."


I. The horns round or compressed, without any raised keel on
the inner front angle.

1. The horns smoothish, spread out on the sides, cylindrical
or depressed at the base, the knee (or wrist) below the middle of
the fore-leg Bovece.

2. The horns conical, bent back, cylindrical or compressed,
and ringed at the base, the knee (or wrist) in the middle of the
fore-leg Antilopece.

II. The horns subangular with a more or less distinct ridge
on the front angle, the knee in the middle of the fore-leg.

3. The horns subspiral, erect; crumen distinct; forehead
Hat ; male not bearded. Strepsicerece.

4. The horns recurved, compressed; crumen none; forehead
concave; male bearded Caprece.

5. The horns spiral, bent out on the sides; crumen none;
forehead convex ; male not bearded Ovece.

The position of the knee is the external mark of the shortness
of the cannon bone, compared with the length of the ulna or
fore-arm bone.

Section 1. The horns round or compressed, without any
raised keel on the inner front angle Levicornia.

Gray, Ann. Sf Mag. N. H. 1847, 230.

Subtribe I. Bovece. The horns smoothish, spread out on the

Online LibraryBritish Museum (Natural History). Dept. of ZoologyCatalogue of the specimens of Mammalia in the collection of the British Museum (Volume 3) → online text (page 2 of 25)