British Museum (Natural History). Dept. of Zoology.

Catalogue of the specimens of Mammalia in the collection of the British Museum (Volume 3) online

. (page 3 of 25)
Online LibraryBritish Museum (Natural History). Dept. of ZoologyCatalogue of the specimens of Mammalia in the collection of the British Museum (Volume 3) → online text (page 3 of 25)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


sides, cylindrical or depressed at the base ; situated on the frontal
ridge and bent laterally outward, and recurved at the tip. The
nose is broad, with the nostrils on the side. The skull has no
suborbital pit or fissure ; the cutting- teeth are nearly equal- sized,
and slightly shelving outwards. The knee (or wrist) below the
middle of the fore -leg, the cannon bone being shorter than the
fore-arm bone

Bovese, Gray, Ann. fy Mag. N. H. 1847,230; Gleanings Known-
ley Menag.

Bos, Linn. S. N. i. ; Gmelin,S. N. i. 202; Illiger, Prod. 107;
Cuv. R. A. i. 278; Blainv. B. S. Philom. 1816, 76; Turner,
Proc. Zool. Soc. 1849.

Bovidse, part., Ogilby, P. Z. S. 1836, 138 ; Hodgson, J. A. S. Beng.
1847.

Bovina and Antilopina, part., Sundevall, Pecora.

Taurus, Rajinesque, Anal. Nat. 56, 1815.



16 MAMMALIA.

Colonel Hamilton Smith divides the Bovece into three tribes,
thus: l.Bubalus. 2. Bison. 3. Taurus. Griffith, A. K.\. 1827;
Fischer, Syn. ii. 651.

Professor Sundevall arranges the genera of this subtribe thus :
A. 1 . Anoa. 2. Bos. Subdivided thus : a. Bos. /3. Poephagus
and Bubalus. y. Bison. B. 3. Ovibos. Kongl. Vet. Akad.
Handl. 1846, and in Hornschuch Arch. 1848.

Mr. Hodgson, in his f Illustrations of the genera of Bovida,'
divides the species into the genera 1. Bos (domesticus). 2. Bibos
(cavifrons and gaveus). 3. Bison or Bisonius (Americanus and
poephagus). 4. Bubalus (Arna) from the character of the skull
and other parts of the skeleton. See Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng. x.
449, 1847.

Mr. Gray, in the Annals and Mag. Nat. Hist. 1846, 229,
observes, " The Bovece consist of the genera Bos, Bibos, Bison,
Bubalus and Anoa, with a naked moist muffle, and Poephagus
and Ovibos with a hairy ovine muzzle.

" These genera are well distinguished by the form of the inter-
maxillaries. In Poephagus (grunniens), Bibos (frontatus and
Gour), and in Bison ( Urus), they are short, triangular, acute be-
hind, and not reaching to the nasal, being gradually shorter in
proportion from Poephagus to Bison. In Bos (Taurus) and
Bubalus (Buffelus and Coffer) they are elongate, reaching to the
suture between the nasal and cheek-bone, and extending furthest
up in B. Buffelus.' 9

A. Muffle broad, moist at the end of the nose. Hair short, rigid,
adpressed, or short, crisp and woolly. The grinder with a
well-developed supplementary lobe. The bony part of the
tail produced, elongated, reaching to the hocks. Living on
the plains of warm or temperate regions.

The Oxen of the Plains, Gray, Knowsley Menag. 1849 ; Ann. &
Mag. N. H. 1848, 229.

a. True Oxen. Bodies covered with rather stiff hair. Shoulder
proportionate to the haunches ; the cannon bone of the hind-
and fore-legs of equal length.

True Oxen, Gray, Knowsley Menag. 1849.

* Intermaxillaries elongate, and produced behind and between
the nasal and cheek bones ; the upper lip bald, callous and
moist, as wide as the outer edge of the nostrils.

1. Bos.

Horns cylindrical, conical, nearly circular at the base, curved
upwards and outwards, far apart at the base, on the sides of the



MAMMALIA. 17

upper part of the ridge at the hinder end of the occipital plane.

The facial and frontal portion of the skull equal. Dorsal ridge

distinct, sometimes produced into a dorsal hump.

Bos, sp., Linn. ; Desm. 1804 ; Turner, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1849.

Taurus, Storr. Prod. Mam. 17; H. Smith, Griffith A. K. v. 182.

Bos (and Boves), Sundevall, Pecora, 75.

Bos, Gray, Knowsley Menag. 1849.

1. Bos TAURUS. The BULL.
Forehead flat ; withers not humped.

Bos Taurus, Plin. Hist. Nat. viii. c. 45, 46 ; Gesner, Quad. 24-

103, fig.; Aldrov. Bisulc. 13. fig. p. 36; Jonston, Quad. t. 15.
Taurus castratus, Jonston, Quad. t. 15.
Vacca, Gesner, Quad. 25. fig.
Vitutus, Jonston, Quad. t. 15.
Bos domesticus, Jonst. Quad. 36. t. 14 ; Linn. Mus. Adolph.

Frid. i. 12 ; Brisson, Reg. An. 78.
Bos Taurus, Linn. Fn. Suec. 15 ; Syst. Nat. i. 98 ; Gmelin, S. N.

i. 202; Cuvier in Diet. Sci. Nat. v. 19; Desm. Nov. Diet. H.

N. iii. 536 ; Mamm. 499 ; Desmoul. Diet. Class. H. N. ii. 370 ;

Fischer, Syn. Mam. 499 ; Gray, List Mam. Brit. Mus. 151 ;

List Osteol. sp. B. M. 53; List of Mr. Hodgson's Collection, 24.
Bos (Taurus) taurus, Lesson, Nov. Tab. R. A. 185.
Bull, Penn. Syn. 4.
Ox, Penn. Brit. Zool. 1 .
Common Ox, Shaw, Zool. ii. 2. 397. t. 208.
Stier and Ochs, Meyer, Thiere, t. 41, 42 ; Schrank, Fn. Boic. i. 47.
Bceuf, Buffon, H. N. iv. 437- t. 14.
Oxe, Koe, Pontopp. Dan. i. 597.
Hob. Europe. Always in a domesticated state.

1. W nite Scotch Bull, Gray, Cat. Mam. B. M. 151.

Bisontes jubati, Boethius, Reg. Scot. ; Gesner, App. 4, fig. imag.
White Urus (Urus Scoticus), H. Smith, Griff. A. K. iv. 41?.
Bos Urus Scoticus, Wagner, Schreb. S. 1568.
Chillingham Bull, Gray, Ann. N. H. ii. 284 ; Knight, Mus.

Animated Nature, f. 695, 696.
Bos Scoticus, Swainson.
Bos Taurus Scoticus, H. Smith in Griffith A. K. v. 376;

Fischer, Mam. 654.
Wild or White Forest Cow and Bull, Low, Dom. Anim. B. I.

t. 1 9 , fy Supp. t. 1 <? .

Wild Cattle, Bull and Cow, Bewick, Hist. Quad. 38. fig.
Hob. Scotland.

a. Bull. Chillingham Park. Presented by the Earl of Tan-
kerville.



18 MAMMALIA.

2. The Pembroke Bull and Cow, Low, Dom. Anim. B. I. t. 2.

3. The West Highland Bull, Heifer and Cow. Low. Dom. Anim.

B. 1. 1. 3, 4

4. West Highland Ox, Stephens, Book of the Farm, 1274. fig.
Kyloe Ox, Bewick, Hist. Quad. 36. fig.

5. The Zetland Cow, Low, Dom. Anim. B. I. t. 5.

6. The Kerry Cow, Low, Dom. Anim. B. I. t. 6.

7. The Polled Angus Bull, Low, Dom. Anim. B. I. t. 7.

8. Alderney Cow and Calf, Low, Dom. Anim. B. I. t. 14.

9. Fifeshire Cow, Low, Dom. Anim. B. I. t. 15.

10. Sheeted Somersetshire Cow (horned and polled), Low, Dom.

Anim. B. I. t. 16.

11. Herefordshire Cow and Bull, Low, Dom. Anim. B. I. t. 17;

t. 2, Supp.
Hereford Ox, Stephens, Book of the Farm, 1274. fig.

12. Long-horned or Lancashire Bull and Ox, Bewick, Hist. Quad.

33. fig. 35. fig.

Long-horned Bull, Low, Dom. Anim. B. I. t. 18 ; Stephens,
Book of the Farm, 1273. fig.

13. The Teeswater Short-horned Bull and Cow, Low, Dom. Anim.

B. I. t. 19, 20.

English Short-horn Cattle, Knight, Mus. Anim. Nat. f. 701.
Short-horn Ox, Bull and Cows, Stephens, Book of the Farm,

1270. figs. t. 32.

14. The Galloway Heifer and Bull, Low, Dom. Anim. B. I. t. 8.

15. The Polled Suffolk Cow, Low, Dom. Anim. B. I. t. 9.

16. The Devon Bull, Low, Dom. Anim. B. I. t. 10.
17- The Sussex Oxen, Low, Dom. Anim. B. I. t. 11.

18. The Glamorgan Cow, Low, Dom. Anim. B. I. t. 12.

19. The Ayrshire Cow, Low, Dom. Anim. B. I. t. 13.

20. The Yorkshire Cow, Knight, Mus. Anim. Nat. f. 698.

21. Holstein or Dutch Bull and Cow, Bewick, Hist. Quad. 29. fig.
Improved Holstein or Dutch Bull and Cow, Bewick, Hist.

Quad. 30. fig.
Bos Taurus frisius, Wagner, Schreb. Saugth. 1569, t. 297 B.

22. French Cattle. Desmarest, Mammalia, 499, described the

various breeds of French domestic cattle, but he does not
refer to any figures of them.



MAMMALIA. 19

23. Polish Bull, Gray, List Mam. B. M. 151 ; Knowsley Menag.
Bos Taurus Po&olicus, Wagner, Schreb. Saugth. 1569,t.297A.
Hab. Poland.

ot,. Bull. Poland. From the Vienna Market.

24. Hungarian Bull, Gray, List Mam. B. M. 151 ; Knowsley Men.
Wild Cattle of Marema, Knight, Mus. A. Nat. f. 703, 704.
Bos Taurus Hungaricus, Desm. Mam. 499.
Ungarischer vieh, BecJcberlin, Abbild. der Rindv. 15. t. 25, 26.
Hab. Hungary.

Bull. Hungary. From the Vienna Market.

25. South African Long-horned Cattle, Knight, M. A. N. f. 710.
Hab. Cape of Good Hope.

Pair of horns. Cape of Good Hope.
Two separate horns, very large, used as a powder-flask.
Cape of Good Hope.

25*. Swiss Cattle. Bos Taurus hyselurus, Wagner, Schreb.

Saugth. 1570, t. 297 c.

Freiburg Cattle, Witte, Rindv. Rassen, ii. t. ; Beck-
berlin, Abbild. ii. ; Pabst, Anleit. 42. t. 3.

25**. Alpine Cattle.

Halsi Cattle, Witte, Rindv. Rassen, iii. t.
Schwyz. Rindv., Michel fy Ithens, Manathsch. 59. t, 1, 2.
Gebirgsvieh, Beckberlin, Abbild. 9. t. ; Pabst, Anleit. 42.
Bos Taurus alpestris, Wagner, Schreb. Saugth. 1570,
t. 297 D.

26. Syrian Ox, Knight, Mus. A. Nat. f. 726, 728.

27. Moldavian Cattle, Knight, Mus. A. Nat. f. 709.

28. Italian Campagna Bull, Knight, Mus. A. Nat. f. 705.
Boeuf de la Romagne, Cuvier, Oss. Foss. iv. 109.

29. Spanish Bulls, Knight, Mus. A. Nat. f. 706-708.

30. Egyptian Cattle, Long, Egyptian Antiquities in Brit. Mus.

ii. 57. fig. 169, lower animals.

31. Bos Madagascariensis niveus, Donnd. Zool. Beytr. 693.

32. Bos Tinianensis niveus, Donnd. Zool. Beytr. 693.
Rindvieh de Insel Tinian, Zimm. Geog. Zool. ii. 83 ; Anson,

Voy. 285.

Bos Taurus Tinianensis, Gmelin, S. N. i. 202 ; Fischer, Syn.
M. 500.

33. Lant, Lampt oderDant, Dapper, Africke,24 ; Leon,Afrikan.

751 ; Eberl. Naturlehre, i. 287.
Bos humilis, Frisch. Natursys. i. n. 5.
Bos Africanus niveus celer, Donnd. Zool. Beytr. 693.



20 MAMMALIA.

34. Der Wilde Ochse von Gebirge Nerever, Donnd. Beytr. Zoo/.

704; Zimm. Geog. Zool. ii. 93; Thevenot, Voy. iii. 113.

35. Die braunen Wilden Ochsen von Duguela, Donnd. Eeytr.

Zool. 705 ; Zimm. Geog. Zool. ii. 93 ; Marmol. Afrique,
iii. 66-157.

36. Galla Ox, Salt, Travels.
The Beuraye or Beurie.

? Bos Cafer, Des Mur. fy Flor. Prevost, Voy. en Abyss, vi. 40.
Bos abessinicus, Donnd. Zool. Eeytr. 693, 1792; Zimmer.

Geog. Zool. i. 157, ii. 94 ; Dapper, Afrik. Ins. 31 ; Lobo,

Voy. Abess. 70, 1728.
Bos Taurus Abyssynicus, Gmelin, S. N. 294 ; Fischer, Syn.

Mam. 500.
Hob. Abyssinia.

Pair of very thick, light horns. Central Africa. Presented
by Captain Clapperton, R.N., and Major Denham. Fi-
gured in Griffith, A. K. iv. t. 201. f. 4.

37. Cattle of Peauhy, Gardiner, Trav. Brazils, 278. Horns

very long, wide-spreading ; colour brown.
Hab. North Brazil.

38 Cattle of Brazils, Gardiner, Trav. Brazils, 167, 173. Used

to carry loads on their back.
Hab. N. Brazils.

39. Cattle of Chili, Darwin, Journal, 130, 145.
Hab. Chili and South America generally.

40. Nata or Niata, Darwin, Journal, 145, 146. With a pug-

nose like a pug or bull dog.
Hab. Buenos Ayres. Skull in Mus. Coll. Surg.

41. Falkland Island Wild Cattle, Darwin, Journal, 190, 192.

Three varieties : 1. dark brown; 2. white with black head
and feet; 3. mouse colour.
Hab. Falkland Islands. Introduced from France 1764.

OSTEOLOGY.

Taureau, Daubenton, Buff. H. N. iv. t. 23.

Boeuf sans cornes, Cuvier, Oss. Foss. iv. t. 9. f. 3, 4.

Bceuf dela Romagne a grandes cornes, Cuvier, Oss. Foss. iv. 109.

t. 9. f. 7, 8.
Petit boeuf d'Ecosse a cornes descendantes, Cuvier, Oss. Foss.

iv. 109. t. 9. f. 9, 10.
Bull, Stephens, Book of the Farm, 1286. f. 598.

Skeleton. England.

Skull. England.



MAMMALIA. 21

2. Bos INDICUS. The ZEBU.

Forehead convex; withers with a more or less large fleshy
hump ; dewlap deep, waved ; the upper part of the rump shelving
very much.

Bos Scythicus gibbosus, Charlet. Exerc. 8.

Bos Indicus, Linn. S. N. 99 ; Erxleb. Syst. 240.

Bos domesticus, Hodgson, Journ. A. S. B. 1841, x. 907 ; Calcutta

Journ. N. H. iv. 289.
Bos Taurus indicus, Fischer, Syn. 499 ; Hodgson, Proc. Z. Soc.

1834, 99; Gray, Cat. Hodgson Coll. B. M. 24.
Bos Zebu, J. Brookes, Cat. Mus. 65, 1825.
Bos pusio, Swains. Hist. Quad. 283. f. 1 13.
Bos Taurus Zebu, Wagner, Schreb. 15?0, t. 298, 298 A.
Bos Taurus var., Gray, List Mam. B. M. 151 ; Cat. Osteol. Sp.

B. M. 53 ; Cat. Hodgson Coll. 24.

Domesticated Cows, Hodgson, J. A. S. Beng. i. 348, 382.
Hab. India. Always in a domestic state.

1. Little Indian Buffalo, Edw. Birds, vi. t. 200.
Indian Bull, Penn. Syn. 6. t. 1. f. 2.

Zebu, Buff* on, H. N. xi. 439. t. 42 ; Bewick, Hist. Quad. 44. fig.
Bos Indicus, Linn. S. N. i. 99.

Male and female. Grey. India. Presented by Lady Whit-
shed.

2. Great Indian Ox, Pennant, Quad. t. 16. f. 2, lower figure.
Bos Taurus indicus, a. major, Fischer, Syn. 499.

Zebu grande race, Desm. Mam. 499.

Indian Ox, Bos Taurus indicus, Bennett, Gard. Zool. Soc.

i. 65. fig.
A Guzzarah Bullock, Hardw. Icon. ined. Brit. Mus. n. 10,975.

t. 180, 199.
Gun Bullock, Hardw. Icon. ined. Brit. Mus. n. 10,975. t. 183,

185, 186, 187, head, t. 188, skull.

The head and horns of a larger Zebu. India. Presented
by Jacob Bell, Esq.

3. Bos Taurus indicus, Cuvier, Menag. Mus. t. $ , grey.
Bos taurus indicus minor, Fischer, Syn. 499.

Petit Zebu, Desm. Mam. 499.

A Shaurr or Sacred Bull, Hardw. Icon. ined. Brit. Mus.

n. 10,975. t. 179.

Horns project forwards, and form a considerable angle with
the forehead.

4. Zebus, Knight, M. A. N. f. 730-733.

Horns placed nearly on the same line as the forehead ; pre-
puce large, often visible in the females.



22 MAMMALIA.

5. Madras Ox, Buchanan, Mysore, ii. 8. t. 13. f. 34.

6. Madhu Givi Oxen, Buchan. I. c. ii. 8. 1. 13. f. 35, 1. 14. f. 36,3?.

7. Seringapatam Oxen, Buchan. I. c. ii. 8. t. 15. f. 38, 39.
Hob. India, Mysore.

8. Two-humped Zebu.

Zebu a deux bosses, Desm. Mam. 499.

Bos Indicus ditophus, Fischer, Syn. 499.

Hornless Zebu, Zebu sans comes, Cuvier, Menag. Mus. t.

Hob. India.

9. Bucharian Ox.

Rindviech, Pallas, N. Nord. Beytr. iv. t. 3.
Hob. Bucharia, from Arabia.

10. Nepal Ox, Hodgson; Gray, Cat. Hodgson Coll. B. M. 24.

11. A Javanese Cow, Hardw. Icon. ined. Brit. Mus. n. 10,974.

t. 103.

OSTEOLOGY.

Zebu a comes, Cuvier, Oss. Foss. iv. 109. t. 9. f. 5, 6.

Gun Bullock, Hardw. Icon. ined. B. M. 10,9?5. t. 188.

Skull, young (lower jaw wanting).

Two skulls of domesticated cattle of Nepal, male and female.
Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

Bones of body. Nepal. Presented by H. Hodgson, Esq.

3. Bos DANTE. The DANTE.

Face rather narrow ; forehead very flat, with the horns on the
side of the high occipital ridge ; withers with a small but distinct
hump.

Bos elegans et parvus africanus, Bellon. Obs. 119. fig.

Juvenca sylvestris, Alpin. JEg. i. 233. t. 14. f. 2.

Dante, Purchas, Pilgrim, ii. 1002 ; Gunner, Geog. Zool. ii. 92 ;

Marmol. Afrique, i. 52.
Afrikanische Zivergochs, BorowsJcy, Thier. i. 42 ; Halle vierfuss.

278.

Kleiner Afrikanischer Ochs, Klein, Thier e, 12. 35.
Afrikanische BuiFel, Fisch. Natursys. i.
Bos Cafer, /3. Bubalus africanus, Der Dante, Donnd. Beytr. Zool.

703.
Bos Dante, Link, Beytr. Nat. ii. 95, 1795; Meyer, Zool Arch.

188, 1796.

Bos Bubalus africanus, Brisson, R. A. 79.
Bos Taurus africanus, Fischer, Syn. Mam. 500.
Salam Buffalo, WTiitfteld.
Dwarf Bull, Penn. Syn. 9. t. 1. f. I, 2, 3.



MAMMALIA. 23

? Egyptian Zebu, Knight, Mm. Anim. Nat. f. 723, 724 ; Long,

Egypt. Antiq. Brit. Mus. ii. 57. f. 169, lower figures.
Hab. Africa. West Africa; Salam; Whitfield.

Skin in a bad state. Gambia. Presented by the Earl of Derby.

OSTEOLOGY.

Two skulls. Gambia. Presented by the Earl of Derby.

This animal agrees better than the Zebus with the figure of the
Humped Cattle on the ancient Egyptian tombs. Long's Egypt,
p. 57. f. 169.

Mr. Whitfield brought a pair of these animals. The male
(now in the Zoological Gardens, 1850) is white, with a few brown
specks on the head ; the female yellow-brown, the head even
narrower than that of the male. Purchas describes them as
yellow.

Hybrids with wild species.

1. Between Bos Indicus and Bibos front alis. Blackish, fore-legs

white, face and withers brown.
Gyale at Barracpore, Hardw. Icon. ined. Brit. Mus. n. 10,975.

't. 169, 170, copied.
Jungly gau, Bos Sylhetanus, F. Cuvier, Mamm. Lithog. t. , $

2; H. Smith, Griffith, A. Kingd. iv. 406.
Domestic Gyal, Colebrook, Asiat. Research, viii. 511 ; Lesson,

Compt. Buffon, x. 317-
Hab. India.

2. Hybrid between a Yak bull and a Zebu cow.

Tail elongate, bushy nearly to the base ; withers highly crested.
Black, with a white spot on withers ; in winter covered with long
silky hair, in summer with shorter hair, having a crest of long
hair on the dewlap, and a tuft of elongated hair on the upper
part of each leg. Muffle smooth.

Hybrid Bull, Mitchell, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1847, 172. t. 15.

This animal was imported as a Yak ; it was for some time at
the Gardens of the Zoological Society, but has been lately trans-
ferred to Knowsley.

The travellers in Tibet state that half-bred Yak are common
as domestic cattle.

2. BUBALUS.

Horns depressed or subtrigonal at the base, inclining upwards
and backwards, conical, and bending upwards at the tip, on a
plane rather in front of the occipital ridge ; forehead rather
transverse, convex, shelving before and behind ; the intermaxil-



24 MAMMALIA.

laries elongate, extending back and between the nasal and cheek
bones ; teats in a cross series, the outer one rather before the
others.

Bubalus, H. Smith in Griff. A. K. v. 182 ; in Fischer, Syn. 681.
Bos (bubali), Sundevall, Pecora, 77-
Bubalus, sp., Turner, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1849.
Syncerus, Hodgson, 1847.

* Horns separate, not dilated at the base, directed backwards and
incurved at the tip. Bubalus, Hodgson.

1. BUBALUS BRACHYCERUS. The ZAMOUSE.

Forehead flat ; horns short, thick, depressed at the base ; ears
very large, strongly fringed on the edge, and with two diverging
longly fringed lines within ; fur short, close, brown. Male adult
with tuft of long hair on legs.

Bos brachyceros, Gray, Mag. Nat. Hist. 1837, t. 589 ; Ann. Nat.

Hist. ii. 284. t. 13, young female; List Mam. B.M. 153; Cat.

Osteol. Sp. B. M. 54; Roulin, D'Orb. Diet. Univ. Hist. Nat.

(Bcwf) ii.
Bubalus brachycerus, Gray, Knowsley Menag. ; Turner, P. Z. S.

1849.

Bosbubalus, Children in Denham fy Clapperton's Trav. in Africa.
Zamouse, Denham and Clapperton's Trav. Cent. Africa.
Bos Gaffer, Ruppell, Abyssinia, spec, in Mus. Frankfort.
Bos Caifer junior ?, Sundevall, Pecora, 202.
Hob. West Africa, Sierra Leone, Abyssinia.

Two heads of adult covered with the skin. Central Africa.
Presented by Capt. Clapperton, R.N.

OSTEOLOGY.

Skeleton of female. Gambia. Presented by the Earl of Derby.

Mr. Blyth has noticed two species of Wild Ox found in North-
west Africa :

1. Sherif al Wady (Bos Atlanticus, Blyth), from Mount Atlas.
One lived some months at Tangiers.

2. Wadan? or Pecasse?, with a flowing nuchal mane; found
in large herds at Rabat and Salee, on the Barbary Coast. Ann.
N. H. ix. 62. This is no doubt the

Bos Pegassus, H. Smith, Griff. A. K. iv. 386. t. v. 890 ; Fischer,

Syn. Mam. 652 ; Blyth, Ann. Nat. Hist. ii. 288.
Pegassus, Plinii Hist. Nat. viii. 21. Wadan, Lyon's Travels.



MAMMALIA. 25

2. BUBALUS BUFFELUS. The BUFFALO.

Forehead convex, rounded ; horns large, flattened at the base,
black, on the plane of the face, bent down and recurved at the
tip ; ears not quite half the length of the head, slightly ciliated ;
fur rough, irregular, bristly, often very far apart, on the face be-
fore the eyes two-rowed.

Bos bubalus, Brisson, Reg. Anim. 81 ; Gmelin, S. N. i. 206 ;

Schreb. Saugth. t. 300 A ; Bechst. Naturg. Deutsch. i. 298 ;

Klein, Annot. Bovis Bubali, t. ; Cuvier, D. Sci. Nat. v. 25 ;

Reg. Anim. i. 270 ; Desm. Nouv. Diet. H. N. iii. 531 ; Mamm.
k 494 ; Desmoul. Diet. Class. H. N. ii. 366 ; Fischer, Syn. Mam.

495. 652; H. Smith, Griff. A. K. iv. 392. t. .v. 892; Sun-

devall, Pecora, 203; Pallas, Zool. R. A. i. 247-
Bos bubalis, Linn. S. N. i. 99 ; Erxl. Syst. 238 ; Hodgson, Proc.

Zool. Soc. 1834, 99.
Bos buffelus, Blumenb. Handb. 121.
Bubalus buffelus, Gray, Cat. Mam. B. M. 152; Cat. Hodgson

Coll. B. M. 25; Cat. Osteol. Spec. B. M. 54 ; Turner, Proc.

Zool. Soc. 1849 ; Bonap. Ind. Mamm. Eur. 36. 1845.
B. Bubalus Bubalus, H. Smith.

Bubalus ferus Indicus, Hodgson, Icon. ined. in B. Mus.t. 139.
Bos kerabau, Milller, Nederl. Verhand. i. t. 41.
Buffelus, Aldrov. Bisulc. 365. fig. 366.
Buffle, Buffon, Hist. Nat. xi. 284. t. 25 ; Bailly, Ann. Sci. Nat.

ii. 369. t. 16 ; F. Cuvier, Mam. Lithog. t.
Biiffel, Meyer, Thier. ii. t. 45.
Buffalo, Penn. Syn. 7 ; Shaw, Zool. ii. 401. t. 211.
Wild Buffalo, Hodgson, Journ. Asiat. Soc. B. i. 348.
Arnee, Knight, Mus. Anim. Nat. f. 747-
Hob. South Europe; North Africa; India; and Indian Islands.

Var. 1 . Body nearly naked.

Naked Buffalo, Penn. Syn. Quad. i. 8. t. 2. f. 1.

Bos bubalus minor, Fischer, Syn. 495.

Hab. Java.

A young specimen. Manilla. From the Gardens of the
Zoological Society.

Var. 2. Horns very much elongated, nearly smooth, curved at

the tips.
Sukotyro or Buffalo, Sloane, Phil. Trans. 26, 1727, n. 39?. p. 222.

f. 2, 3 ; Pennant, Quad. 25.

Arnee, Anderson, The Bee, 1792, xii. 105. fig. 267. t. . f. c. D.
Bos Arnee, Shaw, Zool. iv. 400. t. 210; Kerr, Anim. Kingd. 336.

t. 295 ; Blumenb. Abbild. t. 63 ; Handb. 122 ; Cuvier, Diet. Sci.

Nat. v. 27.
Bubalus Arna (var. Macrocerus et Spirocerus), Hodgson, J. A.



26 MAMMALIA.

S. B. 1841, x. 912; Calcutta J. N. H. iv. 279; Icon. ined. B.

M. t. 138.

BQS bubalus, arnee, Fischer, Syn. Mam. 495, 653.
Bos Bubalus ami, Sundevall, Pecora, 202.
Hab. India.

Var. 3. Domestic Buffalo of the Island of the Sondes.

Bos Bubalus, var. domest. Sonda, Muller, Verh. Ind. Arch. t. 41.

OSTEOLOGY.

Bos bubalus, Cuvier, Oss. Foss. iv. 122. t. 9. f. 11, 12, 13, t. 10.

f. 7, 8, 9, 10; Daub, in Buffon, H. N. xi. t. 28. t. 41. f. 1, 2,

3 ; Blumenb. AbUld. t. 63.

Horns, separate, thick, 48 inches long, 18 inches in circum-
ference at base. India.

Skull and horns. India.

Horns, very long, separate, 78 inches.

Skull and horns. Figured Griffith, A. K. t. 201. f. 23.

Skull and horns.

Horns, separate, slender. India.

Skull and horns.

Frontal bone and horns, short.

Skull, with horns, polished. Neilgheries. Presented by Ge-
neral Hardwicke.

Skull, with horns, domestic variety. India. Presented by B.
H. Hodgson, Esq.

Two skulls with horns, wild variety. India. Presented by B.
H. Hodgson, Esq.

B. B. macrocerus, Hodgson, I. c. 912.

A pair of broad elongated horns. Presented by B. H. Hodg-
son, Esq.

A pair of horns, very slender. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

Skull, with horns, tame variety. India. Presented by B. H.
Hodgson, Esq.

B. B. spirocerus, Hodgson, I. c. 912.

DRAWINGS.

Drawing of a male. Hodgson, Icon. ined. B. M. t. 138. f. 1,
copied. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

Drawing of four specimens. Hodgson, Icon. ined. B. M. t. 139,
oopied t. 141. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

Drawing of four specimens. Hodgson, Icon. ined. B.M.t. 140.
Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

Drawing of a male, three years old, with details of head.
Hodgson, Icon. ined. B. M. t. 142. Presented by B. H. Hodg-
son, Esq.

Drawing of horns of wild. Hodgson, Icon. ined. B. M. 1. 145.
f. I, a. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.



MAMMALIA.

Drawing of horns of tame. Hodgson, Icon. ined. B. M.t. 145.
3. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

Drawing of two horns of Indian Buffalo sent to Zool. Soc.
Hardwicke, Icon. ined. B. M. 10,975. t. 173, 174.

Drawing of horns of Indian Buffalo. Hardw. Icon. ined. B. M.
10,975. t. 175, 177-

Drawing of horns of domesticated Buffalo of Prince of Wales'
Island. Hardw. Icon. ined. B. M. 10,975. t. 1?6.

Domestic Buffalo of Polu Penang. Hardw. Icon. ined. B. M.
10,974. t. 108.

j, Common domesticated Buffalo of Bengal. Hardw. Icon. ined.
B. M. 10,974. t. 105.

Drawing of Indian Buffalo. Hardw. Icon. ined. B. M. 10,975.
t. 172, 178.

" The Bhainsa or Tame Buffalo are universal in India. The
Arna or Wild Buffalo inhabits the margins rather than the inte-
rior of primaeval forests. They never ascend the mountains, and
adhere, like the Rhinoceros, to the most swampy sites of the district
they inhabit. There is no animal upon which ages of domesticity
have made so small an impression as upon the Buffalo, the tame
being still most clearly referable to the wild ones at present fre-
quenting all the great sw r ampy jungles of India." Hodgson.

" In the wilderness, as in the cow-house, there is a marked
distinction between the long- (Macrocerus) and curved-horned
(Spirocerus) Buffaloes.

" The Arna ruts in autumn, gestating ten months, and pro-
duces one or two young in summer. It lives in large herds,
but in the season of love the most lusty males lead off and ap-
propriate several females, with which they form small herds for
the time. The wild Buffalo is fully one-third larger than the
largest tame breeds, measuring 10^ feet from snout to vent, and
6 or 6 feet high at the shoulders, and is of such power and
vigour, as by his charge frequently to prostrate a well-sized ele-
phant. It is remarkable for the uniform shortness of the tail,
which does not extend lower than the hock, for the tufts which
cover the forehead and knees, and lastly, for the great size of its
horns ; they are uniformly in high condition, so unlike the lean-
ness and angularity of the domestic Buffalo even at its best."



Online LibraryBritish Museum (Natural History). Dept. of ZoologyCatalogue of the specimens of Mammalia in the collection of the British Museum (Volume 3) → online text (page 3 of 25)