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Catalogue of the specimens of Mammalia in the collection of the British Museum (Volume 3) online

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Hodgson.

** Horns much enlarged and close together at the base, spreading
out on the side of the head and recurved at the tip ; ribs very
wide, t. 2.

Syncerus (Gaffer), Hodgson, Various gen. Ruminants,lS47,25,note.
Bubalus, sp., Ham. Smith in Griffith A. K.

B2



28 MAMMALIA.

3. BUBALUS CAFFER. The CAPE BUFFALO.

Forehead broad. Horns roundish at the end, depressed, and
very rugose at the base ; near the base becoming dilated, at length
very broad, rugose, very convex, and close together over the
forehead. Ears veiy large, half as large as the head, broad,
acute, ciliated. Skin bluish purple or black, nearly naked, with
some two-rowed diverging bristles on the middle of the back.

Bos caffer, Sparm. K. S. Veter. Akad. 1774-79, t. 3; Griffith,
A. K. iv. 384. t. . young, v. 889 ; Harris, Wild Animals
Africa, 1. 13, and head; Zimmerm. Geogr. Gesch. ii. 90; Gmelin,
S. N. i. 207 ; Schreb. Saugth. t. 301 ; Cuvier, Diet. Sci. Nat.
v. 28; Reg. Anim. i. 271 ; Desm. Nouv. Diet. H. N. iii. 527 ;
Mam. 494 ; Ency. Meth. t. 45. f. 5 ; Thunb. Mem. Act. Pe-
tersb. iii. 318; Vollborth, Comm. Anat. Eerol. 1826; Desmoul.
Diet. Class. H. N. ii. 367 ; Fischer, Syn. Mam. 494, 652.

Bubalus caffer, Gray, List Mam. B. M. 153; Cat. Osteol. Sp. B.
M. 54 ; Turner, Proc. Z. Soc. 1849.

Cape Ox, Pennant-, Shaw, Zool. ii. 416; Harris, W. Anim. Afr.
t. 13.

Buffel, Sparm. Reise, 297, 379, &c. t. 2.

Dawf Ox, Pennant, Syn. Quad. i. 9. t. 2. f. 3, young horns.

Wilde Buffel, Dutch at Cape-, Forster, Reise die Weld, i. 85.

Qu'araho, Hottentots.

Cape Buffalo, Knight, Mus. Anim. Nat. f. 751, 753.

Buffalo, Bewick, Hist. Quad. 47.

Hob. S. Africa, in the Deserts, near Cape of Good Hope.

A male, not in a good state. South Africa. Presented by W.
Burchell, LL.D.

A male. South Africa. Presented by the Earl of Derby.

OSTEOLOGY. Skulls, adult and young, t. 2. f. 1, 2, 3.
Buffle de Cap, Daub, in Buffon H. N. xi. 416. t. 41; Cuvier, Oss.
Foss. iv. 132. t. 9. f. 14, 15 ; Vollborth, de Bobus, fyc. 1826, t. 3.

Frontal bone and horns, young. South Africa. From Mus.
Royal Society.

Skull and horns. South Africa.

Skull and horns. South Africa.

Skeleton of male. South Africa. From the Gardens of the
Zoological Society.

The horns of the young specimen are depressed and rugose,
and very different from those of B. brachyceros, which Prof.
Sundevall considers as the young of this species. The pair of
young horns which was in the Museum of the Royal Society
(Grew, Rar. 26), figured by Pennant (Syn. t. 2. f. 3), is now in



MAMMALIA. 29

the British Museum, and at once shows the distinctness of these
two species.

3. ANOA.

Horns subtrigonal, nearly parallel, round at the tip, depressed
at the base, and slightly keeled on the inner edge, straight, nearly
on the plane of the face on the hinder edge of the frontal ridge.
Intermaxillary elongate, high up between the maxillae and the
nasal. Muffle large, rather narrow below. Hoofs very broad.
Ears small, narrow, short. Tail elongate, tufted at the end. Hair
of the back, from the nape to the pelvis, reversed. Skull, t. 3.
f.1,2.

Anoa, Leach-, H. Smith, Griffith A. K. v. 182; Sundevall, Pe-

cora, 74.

Antilope, Anoa, Fischer, Syn. Mam. 647.
Bubalus, sp., Turner, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1849.
Bos, sp., Meyen; Gray, Spic. Zool.

Mr. Turner observes : " Although Major Smith was deceived
as to the affinities of the Anoa, later as well as earlier naturalists
have assigned it to its true place, and a glance at the stuffed spe-
cimen in the British Museum leaves the matter beyond a doubt.
I have examined the skull in the Museum of the College of Sur-
geons, and cannot see that it has even a title to generic distinc-
tion. Naturalists seem at all times to have been prone to assign
generic rank to whatever was mysterious or difficult to classify,
and I can in no other way account for this species being made a
genus." Proc. Zool. Soc. 1849. Mr. Turner must have ob-
served the skull very superficially, for it offers many characters,
especially in the palate, which separate it from the Buffaloes and
all the other Bovea, t. 3. f. 1, 2.

1. ANOA DEPRESSICORNIS. The ANOA.

Reddish brown, with three small white spots on the cheek.
Male black, spot on cheek white. Female and young brownish
black.

Antilope (Anoa) depressicornis, H. Smith, G. A. K. iv. 293. t. .

v. 867; Gray, Spicil. Zool. t. 11. f. 23; Fischer, Syn. 647.
Antilope depressicornis, Quoy et Gaim. Ann. Sci. Nat. xvii. 623.

t. 20 ; Voy. Astrol Zool. i. 136. t. 26 ; Ferussac, Bull. Sci.

xix. 108 ; Lesson, comp. Bujfon, x. 299. t. 65. f. 2.
? Anoa compressicornis, Leach, MSS.
Antilope depressicornis, Leach ; Gray, Spic. Zool. t. 1 1 . f. 23 ;

H. Smith, G. A. K. v. 867. t. 181. f. 4, head.
Antilope platyceros et Antilope Celebica, Temm. Mus. Ley den.
Bos bubalis ft. Anoa, Penn. Quad.26; Meyer, Zool. Arch. 184, 1796.



30



MAMMALIA.



Bubalus depressicornis, Turner, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1849.

Anoa, Loten MSS. in Brit. Mus.- 9 Penn. Syn. 6; Quad. 26;

Knight, Mus. Anim. Nat. f. 746.
Anoa depressicornis, Sundevall, Vet. Akad. Handl. 1844, 199;

Gray, List Mam. B. M. 153; List Osteol. B. M. 54; Gray,

Knowsley Menag. t.
Hab. Celebes.

Male and female. Celebes. From the Leyden Museum.

OSTEOL. Skull, t. 3. f. 1, 2.

Skull and horns. Celebes. Presented by General Hardwicke,
Skull and horns. Mauritius?
Skull and horns. Mauritius ?

This animal was first noticed by Governor Loten. It was
afterwards described by Colonel Hamilton Smith from a head with
horns in the Museum of the College of Surgeons. A similar
head was received by General Hardwicke (which was given by
him to the British Museum), accompanied by a sketch of the
head and front part of the body of the animal, which is copied
in Gray's Spicilegia. MM. Quoy and Gaimard afterwards pub-
lished a figure of the animal, and took two male specimens with
them to Paris, one of which was transmitted to Knowsley, in ex-
change for the specimen of Oreas Canna sent to Paris by the Earl
of Derby : this specimen is figured in the Knowsley Menagerie.

* Intermaxillaries short, triangular, not reaching to the edge of
the nasal bone; the upper lip bald, callous and moist, only as
wide as the inner edge of the nostrils.

Mr. Turner observes : " I fear that Mr. Gray's distinction in
the extent of the intermaxillary bones upon the sides of the nasal
aperture will not always hold good." Proc. Zool. Soc. 1849.
Since this remark was penned, I have re-examined many speci-
mens of the skull of this genus and of other oxen, and do not
find any reason to doubt the validity of the distinction ; I have
not found a single Bison's skull with an elongated intermaxillary,
nor an Ox or Buffalo with a short one. It would have been
better if Mr. Turner had cited the example which made him
doubt ; when I applied to him on the subject, he owned that he
could not refer me to a specimen to verify his remarks.

4. BIBOS.

Horns depressed at the base, directed outwards, posterior on
the hinder ridge of the frontal bone, which is often very promi-
nent, recurved at the tip. Withers high, keeled, supported by the
spinous processes of the dorsal vertebra, and suddenly lower be-



MAMMALIA. 31

hind. The intermaxillaries are short and triangular, and do not
reach to the nasals. Brown or black (adult males). Legs be-
neath the knees (and sometimes the rump) white. The baldness
of the upper lip converging beneath from the inner edge of the
nostrils. Skull, t. 3. f. 3.
Bibos, Hodgson ; Gray, Knowsley Menag.
Bison, sp., Ham. Smith in Griffith A. K.v. 371; Fischer, Syn.

Mam. 651.

Gareus, Hodgson, Var. Genera Ruminants, 1847, 21.
Bos (Boves proprie), part., Sundevall, Pecora, 200, 1844.
Bos, sp., Turner, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1849.

Professor Sundevall regards the three species of this genus as
sub varieties of a variety of the Common Bull, Bos Taurus (Pe-
cora, 200, 1844).

t Forehead flat. Horns broad, depressed, black. Front half of
back with an elongated keel, t. 3. f. 3. Probos, Hodgson.

1. BIBOS FRONTALIS. The GAYAL.

Black; lips, forehead and legs grey; inside of ears white;
forehead flat, very broad. Horns depressed, broad at the base,
conical, black.

Bos bubalus var. c. Guavera, Penn. Quad. i. 27.

" Bos Guavera, Penn." Buchanan, Icon. ined. Mus. Ind. Comp.t. 7.

Bos bubalis y. Guavera, Meyer, Zool. Arch. 184, 1796.

Bos frontalis, Lambert, Linn. Trans, vii. t. 4, young c? ; Gray,

List Mam. B. M. 151; Cat. Hodgson Coll. B. M. 24; Deles-

sert, Souvenir Ind. t. , not good.
Bos Gayeus (Assel Gayal), Colebrook, Asiatic Research, vii. 511.

t. 8; Hardw. Zool. Journ. iii. 233. t. 7- f. 1; Lesson, Compl.

Buffon, x. 317.
Bos Taurus var. 3, subvar. 1. frontalis, Sundevall, Pecora, 200,

1844.
Bos (Bison) Gaveus, H. Smith in Griffith A. K. iv. 406. t. ,

v. 897; Fischer, Syn. 651, 654; Hodgson, Journ. Asiat. Soc.

Beng. 1841, x. 912. 470. t. 1. f. 1.
Bibos frontalis, Gray, List Mam. B. M. 151 ; List Osteol. Sp.

B. M. 24; Knowsley Menag. ; Lesson, Nov. Tab. Reg. Anim.\#4.
Gayal, Knight, Mus. Anim. Nat. f. 741, 742?, 743, 744.
Hob. India, Chittagong.

Male. India. Nepal. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

OSTEOL. Skull, t. 3. f. 3.

Gyal of Sylhet (Bos gaveus), Hodgson, J. Asiat. Soc. Beng. 1841,
'x. 470. t. 1. f. 1 ; Hardw. Zool. Journ. iii. t. 7. f. 1.



32



MAMMALIA.



Two skulls of the adult male. The Tarai. Presented by B.
H. Hodgson, Esq.

Skull, half-grown, male. The Tarai. Presented by B. H.
Hodgson, Esq.

Skull and some bones of foetal specimen. Presented by B. H.
Hodgson, Esq.

Skeleton, imperfect. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

DRAWINGS.

Assal Gyal, Hardw. Icon. ined. B. M. n. 10,975. t. 168.

True Asseel Gayal, Hardw. Icon. ined. B. M. n. 10,794. 1. 106,
head copied from former.

Drawing of two males. Hodgson, Icon. ined. B. M. t. 135.
Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

Drawing of two males. Hodgson, Icon. ined. B. M. t. 136.
Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

Drawing of two males. Hodgson, Icon. ined. B. M. t. 137.
Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

Drawing of a male. Hodgson, Icon. ined. B. M. t. 138. f. 2.
Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

Drawing of horns. Hodgson, Icon. ined. B. M. 1. 145. f. 5, 6.
Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

Dr. Hamilton Buchanan's figure in the Library of the India
House (marked Bos Guavera, Penn. t. 7) was the first and is the
best.

The Gavi or Gobi is more than half redeemed from the wild
state, like the Yak of Tibet. Hodgson, I. c. 22.

The Jungly Gau (Bos Sylhetanus] of M. F. Cuvier's Mamma-
lia is from a tracing made by M. Duvaucelle from a drawing in
General Hardwicke's collection (marked " Gyale at Barrackpoor,"
Icon. ined. B. M. n. 10,975. t. 169, 170), taken from a hybrid
specimen bred between a Domestic Gyal and a Zebu. It has
a larger, deeper and more waved dewlap than the wild species,
and differently shaped horns. It was never alive in Paris, nor
even seen alive by M. Duvaucelle.



ft Forehead concave. Horns pale, rather depressed at the base.
Back with a prominent keel over the shoulder, and another
on the middle of the back. Bibos, Hodgson.

2. BIBOS GAURUS. The GOUR or GAUR.

Hind hoof only half the size of the front. Brown ; legs
white.



MAMMALIA. 33

Bos Gour, Trail, Edinb. Phil Journ. 1824, 334 ; Hardw. ZooL

Journ. in. 232. t. 7- f. 2 ; Mem. Mus. ix. 71 ; Ferussac, Bull Sci.

xiv. 252; Lesson, Compl. Bujfon, x. 316; Fischer, Syn. Mam.

497.

Bos Gaur, Evans.
Bos (Bison) Gaurus (Gour), Hamilton Smith in Griffith A. K. v.

373 ; Fischer, Syn. Mam. 653 ; Elliot, Madras Journ. Sci. 1840,

t. 5. adult, t. 6. f. 1 <? . f. 2 $ . skull.

Bos Taurus, var. 3, subvar. 2. Gaur, Sundevall, Pecora, 201.
Bos (Bibos) cavifrons, Hodgson, Journal Asiat. Soc. Beng. 1837,

vi. 223, 299, 745. t. 39, x. 911; Elliot, Madras Journ. Sci. 1840,

37.

Bos Hardwickii (Gour), J. Brookes, Cat. Mus. 65 (1825).
Bos Silhetanus, Delessert, Rev. Zool. 1839, 129.
Bos aculeatus, Schinz. ; Cuvier, Thierr. iv. 492.
Bisonius subhaemachalensis, Hodgson, Icon. ined. B. M. t. 135 ;

Calcutta Journ. Nat. Hist. iv. 289.
Bos (Bison) Gour, Lesson, Nov. Tab. Reg. Anim. 184.
Bibos gaurus, Hodgson, Icon. ined. Brit. Mus. t. 137 ; Gray, Cat.

Hodgson Coll. B. M. 24.
Gaour, Geoffroy, Ann. Mus. H. N. ix. 71.
Gaur, Johnston, Sketch Indian Sports, t.
Gour, Knight, Mus. Anim. Nat. f. 746.
Gauri Gau, of the Tarai.

Inhab. India. Mountain district, Nepal. The male is called
Gour, and the young Pararah-, the female Gouvin, and the
young Pareeah, in Malacca. Called Gamy a by the Mahrattas.

Male, stuffed.

OSTEOL. Elliot, Madras Journ. N. H. x. 227. t. . f . , skull.
Gouri Gau of Nepal (Bibos cavifrons), Hodgson, J. A. S. Bengal,
x. 1841, 470. t. 1. f. 2, t. 2, 3, skulls.

Two skeletons. Nepal.

Skeleton, imperfect. Nepal. Presented by B. H. Hodgson,
Esq.

Skull and horns of male. Nepal. Presented by B. H, Hodg-
son, Esq.

Skull and horns of female. Nepal. Presented by B. IF. Hodg-
son, Esq.

Skull and horns. India.

Skull and horns, with skin on face. India. Presented by
General Hardwicke.

Horns, separate, polished. India.

Horns, separate. India.

Horns, separate, young. India.



34 MAMMALIA.

Horns, single horn. India.

Horns, single horn. India.

Horns, single horn. Nepal. Presented by B. H. Hodgson,
Esq.

DRAWINGS.

Bos Gour, Hardwicke, Icon. ined. B. M. 10,974. t. 107.

The Gours inhabit the primitive forests of India, under the
great ranges of mountains ; they rut in winter, procreate in au-
tumn, producing one at a birth. The herds are ordinarily rather
numerous, twenty, thirty, forty, and sometimes even double that
number being found together ; but in the breeding season not
above ten or fifteen cows, with a single mature, vigorous bull,
who jealously expels every young or old male from his harem.
They entirely avoid the open Tarai on the one hand, and the hill
on the other, adhering to the most solitary part of the Saul
forest, close to and between the salient spurs of the hills, where
the periodical firing of the undergrowth of the forest never
reaches. They feed early and late in the more open glades of
the forest, posting sentinels the while, and manifesting in their
whole demeanour a degree of shyness unparalleled among the
Bovines. They never venture even in the rains, when there
is abundance of rank vegetation to cover their approaches, into
the open Tarai, to depredate on the crops, as the Wild Buffaloes
constantly do ; nor do they ever associate or have sexual com-
merce with the tame cattle, though immense numbers of the
latter every spring are driven into their retreats, to feed and re-
main there in a half-wild condition for three or four months,
when the Wild Buffaloes frequently have sexual intercourse with
the tame ones of their kind, of which likewise vast numbers are
despatched there.

Old males of the Gour are often found solitary, wandering in
the forests they frequent, especially in winter; but these have
probably been recently expelled the herd by their more vigorous
juniors, and reunite themselves with some herd after the season
of love and contention has passed.

It is exceedingly difficult to rear the Gour in confinement.
Nor did I ever know a successful experiment, though the attempt
has been for fifty years constantly made by the Court of Nepal,
which finds no difficulty in rearing Wild Buffaloes and causing
them to breed in confinement with the domestic species, which is
thus greatly improved in size and other qualities.

The Gours are exceedingly shy, and when approached they
retreat as long as they can ; but if compelled to stand and de-
fend themselves, they do so with a courage and determination
not to be surpassed.



MAMMALIA. 35

The beef of the Gour is unequalled for flavour and tenderness ;
but to the Aborigines only is it illicit food, and not to all tribes
of them; nor are any of them allowed to kill it in Hindu kingdoms.

Capt. Tickell, a good observer, believes there are two species
of Bibos in the Chola Nagpoor territories alone. Hodgson, I. c.
24.

Mr. Hodgson appears to think the Bibos found beyond the
Brahmaputra is a different species.

Mr. Elliot's account of the habit of those found in the Deccan
differs in several particulars from that given by Mr. Hodgson.

3. BIBOS BANTING. The BANTING.

Black, distinct large spot on rump and legs white. Calf pale
brown, with a dorsal streak, widest behind, and tip of tail black ;
rump and legs like back, not white, as in the adult.

Bos Banting, Raffles, Linn. Trans, xiii.

Bos Taurus var. 3, subvar. 1. Banting, Sundevall, Pecora, 201.

Bos leucoprymnus, Quoy fy Gaim. Zool. Astrol. i. 140, 1830 ;

Lesson, Compl. Bujfbn, x. 319.

Bos (Taurus) leucoprymnus, Lesson, Nov. Tab. Reg. Anim. 185.
Bos frontalis, part., Fischer, Syn. Mam. 550.
Bos bantiger, Temm. Mus. Leyden.

Bos Sondaicus, Muller, Nederl. Verhand. i. 45. t. 35, 39.
Sumatran Ox. Raffles, Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii. ; Lesson, Compl.

Buffon, x. 315.
Hob. Java. Borneo. Bali.

Stuffed male. Java. From the Leyden Museum.
Skin of female. Java. From the Leyden Museum.

OSTEOLOGY. Bos Sondaicus, Nederl. Verhand. i. t. 36, 39.
Skeleton of male and female. Java. From the Leyden Museum.

ANAT. Muller, Verhand. Ind. Arch. t. 37, 38, 39.

b. Bisons. Covered with short, crisp wool ; shoulder higher than
the haunches; cannon-bone of the hind-leg longer than the
fore. Ribs fourteen or ff teen pairs.

Bison, Gray, Knowsley Menag. 1849.

5. BISON.

Muffle short and scarcely reaching the hinder edge of the nos-
trils, as wide as the space behind the inner edge of the nostrils.
Horns round, rather depressed at the base, lateral, coming out
before the ridge of the occiput, curved upwards and outwards.



36 MAMMALIA.

In the skull the frontals are broader than long. The intermaxillae
are very short, triangular, not reaching nearly to the nasal bones.
The head, crown and shoulders covered with longer curled hair ;
dewlap none; teats four in a square. Skull, t. 4. f. 1, 2.

The flesh smells of musk, hence called Bisam, which has been
changed into Bison. See Pallas, Zool. Ross. Asiat. 247.

Bison, H. Smith, Griff. A. K. iv. 182; Fischer, Syn. 651.
Bison, Bojanus, N. Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. xiii. ; Owen, Brit. Foss.

Mam. 491, 1846.

Bison, sp., Turner, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1849.
Urus, sp., Owen, Rep. Brit. Assoc. 1843, 232.
Aurochs, sp., Cuv. Ann. Mus. xii. 379 ; Oss. Foss. iv.
Bonassus, sp., Wagner.
Bos y. Bison, Sundevall, Pecora, 78.

t Tarsi elongate, fore and hind quarters subequal.

1. BISON BONASSUS. The BISON.

Fur blackish brown, short ; of neck and shoulders longer, of
chin and throat, elongate, forming a dependent mane ; fore and
hind legs subequal ; tarsi elongate. Bos Bison, Linn. S. N. xii.

Bos (Bison) Bison, H. Smith in Griffith A. K. v. 893; Fischer,

Syn. 654 ; Sundevall, Pecora, 203 ; Baer. Bull. Petersb. i. 53.
Bos urus, Bodd. Elench. 1788 ; L. H. Bojanus, Comm. Nov. Act.

Acad. Nat. Our. xiii. 414. t. 20, 28; Schreb. Saugth. t. 295;

Desm. Mamm. 498; Fischer, Syn. Mam. 497; Eichw. Zool.

Spec. iii. 342. t. ; Vollborth, Dissert. 1. fig.
Bos Bison Aurochs, Lesson, Nov. Tab. R. A. 184.
Bos Taurus Urus, Gmelin, S. N. i. 202; Pallas, Zool. Ross.

Asiat. i. 242.

Bos Bonassus, Brisson, Reg. A. 84; Linn. S. N. xiii. 99; Gme-
lin, S. N. i. 99; Erxl. Syst. 235.
Bison Europseus, Owen, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1848, 126.
Bos Taurus c. Bison (Der Europaische Bison), Donnd. Zool.

Beytr. 687.

Bos Bison seu Bonassus, Wagner, Schreb. 1481, t. 295, 295 B.
Bison Urus, Gray, Cat. Osteol. Spec. B. M. 55 ; Turner, Proc.

Z. Soc. 1848.

Bison jubatus, Plinii Hist. Nat. viii. c. 15.
Bison, Gesner, Quad. 31; Aldrov. Bisulc. 353. f. 355, 356; Jon-

ston, Quad. t. 17. 16; Me. Hussoviani de Bisontis Cracov.

1525, 12 ; Herberstein, Rer. Moscow. Comm. Basil. 1556, 109.

fig. ; Gilibert de Bove Lituano, 1781, 30. fig. ; Zimmer. Geog.

Zool. ii. 84.



MAMMALIA. 3?

Uri, Cces. Gall. vi. c. 28.

Urus jubatus, Jonst. Quad. t. 19.

Aurochs, Buffon, Hist. Nat. xi. 207 ; Cuvier, Ann. du Mus. xii.

379; Diet. Sci. Nat. v. 21. t. ; Reg. Anim. i. 269; Oss.

Foss. iv. 109. t. 9, 10, 12; Desmoul. Diet. Class. H. N. ii.

364.
Afrikanischer Wilder Ochs, Mutter, Naturs. i. 43; Borowsky,

Thier. i. 40; Gatterer, Schaden der Thiere, i. 128; Batsch,

Thiere, i. 141 ; Graumann, Int. H. N. 44.
Buckelochs, Gatterer, Brev. Zool. i. 67-
Bonassus, Plin. Hist. Nat. viii. 15 ; Gesner, Quad. 145. fig. ;

Zimmerm. Geog. Zool. ii. 93 ; Onomat. H. N. ii. 262 ; Brisson,

Reg. Anim. 84; Klein, Quad. 13; Buffon, H. IV.; Severin,

Zool. Hungar. 35 ; Raii Syn. Quad. 7 1 .
Munistier or Manestier, Gesner, Thier. 297. fig-
Bos Munistier, Jonst. Quad. t. 18, 19.
Urochs or Auer Ochse or Auer Ochs, Waldochse, Wilder Ochs

or Bergochs, Mutter, Natursys. i. 436 ; Henneberger, Preuss.

251. fig. ; Zimmer. Geog. Zool. ii. 82 ; Borowsky, Thier. i. 39 ;

Funke, Naturg. i. 34 ; Ebert, Naturl. i. 284 ; Halle Vierfuss.

280 ; Gatterer, Schad. der Thiere, i. 107 ; Beckmann, Naturh.

10; Klein, Thiere, 12; Martini, Naturlex. iii. 693; Batsch, i.

141 ; Boch, Nat. Preuss. iv. 191 ; Hartknoch, Preuss. Hist. i.

13; Dobel, Jagerprak. i. 20; Jablonsky, Allgem. Lex. 82;

Severin, Zool. Hung. 36.
Preussische und Lithauische Auerochs, Pallas, Nord. Beytr.

i. 6.
Urus de Prusse et de Lithuanie, Pallas, Act. Acad. Sci. Petrop.

ii. 1777, 236.

Zurb, oder der Lithauische Auerochs, Jarocki, 1830, t. 1 9 2 <J .
Hob. Poland. Caucasus.

Male, stuffed in Russia. Presented by the Emperor of Russia
through Sir Roderick Murchison.

OSTEOLOGY.

Bos urus, Bojanus, Nov. Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. xiii. 414. t. 20-23 ;

Cuvier, Oss. Foss. iv. 109. t. 9. f. 1, 2, 1. 10. f. 1, 2, t. 12. f. 6,

7 ; Volkmann, Anat. Anim. i. t. 8, skull ; Owen, Proc. Zool.

Soc. 1848, 132. fig. bones of fore and hind feet ; Vollborth,

Dissert, t.

Buffalus, Pallas, Nov. Comm. Petrop. xiii. t. 11, 12.
Aurochs foss., Cuvier, Oss. Foss.iv. 140. t. 12. f. 1, 2, 4, 11, 1. 11.

f. 5, fossil.

Skeleton. Lithuania. Presented by the Emperor of Russia.



38 MAMMALIA.

tt Tarsi short, hinder quarters very low.

2. BISON AMERICANUS. The AMERICAN BISON.

Crown with long, crisp hair (in all seasons). The fur dark
brown ; hair of head and shoulders elongate, crisp. Tarsus short,
hinder quarters very low. Body and tarsus in winter covered
with long hair, in summer nearly naked, except in front of body
and head.

Bos Bison, Linn. S. N. i. 99 ; Erxl. Syst. 233 ; Schreb. Saugth.

t. 299; Blumb. Handb. 121.
Bos Bison Americanus, H. Smith, Griffith A. K. v. 895; Fischer,

Syn. 653; Sundevall, Pecora, 203; Hodgson, Journ. Asiat,

Soc. Eeng. x. 1841, 912.
Bos Americanus, Gmelin, S. N. i. 204 ; Cuvier, Diet. Sci. Nat.

v. 24; Reg. Anim. i. 270 ; Ossem. Foss. iv. 117. t. 11; Desm.

Nouv. Diet. H. N. iii. 531; Mamm. 496; Ency. Meth. t. 55.

f. 3 ; Fischer, Syn. Mam. 495, 653 ; Desmoul. Diet. Class. H.

N. ii. 365 ; Cuvier fy Geoff. Mam. Lith. t. ; Richardson, Fauna

Bor. Amer. i. 279; Sabine, Frank. Journey, 668; H. Smith,

Griffith A. K. iv. 401. t. , v. 895 ; Pallas, Zool. Ross. Asiat.

i. 242; Owen, Brit. Fossil Mam.
Bison Americanus, Gray, Knowsley Menag. 49; Turner, Proc.

Zool. Soc. 1849.

Taurus Mexicanus, Hernand. Mex. 587- fig. (1651).
Taureau Sauvage, Hennipen, Nouv. Decouv. i. 186. fig. (1699).
Taurus Ouivirensis, Nieremb. Hist. Nat. 181. fig. from Hernand.
Tauri vaccseque Quivirae, Fernand. Anim. 10.
Tauri novi or bis, Nieremb. Hist. Nat. 182.
Armenta, Lact. Amer. 303. fig. from Hernand.
Urus Bison /3. indicus, Bison Catesbeji, Klein, Quad. 13.
Bison, Ray, Syn. Quad. 71 ; Pennant, Arct. Zool. i. 1; Long,

Exped. iii. 68.

BuiFelo, Laws. Carol. 115. fig. ; Brick. North Carol. 107. fig.
Buffalo, Catesby, Carol. App. 27. fig. App. t. 20; Harmon.

Journey, 415; Franklin, First Journey, 113 (110. fig. of Buf-
falo Pound).

Bceuf du Canada, Charlev. Nouv. Fr. iii. 131.
American Oxen, Dobb's Hudson's Bay, 41.
American Bison, Shaw, Zool. ii. 394. t. 206, 207 ; Knight, Mus.

Anim. Nat. f. 759-762.
American Bull, Penn. Syn. 8. t. 2. f. 2.

American Wild Ox or Bison, Warden's United States, i. 248.
Bison (d'Amerique), Buff on, H. N. Supp. iii. 64. t. 5; F. Cuvier,

Mam. Lithog. t. , adult, young, and very young.
Bison, Mutter, Magaz. i. 186 ; Bewick, Hist. Quad. 43. fig.



MAMMALIA. 39

Wilde Ochsen und Kuhe, Kalm, Amer. ii. 350, 425, iii. 351.
Amerikanische Bison, Zimmer. Geog. Zool. ii. 89 ; Schoepf. Reise

Nordamer. ii. 167 ; Pallas, Nord Beytr. i. 5.
Bison d'Amerique, Pallas, Act. Acad. Sci. Petrop. 1777? ii. 238.
Buklel, Ochse, Bison, Wisent, Borowsky, Thier. i. 42; Blumenb.

Handb. 111.



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