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Catalogue of the specimens of Mammalia in the collection of the British Museum (Volume 3) online

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A flat skin without skull, blackish, with rows of pale spots.
Nepal. Presented by B. II . Hodgson, Esq.

OSTEOLOGY. Hodgson, J. A. S. Beng. x. 795. t.

Skull of male. Nepal. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

Skull of female. Nepal. Presented by B. II. Hodgson, Esq.

Skeleton, wanting bones of feet. Nepal. Presented by B.
H. Hodgson, Esq.

Skeleton, wanting bones of feet. Nepal. Presented by B.
H. Hodgson, Esq.

Skeleton, wanting bones of feet. Nepal. Presented by B.
II . Hodgson, Esq.

Skull. Nepal. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

Skulls of male and female. Nepal.

Two skeletons, wanting bones of the feet. Nepal.

ICON.

Drawing of skull of male. Hodgson, Icon. ined. B. M. t. 186.
f. 5, 6.

Drawing of young male. Hodgson, Icon. ined. B. M. 1. 188. f. 1 .

Drawing of male and female. Hodgson, Icon. ined. B.M. t.18.9.

Drawing of female. Hodgson, Icon. ined. B. M. t. 192. f. 1.

Musk. Hardw. Icon. ined. B. M. n. 10,974. t. 82, t. S3, skull.

3. MOSCHUS LEUCOGASTER. The WHITE-BELLIED MUSK.

Dark brown. Throat, chest, belly, and inside of the ears, pure
white.

Moschus leucogaster, Hodgson, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, viii.

203, x. 914, xi. 285; Gray, Cat. Mamm. B. M. 1/2; Cat.

Hodgson Collection in B. M. 31.

Moschus niveiventer, Hodgson, Icon. ined. B. M. n. 188, 190, 193.
Hab. Nepal.

Nepal. Presented by B. II. Hodgson, Esq.
A male and female.

An imperfect flat skin of a female, rather darker (like a
bleached specimen of M. saturatus).

ICON.

Drawing of young male. Hodgson, Icon. ined. B. M. 1. 188. f. 2.

Drawing of male, female and young. Hodgson, Icon. ined.
B. M. t. 190.

Drawing of female. Hodgson, Icon. ined. B. M. t. 193. f. 3.

4. MOSCHUS CHRYSOGASTER. The GOLDEN-EYED MUSK.

Grey brown. The ears, orbits, throat, chest, abdomen, and
inner sides of the legs, brilliant yellow.



246 MAMMALIA.

Moschus chrysogaster, Hodgson, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, viii.

203 (1839), x. 914, xi. 285; Gray, Cat. Mamm. B. M. 172;

Cat. Hodgson Collection in B. M. 31 ; List Osteol B. M. 63.
Moschus moschiferus var., Sundevall, Pecora, 118.
Hob. Nepal.

Two specimens. Nepal. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

OSTEOLOGY, t. 25. f. 1.

Skull. Nepal. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.
Skull. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

ICON.

Drawing of male and female. Hodgson, Icon . ined. B. M. 1. 1 91 .
Drawing of female. Hodgson, Icon. ined. B.M. t. 192. f. 2.



II. Fur close-pressed. Throat and hinder edge of the tarsus more
or less naked. Males without any peculiar odoriferous
gland. Throat white streaked . Young coloured like the
adult. Pigmy Musks.

Pigmy Musks, Gray, Knowsley Menag.

2. MEMINNA, Gray.

Throat entirely covered with hair. Fur white, striped and
spotted. The legs are short and rather stout. The hinder edge
of the metatarsus covered with hair, but on its outer side, a little
below the hock, a rather large, smooth, naked prominence, red
when alive.

Meminna, Knox-, Gray, Cat. Mamm. B. M. xxvii. ; Lesson. Nov.

Tab. R. A. 175.

Moschus, sp., Erxleb. S. A. 322, 1/77; Zimn*.; Desm. 1804.
Musk, sp., Penn.

Moschiola, Hodgson, Calcutta J. N. H. iv. 292.
Tragulus, sp., Brisson, R. A. 95, 1756.
Tragulus, Sundevall, Pecora, 118, 119.

.The Pisora inhabit the forests of India, near to, but without
the various ranges of hills. Hodgson.

The flesh is excellent; it lives in the dense woods of the
Dukhun, not in the plains. Sfyfas, P. Z. S. 1831.

1. MEMINNA INDICA. The MEMINNA or PISORA.

Moschus Meminna, Erxl. Syst. 322; Schreb. Saugth. 960. t. 243;

Gatterer, Brev. Zool. i. 92; TicMl, Calcutta Journ. N. H. i.

1840, 420.



MAMMALIA. 247

Chevrotain, &c., Buff on, H. A r . xiii. 315.

Memina ou Chevrotain de Ceylon, Buffon, Supp. in. 102.315. 1. 15.

Meminna, Knox, Ceylon, 21 ; Shaw, ZooL ii. 256. t.

Indian Musk, Penn. Syn. 59. t. 10. f. 2; Quad. i. 127. t. 127;

Knight, M. Anim. Nat. f. 5/2, 5/4.
Pissay, Hamilton, Voy. E. Ind. i. 261.
Mingee, Tickell, Calcutta Journ. N. H. ii. 420.
Tragulus Memina, Sundevall, Pecora, 63.
Meminna Indica, M. Malaccensis, Gray, Cat.Mamm. B.M. 172;

List Osteol. B. M. 63.
Tragulus mininoides (or Bijay), Hodgson, Journ. Asiat. Sec.

Bengal, x. 914.

Moschiola Minimoides, Hodgson, Calcutta Journ. N. II. iv. 292.
Hab. India; Madras; Ceylon.

Half-grown (not in good state). Madras. Presented by Wal-
ter Elliot, Esq.
Young. India.
Adult. India.
Young. India.
Meminna Malaccensis. Gray, List Mamm. B. M. 172.

OSTEOLOGY, t. 24. f. 3.
Skull of adult. India.
* Skull and hones of body. India.

ICON. Hardw. Icon. ined. B. M. n. 10,9/5. t. 117 a, b, c.

3. HYEMOSCHUS.

Underlip and chin rather nakedish, with scattered hairs. The
hinder edge of the metatarsus hairy, with a large callosity on the
outer side near the heel. Two lateral toes elongate, with large
tapering hoofs. The intermaxillary is very short, oblong, trun-
cated behind, and placed on the front end of the truncated max-
illa. The sides are spotted (like the Meminna).

These animals have much the habit of pigs. They take their
food in the water ; are called Deer Pigs by the French colonists
in West Africa.

Dr. Hugh Falconer (Proc. ZooL Soc. 1843) gave some account
of the osteology of the foot of this animal; and in his MSS. he
informs me he has proposed to call the genus Amphimoschits.
M. de Blainville has regarded it as the recent type of Anoplothe-
rium. In the form of the feet it is very nearly allied to a fossil
genus found in Auvergne, which M. A. Bravard has described
under the name of Cainotherium (1835).

The metacarps of Moschus aquaticus are distinct along their
whole length ; its fore-leg, from the carpus downwards, is un-



248 MAMMALIA.

distinguishable from that of the Pecary and its succentorial
toes are as much developed as in the last-mentioned animal.

As Dorcatherium of Kaup breaks down the empirical distinc-
tion between the Ruminants and Pachyderms as regards the
number of the teeth, so does the Moschus aquations as regards
the structure of the feet. Falconer fy Cautley, Proc. Geol. Sac.
1843, 240.

Hyemoschus, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. ; Ann. fy Mag. N. H. xvi.

*350; List Osteol. B. M. 63.

Moschus (aquaticus), Falconer, Proc. Geol. Soc. 1843, 240.
Amphimoschus, Falconer, MSS. 1843.
Cainotherium, sp., Bravard, 1835.
Moschus, sp., Lesson, Nov. Tab. R. A. 175, 1842.

Lesson refers M. aquaticus with doubt as a synonym of Mos-
chus Javanicus. Nov. Tab. R. A. 175.

1. HYEMOSCHUS AQUATICUS. The BOOMORAH.

Brown. Two diverging streaks on the throat, chest, spots on
back, a streak along each side, front edge of thighs, a spot over
each hoof, and end of tail, white.

Moschus aquaticus, Ogilby, P. Z. S. 1840, 35; Falconer, P.

Geol. Soc. 1843; Wagner, Wiegm. Arch. viii. 51.
Hyemoschus aquaticus, Gray, Ann. fy Mag. N. H. xvi. 350; List

'Osteol. B. M. 63.
Moschus Stanleyanus (misprint for aquaticus), Sundevall, Pecora,

64.

Boomorah, Negroes of Sierra Leone.
Water Deer, Colonists at Sierra Leone.
Biche Cochon, French Colonists in IV. Africa.
Moschus Javanicus var. ?, Lesson, Nov. Tab. R. A. 175.
Hob. W. Africa. Bulham Creek, Sierra Leone ; common.

Whitfield.

Two adult. West Africa ; Gambia. Presented by the Earl of
Derby.

OSTEOLOGY, t. 25. f. 2.

*Skull. The specimen described in the Ann. <$ Mag. Nat.
Hist. xvi. p. 350, 1845. Sierra Leone. Presented by the Earl
of Derby.

* Skull and scapular. Sierra Leone. Presented by the Earl
of Derby.

4. TRAGULUS, Pallas.

Throat with a nakedish, concave, subglandular, callous disc
between the rami of the lower jaw, from which a band extends



MAMMALIA. '249

to the fore part of the chin. The hinder edge of the metatarsus
nearly bald and slightly callous. Fur soft, adpressed. The in-
termaxilla elongate, sub triangular, extending up to the side of
the nose.

Tragulus, Pallas; Gray., Cat. Mamm. B. M. xxvii.

Moschus, sp., Desm. 1804; Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1836, 65;

Lesson, N. Tab. R. A. 175.
Tragulus, sp., Brisson, Reg.Anim. 95, 1756; Sundevall, Pecora.

118.

Tragulus B, Sundevall, Pecora, 63.
Napu, Lesson, Nov. Tab. R. A. 175, 1842.
Tragus, sp., Klein.

ANAT. Rapp. Wiegm. Arch. 1843, 43. t. 2 (three stomachs).

1. TRAGULUS STANLEYANUS. The STANLEY MUSK.

Reddish fulvous. Hair black tipped, beneath white. Neck and
chest shining fulvous. Crown darker. Tail moderate, pale beneath.

Mosclms Stanleyanus, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1836, 15 (not
Sundevall).

Moschus ecaudatus, Temm. MSS. Mus. Ley den (1845); Sunde-
vall, Pecora, 63.

Hab. Ceylon.

Adult. Ceylon. Presented by the Earl of Derby.

ANAT. t. 25. f. 3.

*Skull. Presented by the Earl of Derby.

2. TRAGULUS JAVANICUS. The NAPU.

Pale brown, black grisled. Sides of head and rump shining
fulvous. Neck and nape ashy. Throat with three white stripes.
Belly white. Tail elongate.

Tragulus Javanicus, Pallas, Spic. Zool. xiii. 18; Sundevall, Pe-
cora, 121; Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1836, 15. 65; Cat. Mamm.
B. M. 173.

Moschus Javanicus, Gmelin, S. N. i. 174; Bennett, Zool. Gar-
dens, 41; Raffles, Linn. Trans, xiii. 261; Donnd. Zool. Beytr.
i. 583, 1792; Rapp. Wiegm. Arch. 1843, 43. t. 2; Mus. Leyd.
1852.

Moschus Indicus, Gmelin, S. N. i. 172; Schreb. Saugth. 962.
t. 245, not Brisson.

Moschus Napu, F. Cuv. Man. LitJiog. t. ; Fischer, Syn. Mam. 440.

Tragulus Napu, Sundevall, Pecora, 63.

Hab. Sumatra; Borneo; Java.

Male. Java. Presented by the Hon. East India Company.
Sumatra. Presented by Lady Raffles.

L5



250 MAMMALIA.

This species, so well described by Pallas, is easily known by
its larger size and the ashy grisled neck. The Kanchil has a
yellow neck with a black nuchal streak.

3. TRAGULUS PYGMEUS. The KANCHIL.

Fulvous varied with black. Sides of neck and body pale yel-
low, black tipped. Streak along nape blackish.

Moschus pygmeus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. 92.

Kantil, Lichtenberg in Voigt's Mag. Naturg. iii. 2. 1.

Moschus Kanchil, Raffles, Linn. Trans, xiii. 262; Fischer, Syn.

Mamm. 441; Waterhouse, Cat. Mus. Zool. Soc. 31, 1838.
Chevrotain, Buffon, H. N. xiii. 344. Supp. vi. 219. t. 30.
Chevrotrain de Java on Kanchil (M. Javanicus), F. Cuvier, Mam.

Lithog. t. $ . t. 9 .

Moschus Griffithsii, Fischer, Syn.; Griffith, A. K. t.
Javan Musk, Shaw, Zool. ii. t. 1/3.
Tragulus Kanchil, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1836; List Mamm.

B. M. 176.

Tragulus affinis, Gray, List Mamm. B. M. 176.
Tragulus pygmeus, Sundevall, Pecora, 62; Gray, Knowsley

Menaa. t.
Hob. Asiatic Islands ; Java; Malacca; Penang; Borneo.

Java. Presented by General Hardwicke.

Female. Java. Presented by the East India Company.

Young.

Adult. India? Presented by Edward Burton, Esq.

Var. 1 . Belly with a broad fulvous streak.

Moschus intermedius, " Gray," MSS." ; Waterhouse, Cat. Mus.
ZooL Soc. 38, 1838.

Var. 2. Under surface pale fulvous, with four white streaks.

Chevrotain, Buffon, H. N. xii. 342. t. 42, 43.

Moschus fulviventer, Gray, P. Z. Soc. 1836, 65; Waterhouse,

Cat. ZooL Soc. 38, 1838.

??Pelandoc, Raffles, Linn. Trans, xiii. fide Mus. Zcol. Soc.
??M. Pelandoc, H. Smith, Griffith A. K. v. 769; Lesson, Mamm.

i. 258.

Female ; belly streak wider. Presented by General Hardwicke,

Young. Presented by General Hardwicke.

OSTEOLOGY.

Three skulls. India.

ICON. Hardw. Icon. ined. B. M. n. 10,9/5. t. 118, 119, 120
n. 10,974. t. 85.



MAMMALIA. 251

The synonyma of the species of Tragulus are exceedingly con-
fused. From the very imperfect manner in which they are de-
scribed and figured, it is impossible to identify with any of the
foregoing species, or separate from them as distinct,

1. The Pelandoc figured in Marsden's Sumatra.

2. The Pigmy Musk of Sumatra, figured in Mr. Griffith's edi-
tion of Cuvier's Animal Kingdom (v. 62. t.), on which Fischer
has established his Moschus Griffithsii (Syn. Mam. 414).

The Moschus pygmceus is an Antelope ; the hinder part of the
tarsus being covered with hair ; the false hoofs very small and
rudimentary, and entirely hidden under the fur of the feet.

Moschus Americanus and Moschus delicatulus, or Leverum
Musk of Shaw, are undoubtedly the fawn of Deer. It is curious
that Dr. Shaw quotes as a synonym of the last-named species
the figure of Seba, on which alone the Moschus Americanus is
founded, while, at the same time, he enumerates Moschus Ame-
ricanus r.s a distinct species.

Tribe 5. CAMELINA.

Cutting teeth eight above and below. Horns none. Hoofs
small, compressed; false hoofs none.

Nose produced. Upper lip dependent, naked in front, and
entirely covered with hair. Horns or crumen none. Ears ob-
long, moderate. Cutting-teeth eight in each jaw ; canine teeth
in each jaw. Neck long. Legs rather long; thigh free by the
body (like those of men and apes). Toes two, elongate, callous
beneath. Horns small, compressed, somewhat claw-like. False
hoofs none.

Camelus, Linn.; Cuv. T. E. 1798.
(Unguiculata bifida) Camelinum, Raii Syn. 60, 1693.
Camelina, Gray, Ann. Phil. 1825; Cat. Mamm. B. M. xxvii.
Tylopoda, Iliiger, Prod. 102, 1811 ; Ruppell, Verz. Senck. SammL

184, 1845.

Hydrophone, Grey, L. M. Rep. xv. 307.
Camelidze, Gray, L. M. Rep. xv. 307 ; H. Smith, Griff. A. K. v.;

Selys, 1842; Qgilby, P. Z. S. 1836, 133.
Inermia, Latr. Fam. Nat. R. A. 62, 1825.
Les Chameaux, F. Cuv. 1829.
Cameliers, Pomet, I.e. 183.
Camelinia, part., Raf/n. Anal. Nat. 55, 1815.
Les Chameaux, F. Cuv. Dent. Mam. 227. t. 93; D. S. Nat. lix.

512, 1829.

Rnminantia c. acerati, part,, Bronn, Index Palaont. ii. 710.
Caraeli, pnrt., Wagler, N. Si/st. Amph. 31, 1830.



252 MAMMALIA.

Camelisidese, Lesson, N. Tab. R. A. 1(57, 1842.
Camelidse seu Ecornis, J. Brookes, Mus. Cat. 60, 1828.

They fold the feet under their body when they rest, with their
chest on the earth, hence the knees and chest are generally cal-
lous.

SYNOPSIS OF GENERA.

1. CAMELUS. Back humped. Anterior grinders conical, far

apart. Toes broad ; soles nearly orbicular. Old World.

2. LLAMA. Back not humped. Grinders similar. Toes elon-

gate ; soles narrow. New World.

1. CAMELUS.

Back with one or two humps. Grinders ^Q; anterior ones
conical, far apart. Toes broad; sole nearly orbicular, only
slightly separated in front. Tail short, tufted.

Living on leaves. Peculiar to the temperate and warmer parts
of Asia and Africa, and naturalized in Southern Europe.

Camelus, sp., Linn.

Camelus, Cuvier -, Illiger, Prod.; F. Cuv. Diet. Sci. Nat. lix.
512; Fischer, Syn. 434.

1. CAMELUS ARABICUS. The SGHIMEL or DROMEDARY.
Back with a single hump.

Camelus Dromedarius, Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. 90 ; Gm.elin, S.

N. i. 168; Forsk. Faun. Orient. 4; Erxl. Syst. 218; Zimm.

Geog. Gesch. ii. 139; Schreb. Saugth. t. 303; Cuvier, Menag.

Mus. t. ; Reg. Anim. i. 250; F. Cuvier, Diet. Sci. Nat. viii.

94 ; Mam. Lith. t. 1, 2 ; Desm. N. Diet. H. N. vi. 42; Mamrn.

424 ; Fischer, Syn. 435 ; Bronn, Jam. 488 ; Gray, List Mamm.

B. M. 171; List Osteol. B. M. 62.
Camelus Luk, Eversmann, Bucharia.
Camelus arabicus, Desmoul. Diet. Class. H. N. iii. 452; Mem.

Mus. x. 221; SundevaU, Pecora, 104.
Camelus vulgaris, Forsk. Faun. Orient . 4.
Camelus monotophus, Walther, Wetter. Ann. iv. 105.
Camelus Dromas, Gesner 9 Quad. 171. fig. 172; Alpin. JEgypt.

i. 223. t. 12; Pallas.
Camelus Arabice, Plin. H. Nat. viii.
Camelus Bactrianus, Aldrov. Bisulc. 908. fig.
Camelus minimus, Klein, Quad. 42.
Camelus vetus, Frisch. Naturg. iv. 1.
Camelus, Jonst. Quad. 93. t. 42, 44.



MAMMALIA. 253

Dromedarius, Brisson, Reg. Anim. 55.

Chameau, Perr. Anim. i. 69. t. 7 ; Bujfon, H. N. xi. t. 9.

Camel, Penn. Quad. t.

Arabian Camel, Penn. Syn. 60; Shaw, ZooL ii. 166.

Var. 1. Stronger and slower.

Camel (Gimel or Jermal of the Arabs).

Camelus Luk, Eversmann.

Var. 2. Slighter and fleeter.
Dromedary, or Hadgin of the Arabs.
Hob. Desert of Arabia.

Young.

Adult, white. From the Berlin Museum.

OSTEOLOGY. Grundler, Obs. Anat. Tubing. 1817-
Drome'daire, Daub. Buffon H. N. xi. t. 21.

Skull. From Dr. Mantell's Collection.

Skeleton. N. Africa. From Mr. Eraser's Collection.

*Skull.

Domesticated in Senegal, India. Varies in colour from brown
to black and white.

2. CAMELUS BACTRIANUS. The MECHERI or CAMEL.

Back with two humps.
Camelus Bactrianus, Linn. S. N. ed. 12. i. 90 ; Gmelin, S. N. i.

169 ; Forsk. Faun. Or. 4 ; Erxleb. Syst. 221 ; Zimmerm. Geogr.

Gesch. 4. 140 ; Schreb. Saugth. t. 304 ; Cuvier, Menag. Mus. t.;

Reg. Anim. i. 250 ; Fr. Cuvier, Diet. Sci. Nat. viii. 93 ; Desm.

N. Diet. H. N. vi. 22. t. P. 12. f. 2 ; Mamm. 423 ; Desmoul.

Diet. Class. H. IV.iii.451; Fischer, Syn. 435; Gray, List Mamm.

B. M. 171; List Osteol. B. M. 61.
Camelus Ditophus, Walther, Wetter. Ann. iv. 163.
Camelus Bactrise, Plin. H. N. viii.
Camelus Turcicus, Alpin. ^Eg. i. 223. t. 13.
Camelus, Gesner, Quad. 162. fig. 163; Brisson, Reg. Anim. 53.
Dromedarii, Jonst. Quad. t. 42, 44.

Bactrian Camel, Penn. Syn. 63; Shaw, ZooL ii. 239. t. 67.
Chameau, Buffon, Hist. Nat. xi. 211. 426. t. 22; Sante, Mem..

Mus. xvii. 320.

Trampelthier, Knorr, Delic. ii. t. K. 6.
Hab. Mongolian Deserts.

OSTEOLOGY.

Le Chameau, Daub. Buffon H. N. xi. t. 24 ; Kaup, Allg. ZooL t.

Skeleton. Persia.

Domesticated in Eastern Europe, Persia, Tartary and India.



254 MAMMALIA.

Varies from brown to white, and also greatly in size, strength
and quickness, according to the breed and the climate.

2. LAMA.

Back even, not humped. Tail short, hairy. Toes slender;
soles narrow, separate in front. Grinders ~. South America.

Lama, Cuvier; Desm. N. Diet. H. N. xxiv. 31, 1804; Fischer,

Syn. 436.

Auchenia, Illiaer, Prod. 103, 1811 (not Marshall).
Lacma, Tiedemann, Zool. i. 421.
" Llacma, Cuvier," Illiaer, Prod.
Vicunia, Rqfinesque> Anal. Nat. 55, 1815.
Dromedarius, Wagler, N. Syst. Amph.
Aucheria, F. Cuvier, Diet. Sci. Nat. lix. 512 (misprint).
Les Lamas, F. Cuvier, Dent. Mam. 229.

Elaphocamelus, Mathiola, Episc. 381; Marcgrave, Brasils, 243.
Cervocamelus, Jonst. Quad.

Molini, and most systematic writers after him, have considered
that there are five distinct kinds: viz. 1. Vigoyne, 2. Guanaco,
3. 1 Jama, 4. Alpaca, 5. Heugue.

Desmarest (N. D. H. N. xxiv. 31, 1804) allows two. 1. Lama
(C. llama and huanacus, Linn.). 2. Vigogne (C. paco, C. Vico-
nia, and C. araunacus, Linn.).

M. F. Cuvier allows of three kinds : he considers the Vigoyne
as very doubtful, but the latter is often brought alive to this
country.

Dr. Tschudi, in the Fauna of Peru, indicates four kinds : viz.
1. A. huanaco, 2. A. Lama, 3. A. pacos, and 4. A. Vicunia.
He states that the Lama and Alpaca are only known in the do-
mesticated state.

Dr. Sundevall (Pecora) considers there is only tw r o species, the
A. Lama and A. Vicunna, regarding the Lama and Alpaca as
domestic varieties of the Huanaco (A. Lama).

Prof. F. L. Waltber (Neue Annal. Wetter. Gesellsch. 1819, 105),
on the other hand, proposes to divide the genus Lama into three
sections. 1. Lama, with a callosity on the breast. 2. Guanak,
with one on the (Rucken) ; and 3. Araukan, containing the Vi-
gogne and Pako, without any callosities (Hocker) !

The period of gestation in the three kinds which have bred at
Knowsley, namely the Llama, Alpaca, and Guanaco, is eleven
months ; the Llama and Alpaca breed regularly ; but by the
Guanaco only a single fawn has been produced, to which one of
the male Llamas is sire. None of them produce more than one
at a birth.



MAMMALIA. 255

In confinement, the Vicuna and the Alpaca often have the
lower cutting- teeth elongated and projecting, giving the face a
bulldog-like appearance. I have not observed this in the Gua-
naco or Llama.

The Alpaca may be a tame, heavy variety of the Vicuna, as it
has the same short, hairy head ; but the neck is thicker, and the
whole animal heavier, and the hair of the head longer and more
bushy, and it wants the pectoral fringe.

All the tribe have the disagreeable habit of spitting, when irri-
tated, a quantity of half-digested cud ; the Llama and Alpaca do
this only when much annoyed ; the Guanaco, on the contrary,
upon the slightest occasion.

Unlike Sheep, these animals, in confinement at least, do not
shed their coat.

Though the Llama, Alpaca and Vicuna are generally harmless
and inoffensive, the males will very readily quarrel with each
other.

Mr. Walton, a zealous advocate for the naturalization of the
Alpaca, in his little book on the subject, published by Blackwood
in 1844, apprehends better success will be the result when the
Alpacas are turned on to waste and mountain lands than when
they are kept on richer pasture and well cared for. But the fact
that few, if any, specimens are now living in Great Britain be-
side those at Knowsley, does not favour this conclusion.

The Llama, the Alpaca and the Vicugna, are exclusively confined
to the colder and more elevated regions of the Peruvian Andes ;
the G-uanaco has a wider geographic range, extending to the
plains of Patagonia, and even the southernmost extremity of the
continent. The Llama inhabits the high valleys of the Peru-
Bolivian Andes, its favourite region being the valley of the lake
of Titicaca. It was the only beast of burthen possessed by the
Aborigines; hence we find it wherever the Incas carried their
conquests and civilization, from the equator to beyond the
southern tropic. It is still extensively employed by the Indians
as a beast of burthen, and its wool, though coarse, is used by the
Aborigines. Like all domestic animals, it varies in colour; its
flesh is nauseous, black, and ill-tasted.

The Alpaca or Paco, a gentle and handsome animal, although
more closely allied to the Llama than any of its congeners, is a di-
stinct species ; it inhabits at still more elevated places than the
Llama, its favourite haunts being on the streams descending from
the snowy peaks; it is only found in a domestic state; it is
reared for its wool, which is extremely fine, silky and long, and
which now bears a high price, from its introduction into some of
our finest woollen tissues. The Vicugna is only found in the
wild state, in the plains on the Andes, as high as 1500 feet; its



256 MAMMALIA.

wool is much prized for its fineness. The animal has a shrill
whistle ; it is easily domesticated. The Guanaco, by some na-
turalists considered erroneously as the parent stock of the Llama
and Alpaca, is also only found in the wild state ; it is seen as far
north as lat. 12 S., is very abundant, and in large flocks on the
Bolivian and Chilian Andes, and has been seen as far as the
southern extremity of the continent. All these animals feed on
a species of coarse, wiry grass called ichu.

In the Peru-Bolivian Andes the Llama and Alpaca are daily
disappearing to make room for the more useful and profitable
breed of the common European Sheep, wdiile as a beast of bur-
then the Ass is everywhere taking its place. Pentland, in Mrs.
Somerville's Physical Geography, ii. 340, 342.

M. G. Geoffroy has announced, on the authority of Dr. Wed
del, that a cross-breed between the Alpaca and Vicuna had been
obtained, and that the mules of this cross-breed are capable of
reproducing this newly-created species, the wool of which is re-
presented as of a valuable quality; but Mr. Pentland has examined
the case referred to and the evidence adduced, and does not con-
sider it sufficient to establish the fact.

* Of a nearly uniform brown colour. Wild.

1. LAMA VICUGNA. The VICUGNA.

Head short. Face covered with soft hair, like the neck, and
of the same colour. Cheeks rather paler. Hair of temples not
longer than that of the rest of the head. Eyelashes black. Ears
hairy, brown, blackish washed. Neck and head without any long
hairs. Sides of the body with longer, projecting, rather rigid
brown hairs. Hind legs without any appearance of elongated
warts. The hinder part of the belly and inside of the thighs
less naked.

Skull (adult) 9 inches long ; nose short ; nasal bones short,
broad; lacrymal opening none.

Camelus Vicugna, Molini, Chili, 277; Gmelin, S. N. i. 1/1;

Schreb. Saugth. t. 307; Lesson, Bull. Sci. Nat. Univer. i.

252 ; Zool Journ. i. 242.

Lama Vicugna, Fischer, Syn. 437 ', Gray, Knowsley Menag.
Lacma Vicunna, Tiedem. Zool. i. 421.
Auchenia Vicunna, Desm. Mam. 426.
Lama Vicunna, Gray, List Osteol. B. M. 62.
Auchenia Vicugna, Desm.
Auchenia Vicunna, Sundevall, Pecora, 107.
Auchenia Vicunia, Tschudi in Wiegm. Arch. 1824, 245 ; Fauna

Peru, t. 17.



MAMMALIA. 25?

Vicunna, Laet. Nov. Orb. 406; Nieremb. H. N. 184. f. 185; Ulloa,
^Voy. i. 506. 525. t. 24. f. 3; Shaw, Zool. ii. 243. t. 169.
Vicogne, Buffon, H. N. vi. 208. t. 34 ; Sonnini, Nouv. Diet. H.

N. xiii. 254; Cuvier, R. A. i. 251; F. Cuv. Diet. Sri. Nat.

xxv. 268 ; Desmoul. Diet. Class. H. N. iii. 456.


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