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Catalogue of the specimens of Mammalia in the collection of the British Museum (Volume 3) online

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Caprea (capreolus), Ogilby, P. Z. S. 1836, 135.

Capreolus, Gray, Lond. Med. Repos. 1821 ; Ann. fy Mag. N.H.

1850; Knowsley Menag.; Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850; Lesson,

Mamm. i. 269; N. Tab. R. A. 172.



222 MAMMALIA.

Cervus, Capreolus, H. Smith, Griffith A. K. iv. 1827.
Cerf Chevreuil (de Pancien Continent), Blainv. Desm. Mam. ii.
448, 1822 ; Lesson, Man. Mamm. 365.

1. CAPREOLUS CAPR^EA. The ROEBUCK, t. 33. f. 1, t. 34. f. 4.

Inside of the ears fulvous. Chin white, with a black spot
below the angle of the mouth.

Capraea, Plinii Hist. Nat. viii. c. 55 ; Gesner, Quad. 324. fig. ;

Jonston, Quad. 77. t. 31, 35.
C. Plinii, Ray, Syn. Quad. 89.
Capreolus, Brisson, R. A. 89.
Cervus minimus, Klein, Quad. 24.
Cervus capreolus, Linn. S. N. i. 94; Gmelin, S. N. i. 180; ErxL

Syst. 313; Schreb. Saugth. 1104. t. 212 A, B; Pallas, Zool.

Ross. A. i. 219; Brandt, Bull. Acad. Petersb. iii. 280; Desm.

Mamm. 439; F. Cuv. Mam. Lith. t.; Fischer, Sun. 450, 619;

H. Smith, G. A. K. iv. 124. t., v. 790.
Capreolus Capraea, Gray, List Mamm. B. M. 176; Cat. OsteoL

B. M. 64.
Capreolus europeus, J. Brookes, Mus. Cat. 62, 1828; Sundevall,

Pecora, 61. 184.

Roe, Penn. Syn. Quad. 53; Quad. 108; Shaw, Zool. ii. 291.
Roebuck, Penn. Brit. Zool. 18. t.; Knight, M. A. N. f. 615;

Bell, Brit. Quad. fig.

Chevreuil et Chevrette, Buffon, H. N. vi. 198. t. 32, 33.
Chevreuil d'Europe, Cuvier t Reg. Anim. i. 257 ; Oss. Foss. iv. 47.

t. 1. f. 37-40.
Rehbock, Riding, Jagd. Th. t. 9; Meyer, Thier. ii. 677- 74;

Wildung, Taschenb. 1797, i. t. 1, 2.
Hob. Europe.

Female. Scotland.

Male (bad condition). Scotland.

Male, new horns, with fur coat. Presented by the Earl of Derby.

Adult male in winter. France.

Adult female in summer. France.

OSTEOLOGY, t. 33. f. 1. t. 34. f. 5. Volkmann, Anat. Anim. i.

t. 11. f. 3, t. 12. f. 4 ; Kaup, Allc/. Zool. t. . f. 13.
Chevreuil, Daub. Bvff. H. N. vi. t. 35. f. 36 ; Cuvier, Oss. Foss.

iv. 47. t. 3. f. 37, 40 ; Gay $ Gervais, Ann. Sci. Nat. 1846, 93.

Horns, adult. Scotland.
Horns, second year. Scotland.
Single horns. Scotland.

Base of skull of adult, with horns. Scotland. Presented by
General Hardwicke.



MAMMALIA. 223

Horns on skull (diseased), very warty. Scotland. Presented
by Lord Willoughby d'Eresby.

Two skulls, female. Mr. Argent's Collection.

Var. Horns divided into several short branches at the top.
Roe Buck in Berlin Mus., H. Smith in Griffith A. K. iv. 1. 164. f. 6.
Cervus from Brazils (?), Cuvier, Oss. Foss. iv. t. 3. f. 48.

2. CAPREOLUS PYGARGUS. The AHU.

Interior of the ears fulvous. Chin pale, blackish behind, nearly
to the angle of the mouth.

Cervus pygargus, Pallas, Reise, i. 97, 198, 433; ii. 159; Spic.

xii. 7 ; Erxl. Syst. 317 ; Gmelin, S. N. i. 175 (not Hardwicke) ;

Schreb. Saugth. 1118. t. 253; Desm. Mamm. 440; Fischer,

Syn. 450, 619; Brandt, Bull Acad. Petersb. iii. 280; Wiegm.

Arch. 1845, ii. 40.

C. capreolus /3, Pallas, Zool. Ross. Asiat. i. 219.
Cervus Ahu, Griffith, A. K. iv. 122. t., v. 789.
Ami, S. G. Gmelin, Reise, iii. 496. t. 56.
Capreolus pygargus, J. Brookes, Mus. Cat. 62, 1828; Sundevall,

Pecora, 61 ; Gray, List Mamm. B. M. 176; Proc. Zool. Soc.

1849, 64.

Tailless Deer, Penn. Quad. i. 121.
Tailless Roe, Shaw, Zool. ii. 287.
Chevreuil de Tartarie, Cuv. Reg. Anim. i. 257.
Ahu, Persians.
Siaga, Tartars.
Dikaja Kosa, Russians.
Hob. Central Asia.

A male and female. Siberia. From M. Brandt's Collection.

b. Tarsal tuft absent or below middle of bone. New Continent.
Mazamadse, J. Brookes, Cat. Mus.

2. BLASTOCERUS.

Horns straight, erect, three-branched, without any basal snag.
Tail very short. Ears rather large. Fur consisting of very thin,
soft hair. They have a distinct pencil of hairs on the inside of
the hock, but none on the outside of the metatarsus. Skull with
oblong suborbital pit, rather deep. Confined to South America.
The young are described by Azara as not spotted !

Blastocerus, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850.

Blastocerus, sp., Wagler ; Sundevall, Pecora, 59 ; Gray, Knowsley



224 MAMMALIA.

Furcifer, part., Wagler; Sundevatt, Pecora, 59; Gray,Knowsley

Menag.

Mazama, sp., H. Smith, Griffith A. K.v.
Cariacus, sp., Lesson, N. Tab. R. A. 173, 1842.
Chevreuils du Nouveau Continent (part.), Blainv. Desm. Mamm.

ii. 448, 1822.

1. BLASTOCERUS PALUDOSUS. The GUAZUPUCO.

Fulvous. Orbit, sides, muzzle, belly, and under side of tail,
white. Face-marks and feet blackish.

C. Mazama paludosus (Guazupuco Deer), H. Smith, G. A. K. iv,

134. t. 169, v. 796.
Cervus paludosus, Desm. Mamm. 443; H. Smith; Fischer, Syn.

444, 616; Licht. Darst. t. 17; Renger, 344.
Cervus Blastocerus paludosus, Sundevall, Pecora, 59.
C. palustris, Desmoul. Diet. Class. H. N. iii. 379.
Cervus dichotomus (Guatzupucu), Illiger, Abhand. AJcad. d. W.

1804-1811, 117; Pr. Max. Nieuw. Ins. 1821, 650. t. 6.
Cervus mexicanus, Goldfuss in Schreb. Saugth. 1124; Gmelin,

S. N. i. 179; F. Cuv. Diet. Sci. Nat. vii. 483.
Gouazoopoucou, D'Azara, Essai, i. 45, 70, 73 ; Apuntamientos,

i. 35.

Guazu-ete, Brazilians.
Guazu pucu, Renger, 344.
? Mazama (or Cervus) furcata, Gray, List Mamm. B. M. 176;

Cat. Osteol. B. M. 64.
Hab. South America.

AN AT.

Horns. S. America?

The Thick-horned Guazuti, Mazama ? furcata, Cervus furca-
tus, Gray, List Osteol. B. M.

Colonel Hamilton Smith's figures, from life, represent the tail
erect, showing a great quantity of white hair; and the face is
dark in front, with a dark ring round the gape, which are not
indicated in Lichtenstein's figure.

2. BLASTOCERUS CAMPESTRIS. The MAZAME or GUAZUTI.

Fulvous brown. The hairs of the lower part of the nape and
front of the back reversed. The hoofs narrow. Young : middle
of back not spotted. Sides with small white spots, the upper
series forming a regular line.

Mazame, Hernandez, Mex. ix. c. 14. 324 ; Bujfon, H. N. xii. 317.
Veado branco, V. do campo, Anchieta, Notic. i. 127.
Cervus bezoarticus, Linn. S. N. ed. 10. 67 ; Zimm< Geog. Gesch*
ii. 132.



MAMMALIA. 225

Cervus campestris, F. Cuvier, Diet. Sci. Nat. vii. 484 ? ; Desm.

Man.; Cuvier, Oss. Foss. iv. 51. t. 5. f. 46, 47; Pr. Max.

Beitr. ii. 583; Abbild. t. ; Water house in Darwin, Zool. Beagle,

29. fig. horns; H. Smith, G. A. K. iv. 136. t., v. 797; Ren-

ger, 350; Licht. Darst. t. 19. $ $ and jun.
Cervus leucogaster, Goldf. Schreb. Saugth. 1127.
Cervus (Mazama) campestris (Guazuti Deer), H. Smith, Griffith

A. K. iv. 136. t. 1/0, v. 797.

Mazama campestris, Gray, List Mamm. B. M. 176; Cat. Osteol.

B. M. 64.

Blastocerus campestris, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850.

Furcifer campestris, Gray, Knowsley Menag. 58.

Cervus (furcifer) campestris, Sundevall, Pecora, 60.

Cuquacu apara, Marcgr. Bras. vi. 235.

Biche de Pampas, Cuvier, Oss. Foss. iv. 52.

Biche de Savanne, De la Borde, Buff. Supp. iii. 126.

Gouazou-ti, Azara, Essai, i. 77.

Guazu-y, Renger, 350.

Guazu'ti, in Paragua.

Guazu para, in Brazils.

Hab. South America ; North Patagonia.

Male, female and young. Northern Patagonia. Presented by
Sir William Burnett and Capt. Fitzroy, R.N. (Specimens de-
scribed by Darwin and Waterhouse.)

OSTEOL. t. 35. f. 1-3. Cuvier, Oss. Foss. iv. t. 3. f. 46 (scarcely

f. 47 or 48) ; Pr. Max. Abbild. t.

Horns on frontal bone. Northern Patagonia. From Haslar
Hospital Museum. (Capt. Fitzroy's Expedition.)

Skull with horns. " Columbia." The Parzudaki Collection.

Cervus campestris is exceedingly abundant, often in small
herds, throughout the countries bordering the Plata and in North-
ern Patagonia. If a person crawling close along the ground
slowly advances towards a herd, the deer, frequently out of cu-
riosity, approach to reconnoitre him. I have by this means killed
from one spot three out of the same herd. Although so tame
and inquisitive, yet when approached on horseback they are ex-
ceedingly wary. At Bahia Blanca, a recent establishment in
Northern Patagonia, I was surprised to find how little the deer
care for the noise of a gun. An overpoweringly strong and of-
fensive odour proceeds from the buck ; it is quite indescribable ;
several times while skinning a specimen I was almost overcome
by nausea. I tied up the skin in a silk pocket-handkerchief and
so carried it home. This handkerchief, after being well washed,
I continually used, and it was of course as repeatedly washed, yet

K 5



226 MAMMALIA.

every time, for a space of one year and seven months, when first
unfolded I distinctly perceived the odour. Frequently when
passing at the distance of half a mile to the leeward of a herd, I
have perceived the whole air tainted with the effluvium. I be-
lieve the smell from the buck is most powerful at the period
when its horns are perfect and free from the hairy skin ; when
in this state the meat is of course quite uneatable, but the Gau-
chos assert, that if buried for some time in fresh earth the taint
is removed. Darwin, Journal, 49.

A skull at Haslar has the horns of one side normal, on the
other (the left one) with the front lower branch elongated and
forked.

The figures of C. campestris in F. Cuvier, Man. Lithog., is
evidently a Cariacus, and not of this genus.

3. FURCIFER.

Horns erect, forked, without any basal snag. Ears narrow,
acute. Tail short. Fur consisting of thick, rather brittle, waved
hairs. Skull with a moderate suborbital pit. There is a distinct
parcel of hairs on the inside of the hock, but none on the outer
side of the metatarsus. Confined to South America.

They differ from Capreolus in wanting the tuft of hair on the
outer side of the hind tarsus.

Cervus, Furcifer, part., Sundevall, Pecora, 60.

Furcifer, part., Gray, Knowsley Menag.; Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850.

Cervus Mazama, sp., H. Smith, G. A. K.

Mazama, Gray, Cat. Mamm. B. M. xxvii., not Rqfinesque.

Cariacus, sp., Lesson, N. Tab. R. A. 173.

Chevreuil du nouveau continent (sp.), Blainv. Desm. Mam. ii.

448, 1822.

Cervus, sp., D'Orb. Voy. Amer. Merid.
Hippocamelus, LeucJcart, de Equo Bisulco, 1816.
Camelus, sp., Leuckart.
Cervequus, Lesson, Nov. Tab. R. A.
Capreolus, sp., Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc.
Equus, sp., Molina, Chili, 520; Fischer, Syn. 430; Shaw,

Zool.
Auchenia, sp., H. Smith in Griffith A. K. v. 764.

1. FURCIFER ANTISIENSIS. The TARUSH or TARUGA.

Yellow grey. Hairs rigid, quilled, brown, with a yellow sub-
terminal ring. Edge of muffle and throat white. Face with a
brown longitudinal streak and a lunate band between the eyes.
The hoofs rather broad, worn in front.



MAMMALIA. 22?

Cervus Antisiensis, D'Orbigny, Voy. Amer. Me'rid.; Diet. Univ.

H. N. iii. 328; Tschudi, Faun. Peru, t. 18.
Cervus (furcifer) Antisiensis, Sundevall, Pecora, 60.
Hab. S. America ; Bolivian Alps.

OSTEOLOGY. D'Orb. Voy. Amfr. Merid. t. 20. f. 22.

Fur rigid, quilled, grey. Hair brown, with yellow tips. Throat
and edge of the muffle white. Female : face with a brown lon-
gitudinal streak and a lunate band between the eyes. Crumen
large. Hock with a large tuft on the inner side. Tail with white
soft hair beneath. Mus. Paris.

2. FURCIFER HUAMEL. The GUEMUL.

Brown, minutely yellow dotted. Hair long, brittle, waved.

Guemul seu Heumul, Vidaure, Gesch. ; Konig, Chili in Neue

Samml. von Reiseb. Hamb. 1782, iv. 87, 88; Ray, Zool. Univ.

fy Portat. iv. 255, 1788.
Gemul or Equus bisulcus, Molina, Chili, 520; Fischer, Syn.

Mamm. 430.

Auchenia Huamel, H. Smith in Griffith A. K. v. 764.
Camelus Equinus, Leuckart', Treviranus, Biologie, ii. 179, 252,

1803.

Hippocamelus dubius, Leuckart, de Equo Bisulco, 24, 1816.
Un nouveau genre, Gay, Echo du Monde Savant, 1835, June 19 ;

Lesson, Mamm. i. 249.

Cervequus andicus, Lesson, Nov. Tab. R. A. 1?3.
Cervus chilensis (Guamul), Gay Gervais, Ann. Sci. Nat. 1846,

91.

Capreolus leucotis, Gray, P. Z. Soc. 1849, 64. t. 12.
Capreolus ? Huamel, Gray, Knowsley Menag. 66.
Furcifer Huamel, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850.
Cloven-footed Horse, Shaw, Zool. ii. 441.
Guemul, Chilians.
Hab. East coast of S. America ; Cordillera ; Patagonia.

Female, imperfect skin. Chili. Presented by the Earl of
Derby.

AN AT. Gay fy Gervais, I. c.

" Skull the size of that of C. campestris, but the forehead is
flattened; interocular region is squarer. The pit of the tear-
bag is more considerable, and the naso-maxillary foramen is
smaller."



228



MAMMALIA.



4. CARIACUS.



Horns cylindrical, arched, with a central internal snag, the tip
bent forward, and with the lower branches on the hinder edge.
Fur soft, of thin hair. Tail moderate, furnished with long hair
on the under side, anal disk white. Ears rather elongated, large,
rounded. They generally have a tuft of white hair on the outer
side of the hind legs, rather below the middle of the metacarpus,
hut it is sometimes not to be seen. The skull has a very small,
shallow, suborbital pit, and the nasal bones are broad and sub-
triangular behind. The tail is elongate, slender, pale, with the
lower part dark, and reaching nearly to the hocks in summer ;
much shorter and broader, and all dark olive, in the winter.
Confined to Northern America.

Mazama, sp., H. Smith, Griffith A. K. v. 182; Lesson, Mamm.

i.270.

Mazama, Sundevall, Pecora, 50.
Cariacus, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850.
Cariacus, sp., Gray, Med. Eepos. 1821; Cat. Mamm. B. M. xxvii. ;

Lesson, N. Tab. R. A. 173, 1842.
Chevreuils du nouveau continent (part.), Elainv. Desm. Mam. ii.

448, 1822.

Mazamadae, J. Brookes, Mus. Cat. 62, 1828.
Elephalcedse, J. Brookes, Mus. Cat. 62, 1828.



* Hoofs narrow, elongate, Tail hairy beneath.

1. CARIACUS VIRGINIANUS. The AMERICAN DEER.

Bright fulvous in summer, greyer in winter. Tail fulvous,
above the tip black, beneath white, carried erect when running.
Metatarsal tuft large, white, round. Nose brown. Side of mouth
white, with an oblique black band from the nostrils. Hoofs nar-
row, elongate.

Dama virginiana, Raii Syn. 86.

Fallow Deer, Lawson, Carol. 23 ; Catesby, Carol. App. 28.

Cervus Dama americanus, Erxl. Syst. 312.

Cervus Strongyloceros, part., Schreb. Saugth. 1074, not figure.

C. Mangivorus, Schrank, Ann. Wetter, i. 327, 1819.

Cervus Virginianus, Gmelin, S. N. i. 179 ; Desm. Mamm. 442; F.

Cuvier, Man. Lithog. t. ; Bennett, Gard. Z. S. 205 ; Fischer,

Syn. 449; Peale, U.S. Explor. Exped. 39.
C. (Mazama) Virginiana, Sundevall, Pecora, 58.
Cariacus virginianus, Gray, List Mamm. B. M. 175 ; Cat. Osteol.

B. M. 63, 64.



MAMMALIA. 229

Mazama Virginiana, J. Brookes, Cat. 62, 1828.

Virginian Deer, Penn. Syn. 51. t. 9. f. 2; Quad. i. 104. t. 11.

Cerf de la Louisiane, Cuvier, R. A. i. 256; Oss. Foss. iv. 33.

t. 5. f. 1-5.

Cariacou, Buffon, H. N. xiii. 347. t. 44.
Mexican Deer, Penn. Syn. 110. t. 9. f. 1, horns.
Hob. N. America.

Female, imperfect, white gland on tarsus very distinct. N.
America. Presented by the Earl of Derby.

OSTEOLOGY, t. 33. f. 2, 3.

Chevreuil d'Amerique, Daub. Buff. H. N. vi. t. 37 ; Cuvier, Oss.

Foss. iv. t. 5. f. 19-22.
Cariacou, Daub. B. H. N. xii. t. 45.
Cerf de la Louisiane, Cuvier, Oss. Foss. iv. 33. t. 5. f. 1-16;

Dale, Phil Trans, n. 444. fig., 1735.
Virginian Deer, Penn. Hist. Quad. t. 20. f. 2.
Var. Mexican Deer, Penn. Hist. Quad. t. 20. f. 1 .

Horns of young, simple. North America.

Horns of adults, moderate-sized, with two branches on upper
edge of beam. North America.

Horns of adult, large, with three branches on upper edge of
beam.

Horns, larger and thicker, with five branches on upper edge of
beam, inner basal branch very long and forked.

Horns, very large, with many branches on upper edge of beam,
inner basal branch thick and forked. Mexico. From the Royal
Society's Museum. (Cervus mexicanus.)

Single horn, like the preceding one, but anterior basal branch
very long, produced, and an additional elongate branch from the
lower edge of the middle of the beam. (Cervus mexicanus, Mexi-
can Deer, Penn. Syn. 110. t. 9. f. 1 ; H. Smith, Griffith A. K.
iv. t. 163. f. 3.)

Single horn, with the upper branches on the beam rather irre-
gular, and three produced and elongate, forked branches from
the lower edge of the upper part of the beam. (Cervus clavatus,
H. Smith in Griffith A. K. iv. t. 163. f. 4?)

Skeleton. Knowsley. Presented by the Earl of Derby.

Skull, male. Hudson's Bay. Presented by the Hudson's Bay
Company.

Skull, female. Hudson's Bay. Presented by the Hudson's
Bay Company.

Horns. Hudson's Bay. Presented by the Hudson's Bay
Company.

Seven pairs of horns. N> America.



230 MAMMALIA.

Two skeletons. From the Zoological Society's Collection.

Skull. Hudson's Bay. Presented by the Hudson's Bay Com-
pany.

Skull. Hudson's Bay. Presented by the Hudson's Bay Com-
pany.

* Skull. South America. Presented by the Earl of Derby.

The White-tailed Deer inhabit the Oregon, and they were
found to be most numerous near the coast of the Pacific Ocean.
Their range on that coast is up to the fifteenth degree of latitude,
and probably much further north. At the Umpqua River, in
lat. 43, they give place to the Black-tailed Deer, C. Lewisii,
which occupy the country south of that parallel to the almost
entire exclusion of these. T. Peak, U. S. Explor. Exped. 38.

We believe that the same species of Deer inhabits all the tim-
bered or partially timbered country between the coast of the At-
lantic and Pacific Oceans. They vary in size, as all the animals
of this genus do, in different feeding-grounds, but they are spe-
cifically the same. When alarmed, this species always erects its
tail, which being white beneath, is a conspicuous object, and
when running the tail is kept erect and wagged from side to side.
T. Peak, ibid. 38.

2. ?CARIACUS MEXICANUS. The MEXICAN DEER.

Fulvous grey; in winter ? Tail fulvous grey (without

hair), half as long as the head. Muzzle fulvous grey, scarcely
spotted. Metatarsal tuft evident, brown. Horns broad.

Aculliame, Hernand. Hist. Nov. Hisp. 324.

Cervus mexicanus, Gmelin, S. N. ; Licht. Darst. t. 18, <? ? &

jun. ; Sundevall, Pecora, 59; Cuvier, Oss. Foss. iv. 37. t. 5.

f. 23, horns?

Elephalces mexicanus, J. Brookes, Mus. Cat. 62.
Hab. Mexico. Mus. Berlin.

3. CARIACUS LEUCURUS. The LONG-TAILED DEER.

Fur brownish fulvous : does not change in winter or age. Tail
yellow above, elongate. Metatarsal tuft small. Nose brown, side
of muzzle white, with an oblique black band from the nose to
the mouth.

Roebuck, Dobbs, Hudson's Bay, 41, 1744.

Fallow or Virginian Deer, Cook's Third Voyage, ii. 292, 1778.

Long-tailed Jumping Deer, Umfreville, Hudson's Bay, 190,

1790.

Deer with small horns and long tail, Gass. Journ. 55, 1808.
Long-tailed Red Deer, Lewis fy Clark, Travels, ii. 41.
Small Deer of Pacific, Lewis Sf Clark, Travels, ii. 342.



MAMMALIA. 231

Common Red Deer, Lewis fy Clark, Travels, iii. 26.

Common Fallow Deer with long tails, Lewis 8f Clark, Travels,

iii. 85.
Cervus leucurus (Long-tailed Deer), Douglas, Zool. Journ. iv.

330; Richardson, Northern Zoology, Mam. 258; Wagler;

Sundevall, Pecora.
Cervus campestris (Mazame), F. Cuvier, Mam. Lithog. t., not

Desmarest.

Jumping Deer, Hudson's Bay Traders.
Chevreuil, Canadian Voyagers.
Mowitch, Indians west of Rocky Mountains.
Apeesee-mongsoos, Cree Indians.
Hab. N. America ; Hudson's Bay ; Columbia River.

OSTEOLOGY, a, b. Skull, male and female. Columbia River.
Presented by Hudson's Bay Company.

This species does not, on the east side of the Rocky Moun-
tains, range further north than latitude 54, nor is it found in
trfat parallel to the eastward of the 1 05th degree of longitude.
Mr. Douglas states, " It is the most common Deer in the di-
strict adjoining the River Columbia, more especially on the
fertile prairies of the Cowalidske and Multnornah rivers, within
100 miles of the Pacific Ocean."

In running the tail is erect, wagging from side to side. Its
gait is two ambling steps and a bound exceeding double the di-
stance of the steps. Richardson.

Dr. Richardson described a female killed in February as fawn-
coloured, mixed with black ; tail fawn-coloured, white at the tip
and beneath. Mr. Douglas, however, described the upper part
of the animal as reddish brown in summer, and changing to light
grey in winter ; so his animal may be a different species.

Skull elongate, narrow. Face rather produced, tapering, flat-
tened on the sides. Intermaxillars rather broad, not reaching to
the nasal bones, and fitting into a notch in the front upper edge of
the maxilla. Infraorbital pit moderate ; fissure very large, trian-
gular, open. Nasals, each notched in the middle of the fronts.

Male : length entire 1 1 inches ; from front of orbit to nose 6 ;
width at lower edge of orbit 4f ; of nose just before first grinder
1; of skull 3.

Female : length entire 9f inches; from front of orbit to nose 5|;
width at lower edge of orbit 3 T \; upper side of orbit 3^; of
nose just before first grinder 1 T 8 ; of skull 2 T \ ; suborbital pit
rather smaller than in the male.

A male and female in winter dress, from Fort Colville on the
Columbia River, were sent by the Hudson's Bay Company to the
Museum May 26, 1843 : they arrived without hair or skin.



232 MAMMALIA,

4. CARIACUS? NEMORALIS. The CARIACOU DEER.

Fulvous grey in winter. Tail above blackish (without the hair),
half as long as the head. Nose brown. Muzzle white, with a
black oblique streak from nose to mouth. Metatarsal tuft mi-
nute, obsolete. Ears covered externally with very short greyish
hair.

C. Nemoralis (H. Smith!), Sundevall, Pecora, 59.

Cerf blanc ou Cerf des Paletuviers, Cuvier, Oss. Foss. iv. 36. t. 5.

f. 22 a.
Chevreuils d'Amerique, Daubent. Buffon H. N. vi. t. 37 ; Cuvier,

Oss. Foss. iv. 36. t. 5. f. 19-22.

Cervus mexicanus, part., Pennant, Quad., from Buffon.
Biche des Savannes, La Borde, Buffon H. N. Supp. iii. 126 ;

" young in winter," Cuvier, I. c.
Biche des Paletuviers, La Borde, Buff. H. N. Supp. iii. 126;

" adult male," Cuvier, I. c.
Hob. Shores of Mexican Gulf; Guiana; Mexico. Cayenne; M.

Poiteau. Surinam; M. Baillon.

5. CARIACUS PUNCTULATUS. The CALIFORNIAN ROE.

Dark reddish brown (in summer), minutely punctulated by the
yellow tips of the hair ; in winter greyish brown. Chin-mark
distinct. Ears elongated, nakedish. Base of the ears, orbits,
round the muzzle, underside of tail, and the upper part of the
inside of the legs, white. Forehead, line down the face, and
narrow streak on upper part of the nape, black. Legs brown. A
very narrow, indistinct streak on the middle line of the rump
yellowish. Metatarsal tuft none. Tail like back, with a black-
ish tip.

Cariacus punctulatus, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850, t.
Hab. California. Lieut. Jones of H.M.S. ' Samson.'

There is a female of this species in the Zoological Gardens ; it
is much smaller and darker than C. Virginianus, and it differs in
the hair being dark, with a distinct, yellow, subterminal band.

Cervus gymnotis is described as very like C. nemoralis, only
differing in the tail being rather longer and pale above; the
outer surface of the ears brown and nakedish. Metatarsal tufts
none.

Cervus Gymnotis, Wiegmann, Isis, 1833; Wagner, Supp.; Sun-

devall, Pecora, 39.
Hab. Columbia. Mus. Berlin. Doubtful if distinct from the

former or C. nemoralis.



MAMMALIA. 233

6. CARIACUS LEWISII. The BLACK-TAILED DEER.

The tail black above towards the extremity, yellowish white
beneath, covered with hair at all seasons, and not carried erect
when running. Fulvous (in summer). Hair very soft, not rigid.
Forehead and upper part of face before the eyes blackish. (In
winter, fur very thick, quilled, waved, brittle.) Inside of the legs
and belly white. Chin-band distinct, black. Front hoofs nar-
row, elongate. Horns like C. Virginianus, but generally more
slender, and commonly without the basal antler.
Black-tailed Deer, Anglo-American in Oregon.
Black-tailed Fallow Deer, Lewis fy Clark, Travels to the Pacific,

iii. 26. 125 (London edit. 1807).
Cervus Macrotis /3. Colombiana, Richardson, Fauna Bor. Amer.

i. 257.
Long-tailed Deer (Cervus macrourus), H. Smith, Griffith A. K.

iv. 134, v. 7^5, part. ; Fischer, Syn. 615 ; Blyth in Cuvier

Animal Kingd. 138. f. 56.
Cervus Lewisii, T. Peale, U. States Explor. Exped. 39. t. 9,

ined. fig. at p. 43, fore-foot.
Hab. California, between Columbia River and Umpqua River ;

seldom seen east of the Cascade range of mountains.

OSTEOLOGY, a, b. Skull, male and female. Columbia River.

Presented by the Hudson's Bay Company.

The Short or Black-tailed Deer in the winter is covered with
very thick, waved, tubular, brittle quills or hair, of a grey colour,
with a rather darker subterminal band. The legs are yellow
brown. The tuft on the inside of the hock very large. The tuft


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