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Catalogue of the specimens of Mammalia in the collection of the British Museum (Volume 3) online

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Vicogiies or Viconas, Frezier, Voy. i. 266.
Yicunias, Falkner, Patagonia, 112.
Hab. Peruvian Alps.

Two, adult. Bolivia. From Mr. Bridges' Collection.

OSTEOLOGY, t. 24. f. 2. Skull.

Skull, male. Bolivia. From Mr. Bridges' Collection.
Skull, female. Bolivia. From Mr. Bridges' Collection.

Confined to the most elevated table-land and mountains of
Bolivia and Northern Chili.

The Vicuna is purely a wild species ; it has hitherto resisted all
the efforts of the Aborigines, the most patient and docile of the
human race, to render it prolific in its own climate and in do-
mesticity. Pentland, L c. 341.

These animals jump and kick with their hind legs.

2. LAMA GUANACUS. The GUANACO.

Head elongate, tapering, slate-coloured, nakedish, covered
with very short, uniform hair (which is often longer and rather
tufted on the temple under and behind the eyes). Ears naked-
ish, blackish slate, white edged. Circumference of face from
base of ears, and on the back of the temple, the lower jaw and
chin, whitish. Eyelashes black. The neck and body covered
with elongated, rather rigid hairs, projecting beyond the fur.
The hinder part of the body in front of the thighs, the inner side
of the fore-legs and thighs nearly naked. Chest only very
slightly fringed. The hind legs with distinct, elongated warts.

Skull (adult) 11J or 12 inches long; nose elongate; nasal bones
elongate ; lacrymal opening large.

Camelus Guanaco, Trail, Wern. Trans, iv. 492. t.

Camelus Huanacus, Molini, Chili, 281 ; Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i.

170; Schreb. Saugth. t. 305.
Lama Peruana a, Fischer, Syn. 436.
Lama Pacos (fera), Gray, List Mamm. B. M. 171.
Lama huanacus, Gray, Knowsley Menag.
Auchenia Lama fera, Sundevall, Pecora, 107.
Auchenia glama var., Bennett, Gard. Zool. Soc. 273. fig.
Auchenia Lama, Brandt ; Wagner.
Auchenia huanaco Tschudi, Fauna Peru.



258 MAMMALIA.

Guanaco seu Huanacu, Laet. Nov. Orb. 406, 16,33 ; Ovallc, Chili,

44 ; Ulloa, Voy. i. 366. t. 24. f. 5; Shaw, Zool. ii. 246. t. 169,

170.

Guianicoes, Hawkesw. Voy.
Guanaco, Byron, Voy. round the World; Darwin, Zool. Beagle,

Mamm. 26.
Hab. Peruvian Alps ; the Pampas and mountains in Chili, Men-

doza, and Straits of Maghellan.

Adult. Presented by Sir William Burnett and Capt. Fitzroy,
R.N.

Adult. S. America. Presented by Charles Darwin, Esq.
Half-grown. S. America.

OSTEOLOGY, t. 24. f. 1.

Skeleton. Chili.

Skull. Chili. From Mr. Bridges' Collection.

Two skulls. Chili.

Skull. From the Zoological Society's Collection.

The Guanaco or Wild Llama is the characteristic quadruped
of the plains of Patagonia; it is very common over the whole of
the temperate part of the continent, as far south as the islands
near Cape Horn. It generally lives in small herds, of from half
a dozen to thirty in each ; but on the bank of the St. Cruz we
saw one herd which must have contained at least 500. They are
generally wild and extremely wary. If, however, by chance the
sportsman abruptly meet a single animal, or several together,
they will generally stand motionless and intensely gaze at him,
then perhaps move a few yards, turn round and look again.
They are curious ; for if a person lies on the ground and plays
strange antics, such as throwing up his feet in the air, they will
almost always approach by degrees to reconnoitre him : this ar-
tifice has the advantage of allowing several shots to be tired,
which are all taken as part of the performance. On the moun-
tains of Tierra de Fuego, I have more than once seen a Guanaco
on being approached not only neigh and squeal, but prance and
leap about in the most ridiculous manner, apparently in defiance
as a challenge.

The Wild Guanaco are very easily domesticated, and I have
seen some thus kept in Northern Patagonia near a house, though
not under any restraint. They are in this state very bold, and
readily attack a man by striking him from behind with both
knees. It is asserted that the motive for these attacks is jealousy
on account of the females.

The Wild Guanacos, however, have no idea of defence ; even
a single dog will secure one of these large animals till the hunts-
man can come up.



259

In many of their habits they are like sheep in a flock. Thus,
when they see men approaching in several directions on horse*
back, they soon become bewildered and know not which way to
run ; this greatly facilitates the Indian method of hunting, for
they are thus easily driven to a central point and encompassed.

The Guanacos readily take to the water ; several times at Port
Valdes they were seen swimming from island to island. Byron,
in his Voyage., says he saw them drink salt w^ater. Some of our
officers likewise saw a herd apparently drinking the briny fluid
from a saliua near Cape Blanco. I imagine, in several parts of
the country, if they do not drink salt water they drink none at
all. In the middle of the day they frequently roll in the dust in
saucer-shaped hollows. The males fought together. Herds
sometimes appear to set out on exploring parties at Bahia Blanca,
where within thirty miles of the coast these animals are extremely
unfrequent. I one day saw the tracks of thirty or forty which
had come in a direct line to a muddy salt-water creek ; they then
must have perceived that they were approaching the sea, for
they had wheeled with the regularity of cavalry, and had returned
back in as straight a line as they had advanced. The Guanaco
has a singular habit, which to me is quite inexplicable, namely
that on successive days they drop their dung on the same defined
heap. I saw one of these heaps which was eight feet in diame-
ter, and was composed of a large quantity. This habit, accord-
ing to M. D'Orbigny, is common to all the species of the genus;
it is very useful to the Peruvian Indians, who use the dung in
fact, and are thus saved the trouble of collecting it.

The Guanaco appear to have favourite spots for lying down to
die, on the banks of the St. Cruz, in certain circumscribed spaces,
which are generally bushy and all near the river; the ground
was actually white with bones; on one such spot I counted between
ten and twenty heads. I particularly examined the bones; they
did not appear, as some scattered ones which I had seen, gnawed
or broken, as if dragged together by beasts of prey. The animal
in most cases must have crawled, before dying, beneath and
among the bushes. M. Bynoe informed me, that during a former
voyage he observed the same circumstance on the banks of the
Rio Gallegos. I do not at all understand the reason of this, but
I may observe that the wounded Guanacos at the St. Cruz inva-
riably walked towards the river. Darwin, Journ. 168.

** Colour various, often variegated. Domestic.

Almost every person who has lived where these animals abound

consider there are two or more kinds found in the domesticated

state, and they are all distinct from the two wild kinds already

noticed. They will not allow that they are like the long-legged



260 MAMMALIA.

Sheep of France and the short-legged Sheep of Lincolnshire,
mere breeds of the same kind. Some authors, as Tschudi (Fauna
Peruana), declare that they will not breed together, nor with the
wild kinds, but Lord Derby has shown at Knowsley that this is
not the fact.

I am led to believe that the Lama and Alpaca are only domestic
races of the two preceding species, and that the Alpaca is pro-
bably a mule between them, for it has many characters common
to the two wild kinds.

3. LAMA GLAMA. The LAMA or YAMMA.

Fur brown or variegated. Forehead and cheeks with short
hair, like the rest of the head. Legs elongate, slender.

Camelus Glama, Linn. S. N. ed. 12. i. 91; Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i.

163; Erxleb. Syst. 224; Schreb. Saugth. t. 306; Zimmerm.

Geogr. Gesch. ii. 140 ; Cuvier, Menag. Mus. t. ; Reg. Anim. i.

251; F. Cuvier, Diet. Sci. Nat. xxv. 165; Mam. Lith. t. ;

Sonnini, N. Diet. H. N. xiii. 249. t. E. 25. f. 1.
Camelus Peruvianus, Brisson, Reg. Anim. 56.
Camelus Llacma, F. Cuvier, Mam. Lit hog. t.
Lacma Peruana, Tiedem. Zool. i. 421.
Auchenia Glama, Desm. Mam. 425.
Auchenia Lama, Tschudi, Fauna Peru, t. ; Brandt, Bull. Acad.

Sci. Petersb. vi. 13.

Auchenia Lama fB. domestica, Sundevall, Pecora, 107.
Lama Peruana /3. domestica, Fischer, Syn. 436.
Lama Pacos j3. domestica, Gray, List Mamm. B. M. 1/1.
Lama Glama, Gray, Knowsley Menag. t.
Ovis Peruana, Hernand. Mexic. 660. fig. ; Jonst. Hist. Nat. t. 46.

fig.
Cervocamelus, Jonston, Quad. t. 29 ; Marcgrave, Brasil, 243. fig. ;

De Chile Regn. 38. fig.

Elephocamelus, Mathiola, Episc. 1561, 381. fig., 1564, 630. fie*.
Llama, Ulloa, Voy. i. 365. t. 24. f. 5; Laet. Nov. Orb. 1633,

405; Penn. Syn. 64; Shaw, Zool. ii. 241. t. 168.
Lama, Buffon, H. Nat. xiii. 16. Suppl. vi. 204. t. 2/.
Hob. South America.

Adult, white.
OSTEOLOGY. Brandt, Bull. Acad. Sci. Petersb. vi. 13.

4. LAMA PACOS. The ALPACA.

Black, or black and white or brown varied. Forehead and
cheeks with elongated hair. Body large. Sides with long pen-
dulous hairs. Legs short. Belly and inside of the legs nakedish,



MAMMALIA. 261

Skull (adult) 10 inches long; nose short; nasal bones very
short, broad; lacrymal opening large.

Camelus Pacos, Linn. Syst. Nat. xii. 91; Gmelin, S. N. i. 17 1;

Erxl. Syst. 226; Zimmerm. Geog. Gesch. ii. 140; F. Cuvier,

Diet. Sci. Nat. xxv. 166.
Lama Pacos, Lesson, Mamm. 352; Fischer, Syn. 437; Gray,

List Osteol. Brit. Mus. 62 ; Knowsley Mcnag. t.
Auchenia Lama y. domestica, Sundevall, Pecora.
Auchenia Alpaca, Desm. Mamm. 426.
Auchenia Pacos, Tschudi, Fauna Peru, t.

Auchenia Glama (var. Llama), Bennett, Gard. Zool. Soc. 283. fig.
Pacos, Rail Syn. 147; Hern. Mex. 663; Penn. Syn. 66; Shaw,

Zool. ii. 245.

Paco, Laet. Nov. Orb. 405; Buffon, H. N. xiii. 16.
Alpaque, Frezier, Voy. i. 266.
Hab. South America.

Two, adult, black, male and female. Presented by the Earl
of Derby.

Black, young, just born. Presented by the Earl of Derby.

Young, white and brown varied.

Adult, black. S. America. Presented by W. Danston, Esq.

Far.? Hybrid?

Alpaca, F. Cuvier, Mam. Lithog. t. (hybrid) ; Gray, Knowsley
Mcnag. t.

Far.?

Camelus Aracanus, Molini, Chili, 279; Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i. 170.
Lama Arucana, Fischer, Syn. 438.
Auchenia Arucana, H. Smith, Griff. A. K.
Aries Moromorus, Nieremb. Hist. Nat. 182. fig.
Sheep, Ovalle, Chili, 44.
Sheep of Peru, Cieza, Peru, 232.
Mouton, Feuill. Journ. iii. 23.
Mouton de Perou, Frezier, Voy. i. 264. t. 22. f. a.
Chilihueque, Shaw, Zool. ii. 418; Desmoul. Diet. Class. H. N.
iii. 455.

OSTEOLOGY.

*Skull. S. America. Presented by W. Danston, Esq.



262 MAMMALIA.

Fam. 2. EQUID^E.

Two middle toes soldered into one ; covered with a single hoof;
lateral toes subequal. Cutting teeth 6'6. Canines j^. Gullet
and stomach simple. Using the hind feet in defence.

Q. Solipeda sen Solidungula, Ray, Syn. 62, 1693.

Solidungula, llliger, Prod. 100, 1811; Bronn, Index Pal. \\. 707.

M. Belluffi pars, Linn. S. N. ed. 12. 27, 1766.

M. Jumenta, Storr. Prod. Mam. 1780.

Les Solidipedes, Cuv. Tab. Elem. 1798 ; Desm. N. D. H. N. xxiv.

65, 1804 ; Dum. Z. A. 1806 ; Latr. Fam. N. 62, 1825 ; F. Cuv,

Diet. Sci. Nat. lix. 510; Geoff. Mem. Mus. H. N. x. 165.
Les Pachydermes Solipedes, Cuvier, R. A. i. 2-13, 1817, ed. 2.

i.251.
Stereoplia, Stereopodia, Solipedia, Rafinesque, Anal. Nat. 55,

1815.

Pachy derma Solipedia, Owen, Brit. Foss. Mam. 383, 1846.
Pachyderma Solidipedes, Eichw. Zool. Spec. iii. 351, 1831.
Q. Monochaente, Gray, It. Med. Repos. xv. (1821) 306.
Equida;, Gray, L. M. Repos. xv. 307, 1821 ; Ann. Phil. 1825;

List Mam. B. M. 182; List Osteol. Spec. B. M. 70; Ham.

Smith, Jardine's Nat. Library, xii.
Equi, Waoler, N. Syst. Amph. 4, 1830.
Solipedia, Equidse, Selys Longchamps, 1842.
Solipedia, J. Brookes, Mus. Cat. 17, 1828.

M. I 3 erissodactyles Palaeotheriens, Pomet, Rev. Zool. 1848, 182.
Solidungula, Fam. Equidre, lesson, N. T. Reg. Anim. 165, 1842.
Anomalipoda, part., Pallas, Zool. Ross. Asiat. i. 254, 1831.
Equus, Linn. ; F. Cuvier, Diet. Sci. Nat. lix. 54, 1829.

The Equidce form two genera, but the species of them, viz.
the Horse and the various species of the second group, breed
together freely in confinement, but the produce is almost always
(if not always) barren.

SYNOPSIS OF THE GENERA.

1. EQUUS. Tail covered with long hair to the base; the fore

and hind legs with a wart (sallenders) on the inner side.

2. ASINUS. Tail with short hair at the base and long at the

end ; the hind leg without any wart on the inner side.

1. EQUUS.

Tail covered with long hair to the base. Fur dappled, that is,
marked with round pale spots having a dark net-like ground,



MAMMALIA. 263

Fore and bind legs with hard horny bodies called warts, chestnuts,
or sallenders, placed above the knee (wrist) on the fore-legs and
below the hock (heel) in the hind ones.

Equus, Gray, Zool. Journ. i. 261, 1825 ; List Mam. B. M. 182 ;

List Osteol. B. M. 70; List Hodgson Collection, 35.
Equus, sp. Linn.; Lesson, N. Tab. R. Anim. 165, 1842.
Caballus, Rafinesque, Anal. Nat. 55, 1815.

The warts are rarely absent on the hind legs, for it is stated
that "the bay mare Eaglet was without sallenders on the hock
joint." Jamaica Times, 1845, Aug. 26.

1. Eauus CABALLUS. The HORSE.

Brown, grey, or black, with roundish pale spots.

Var. Equiferus, Pallas, Zool. Ross. Asiat. i. 260; Eichw. Faun,

Casp. Caur. 29.
Wild Pferde, S. G. Gmelin, Reise Rusland, i. 44. t. 9 (cop. Shaw

Zool. t. 414 ; Schreb. t. 109) ; Pallas, Reis. i. 211.
Takija or Wild Horses, Hainvay, Hist. Caspian Sea, i. 349 ; Bell,

Travels, i. 212; Smith, Equida, 146.

The figure of the Wild Horse as giver by Gmelin very much
resembles the ponies left at liberty on tht commons of Cormvall
and mountains of Scotland, and it appears very doubtful if they are
not rather to be considered as domestic horses which have escaped
and deteriorated. Pallas observes that the very young are easily
tamed, but the adult never. (Z. R. A. 260.) It is to be observed
that this is not the case with the horses which have become semi-
wild in the rich prairies of America, where they have retained the
size and form of the well-bred horse.

Domestic Varieties.

Equus antiquorum, Gesner, Quad, 132.

Equus Caballus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. 100; Gmel. S. N. i. 209;
Desm. Mamm. 416 ; F. Cuvier, Diet. Sci. Nat. viii. 455; Fis-
cher, Syn. Mam. 429 ; Gray, Zool. Journ. i. 260 ; List Mam.
B. M. 182 ; List Osteol. B. M. /O ; List Hodgson Coll. 35 ;
Renger, I.e. 331.

Equus, Equa, Pliny, H. N. ; Gesner; Pallas, Z. R. A. i. 255.

Horse, Penn. B. Z. i.

Generous Horse, Penn. Quad.

Cheval, Buff. H. N. iv. 174; Cuvier, R. A. i. 243.

Pferd, Redinger.

Ross, Schrank.

The Horse, Youatt, TJte Horse, its History, Breeds, fyc., Ham,
Smith, Equidce, Jcvrdme's Naturalist's Library.



lSb4 MAMMALIA.

The Tarpan Wild Horse, primaeval bay stock, H. Smith, Equidce,

160. t. 3.

The Andalusian Horse, H. Smith, Equidce, 247.
South American Horse, H. Smith, Equidce, 24 /.
The Pararaeros of Peru, H. Smith, Equidce, 248. t. 12.
Mexican Horse and Seminole Horse, H. Smith, Equidce, 24.9.
Feral Horses of America, H. Smith, Equities, 173.
The Arabian Horse, Bewick, Hist. Quad. 4. fig. ; Low, Dom.

Anim. Brit. IsL t. 1 ; Smith, Equidce, 210. t. 8.
The Race Horse, Bewick, Quad. 6. fig. ; Low, Dom. Anim. B. 1.

t. 2.

English Race Horse, Smith, Equidce, 251. t. 9.
Hunter, Bevsick, Quad. 8. fig.
The Old Irish Hunter, Low, Dom. Anim. B. I. t. 3.
The Connamara Horse, Low, Dom. Anim. B. I. t. 4.
Black Horse, Bewick, Quad. 10. fig.

The Old English Black Horse, Low, Dom. Anim. B. I. t. 5.
The Cleveland Bay Horse, Low, Dom. Anim. B. I. t. 6.
The Suffolk Punch, Low, Dom. Anim. B. I. t. 7.
The Clydesdale Breed, Low, Dom. Anim. B. I. t. 8.
Old English Road Horse, Bewick, Quad. 9. fig.
Common Cart Horse, Bewick, Quad. 13. fig.
Improved Cart Horse, Bewick, Quad. 14. fig.
The Barb of Morocco, H. Smith, Equidce, 224. a. The Shrubat

Ur reech, t. 11.

The Bornou (white) Race of Africa, H. Smith, Equidce, 228. 1. 10.
The Dongolo (black) Race, H. Smith, Equidce, 229. t. 10*.
The Turkish Race, H. Smith, Equidce, 231.
The Persian Race, H. Smith, Equidce, 233.
The Toorkee Races, H. Smith, Equidce, 238.
The East Indian Races, H. Smith, Equidce, 24 1 .
The New Holland Horse, H. Smith, Equidce, 245.
The Transylvania Horse, H. Smith, Equidce, 245.
The Moldavian Horse, H. Smith, Equidce, 245.
The Greek Horse, H. Smith, Equidoe, 245.
The Spanish Horse, H. Smith, Equidce, 246.
Cheval d'Islande (var. Islandicus), Quoy fy Gaim. Voy. Island,

Mam. t. 11 ; Lesson, N. Tab. R. A. 166.
Equus Mongolicus, Lesson, N. Tab. R. A. 166.
Thibet Horse, Hodgson, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, i. 348, 349.
Cheval a port frisses, E. frisius, F. Cuvier, Mam. Lithog. t.
Equus Caballus frisius, Lesson, N. Tab. R. A. 166.
Villous Horse (primaeval of the white stock), H. Smith, Equidce,

262. t. 4.
The White or Grey Horse, H. Smith, Equidce, 262. (Marengo,

Bonaparte's Arab.) t. 8.



MAMMALIA. 265

The Crisp-haired Horse (primaeval of the black stock), H. Smith,

Equidce, 266. t. 5.
The Black Horse, H. Smith, Equidce, 266. t. 14. (the English

Draught Horse) 269.

The Dun or Tan Horse, H. Smith, Equidce, 274.
The Decussated Horse, or the Eelback Dun Horse of Ukraine,

H. Smith, Equidce, 2/4. t. 6.
The Myautzee, or the Pied Horse of China, H. Smith, Equidce ,

277.

The Bhooteahs Ponies, H. Smith, Equidce, 278.
The Pickarrow Ponies, H. Smith, Equida, 278.
The Yaboos of Affghanistan Ponies, H. Smith, Equidce, 278.
The Hungarian Horse (with slit nostrils), H. Smith, Equidce,

278. t. 11.

The Common Bashkir Horse, H. Smith, Equidce, 278.
The Morea Ponies, H. Smith, Equidce, 282.
The Swedish and Norwegian Ponies, H. Smith, Equidce, 282.
The Shetland Ponies, H. Smith, Equidce, 283. t. 15.
The Galloway, H. Smith, Equidce, 283.
The Dartmoor and Exmoor Pony, H. Smith, Equidce, 284.
Sardinian Wild Horse, H. Smith, Equidce, 285.
The Tatto or the East Indian Pony, H, Smith, Equidce, 285.
Tuttoo or Mahratta Pony, Sykes, P. Z. S. 1831.

Sedulously propagated in the Dukhun : much used to transport
luggage, and very vicious. Sykes.
Tattoo or Hack Pony of Calcutta, Hardw. Icon*ined. no. 10,975.

t. 116,rio. 10,974. t. 81.
The Tangum Piebald or Skewbald Horse, Equus varius, H.

Smith, Equidce, 288. t. 7.
The Tangum (or Tanghans), Primaeval Piebald stock of Thibet,

H. Smith, Equidce, t. 7-

Skewbald of Achin in Sumatra, H. Smith, Equidce, 293.
Tangham of China, Hodgson, Icon, ined. E. M. t. 212. f. 1.
Tangham of Lhassa, Hodgson, Icon. ined. B. M. t. 212. f. 3, t. 21 3.
Tangham of Gyanche, Hodgson, Icon. ined. B. M. t. 212. f. 3.
Hubstee of Deo Dharma, Hodgson, Icon. ined. B. M. t. 214.
The Koomrah, or Equus hippargus, H. Smith, Equidce, 294.
The Koomrah, Equus Lalisi, H. Smith, Equidce, t. 16.
Hippargus, Oppian.
Boryes, Herodotus.
Bourra of Koldagi, Ruppell. Northern Africa. Not gregarious.

The specimen in the British Museum, which Col. H. Smith
mentions as being like the Koomrah (Equidce, 296), was a Dart-
moor pony which Dr. Leach had stuffed to place in the collection
of British animals.

M



266 MAMMALIA.

The Kuda or Saran Horse, H. Smith, Equida, 287.

The Javan Horse, H. Smith, Equida, 287.

The Tamboro or Birma Horse, H. Smith, Equidce, 287-

Horse with a curled moustache on the upper lip, of Asiatic

Russia, Pallas, Spic. Zool. xi. 5. t. 5. f. 6 ; Zool. Ross. Asiat.

i. 250.

Horse covered with curled woolly hair, of Asiatic Russia, Falk.
Itiner. iii. 529 ; Pallas, Zool. Ross. Asiat. i. 250.

Naked Horse of a beautiful form, of Asiatic Russia, Pallas, Zool.
Ross. Asiat. i. 250.

The Argamaki of Bocharis, a White Horse with very close,
minute, orbicular, brown spots, of Asiatic Russia, Pallas, Zool.
Ross. Asiat. i. 250.

OSTEOLOGY, t. 37. f. 1.

Cheval, Daubenton, Euffon, H. N. iv. t. 10; Cuvier, Oss. Foss.

ii. t. 1, 2, 3; Volkmann, Anat. Anim. i. t. 11. f. 8; Stevens,

Book of the Farm, 1284. f. 577.

Skull of young with milk teeth.

Skeleton mounted

Skeleton mounted : pony.

Skull.

Skull, larger.

Skull of an English horse. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

Pelvis. From Dr. MantelFs Collection.

ICON.

Drawing of Chinese Tangham, Hodgson, Icon. ined. B. M.
t. 212. f. 1.

Drawing of Lhassa Tangham, Hodgson, Icon. ined. B. M.
t. 212. f. 2, and t. 213.

Drawing of Gyanche Tangham, Hodgson, Icon. ined. B. M.
t. 212. f. 3.

Drawing of Hubstee of Deo Dharma, Hodgson, Icon. ined.B.M.
t. 214.

Tuttoo or Hack Pony of Calcutta, Hardw. Icon. ined. B. M.
n. 10,975. t. 116, n. 10,974. t. 81.

Horses were introduced by the French in the Falkland Islands
in 1764, since which time they have greatly increased. They
have never left the eastern end of the island, although there is
no natural boundary to prevent them from roaming, and that
part of the islsnl is not more tempting than the rest. The



MAMMALIA. 26/

stallions are said to be constantly roaming from place to place,
and compelling the mares to accompany them, whether or not
the young foals are able to follow, and they are left to die. The
predominant colours are roan and iron-grey.

All the horses bred here, both tame and wild, are rather small-
sized, though generally in good condition, and they are not so
strong as the horses from the Plata. Darwin, Journal, 192.

The Horse was first landed at Buenos Ayres in 1 537, and the
colony being then for a time deserted, it ran wild: in 1580,
only forty-three years afterwards, one hears of them at the Strait
of Magellan. The natives of Terra del Fuego are well-stocked
with horses, each man having six or seven, and all the women
and even children their own horse. Darwin, Journal, 233; Reti-
ger, Natur. Saugth. Paragua, 334.

The soldiers in Bahia Blanca eat mare's flesh for food. Dar-
win, Journal, 101.

In Banda Oriental they think it ridiculous to break in or ride
a mare ; they are of no value except for breeding, and, rarely, to
tread out the wheat from the ear, for which purpose they are
driven round a circular enclosure where the wheat sheaves are
strewn. Numbers are slaughtered for the sake of their hides,
although only worth about haif-a-crown a- piece. Darwin, Journ.
134.

Darwin gives an interesting description of the breaking in of
the wild young horses of Banda Oriental. Journal, 151.

Horses do not breed on the southern face of the Himalayas,
but are imported from Thibet. Munday, Journ. ii. 75; Ogilby
in Royle Himal. i. Ixxi.

Skins of horses are used for cloth, to make churns, &c.
Simpson, Overland Journey, ii. 307.

The roundish marks are called copper-marked in brown, dap-
pled in grey horses. These marks become more visible in the
brown horses when they are in high condition.

Horses are technically called according to their colours. Bay,
Brown, with black mane and tail ; some have black legs, they
are then called bay with black points. Chestnut, Red brown,
either dark or light. Brown, Nearly black : if they have a
tan mouth they are called brown muzzles. Black. Dun colour.
Roan, Strawberry, very red grey. Piebald, With three colours.
Skewbald, Two colours. Cream colour. The white mark on
the forehead is a star ; if down the face, a blaze.



268 MAMMALIA.

2. ASINUS. The ZEBRAS.

Have the upper part of the tail covered with short hair, and
the lower part covered with longer hair forming a tuft ; the fur
marked with darker stripes ; the fore-legs only furnished with
hard horny warts in a similar situation to those in the front
legs of the Horse, but there are none in the lower part of the
hinder legs.

Asinus, Gray, Zool. Journ. i. 261 ; Lesson, N. Tab. R. A. 166,

1842.

Chevaux (Asinus), F. Cuvier, Dent. Mam. 224. t. 92.
Equus, sp., Linn.
Asinine Group, H. Smith, Equidce, 298.

* Colour nearly uniform with a dark longitudinal dorsal
stripe j some have a black stripe across the shoulders. The
Asses of Asia.

Asses of Asia, Gray, Knowsley Menag. 74.

f Ears elongated, acute. The Tame or Domestic Asses.

These animals vary greatly in size and appearance according
to the climate. They are large and smooth-haired in the warmer
climates ; small and shaggy in the colder countries.

It is very doubtful if the Domestic Ass is found in a truly
wild state ; the asses which have been described as wild, appear
rather to be domestic animals which have escaped, or mules be-
tween the Domestic Ass and the allied wild species ; for when
caught they, after a short time, submit themselves to man, which
is not the case with what I have here considered as the wild
kinds.

Pallas justly observes, " In extensis Asise desertis primam pa-
triam esse quserendam Equi feri et Onagri a Nomadibus in


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