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Catalogue of the specimens of Mammalia in the collection of the British Museum (Volume 3) online

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Nordamerikanischer Bisam Ochs.

Var. White. Richardson, Faun. Bor. Amer. 283.
Hab. N. America.

Male, stuffed in America. Bank of Yellow River. From M.
Audubon's Collection.

OSTEOLOGY. Skull, t. 4. f. 1, 2.

Bos Americanus, Cuvier, Oss. Foss. iv. 117- t. 10. f. 3, 6.

Skeleton of male. North America. Presented by the Earl of
Derby.

Skeleton of female. N. America. From the Collection of the
Zoological Society.

Hybrid with Bos Taurus.
Naals Buffalo, Americans; Fischer, Syn. Mam. 496.

B. Nose ovine, covered with hair, or with a small naked space be-
tween the rather close converging nostrils. Tail short. Hair
during the cold season very long, pendent. Living in the
Mountains or Snowy regions.

Oxen of the Mountains or Snowy regions, Gray, Knowsley Menag.

6. POEPHAGUS.

Horns subcylindrical, curved outward on the front of the occi-
pital ridge. Nose hairy, with a narrow bald muffle between the
nostrils. Hoofs moderately thick, not dilated or expanded on
the outer side, square, and straight in front. Tail moderate, not
reaching to the hocks, and covered with long hair ; teats 4, nar-
rowing behind. Perineum, scrotum, and inside of the thighs and
armpits naked. Skull: intermaxillaries short, triangular and
acute behind, not reaching to the nasal bones.

Poephagus, Gray, List Mamm. B. M. 153.

Bison, sp., H. Smith, Griffith A. K. v. ; Fischer, Syn. 651 ;

Turner, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1849.
Bos poephagus (part.), Sundevall, Pecora, 202.

Professor Sundevall observes, " Inter tres divisiones generis et



40 MAMMALIA.

prsesertim inter Bos Bubalum et bisontes medius videtur.'' Pe-
cora, 202.

Mr. Turner doubts its distinctness from Bison. Proc. Zool.
SGC. 1849.

1. POEPHAGUS GRUNNIENS. The YAC Or SARLYK.

Black ; back and tail often white.

Bos grunniens, Linn. S. N. i. 99 ; Gmelin, S. N. i. 205 ; Erxl.

Syst. 237 j Zimmerm. Geog. Gesch. ii. 38 ; Schreb. Saugth.

t. 299 A, B ; Blumb. Abbild. t. 22 ; Cuvier, Diet. Sci. Nat. v. 30 ;

Reg. Anim. i. 270 ; Oss. Foss. iv. 129. t. 10. f. 13, 14 ; Desm.

Nov. Diet. H. N. iii. 528; Mamm. 496; Ency. Meth. t. 45.

f. 3; Desmoul. Diet. Class. H. N. ii. 368, 11; Fischer, Syn.

Mam. 496, 653 ; Hodgson, J. A. S. Beng. i. 348 ; Proc. Zool.

Soc. 1834, 99.
Bos (Bison) Poephagus, H. Smith in Griffith A. K. \. 896;

Fischer, Syn. 658; Hodgson, J. A. S. Beng. 1841, x. 912, xi. 282.
Bos (Poephagus) grunniens, Sundevall, Pecora, 202.
Bison Poephagus, Gray, Cat. Hodgson Coll. B. M. 25 ; Turner,

Proc. Z. Soc. 1849.
Poephagus grunniens, Gray, List Mam. B. M. 153 ; Cat. Osteol.

Sp. B. M. 55 ; Knowsley Menag. 49.
Bisonius Poephagus, Hodgson, J. A. S. Bengal, x. 912. 4/0.

t. 1. f. 3; Calcutta Journ. Nat. Hist. iv. 289.
Bos Poephagus, Pallas, Zool. Ross. Asiat. i. 249 ; Nov. Comm.

Petrop. i. 2. 332 ; Nord Beytr. i. t. 1.
Poephagus, ^Elian de Animal, lib. xv. cap. 14, lib. xvi. cap. 11;

Marco Polo de Region. Orient, lib. i. cap. 62; Rubruquis,

Hist. General des Voy. vii.

Buoi e la codo di cavallo, N. Conti, Collect, de Ramusio, i. 340. b.
Oxen (used for riding), Ysbr ant's Travels Muscow, 50. tab. ;

Grew, Mus. Reg. Soc. 26.
Vacca grunniens, or Buffle mid dem Pferde schweif, J. G. Gmelin,

Nov. Comm. Petrop. v. 339. t. 7-
Tangutischen Biiffel, Pallas, Nord Beytr. i. t. 1. 1780.
Bubuls, Bell, Travels, i. 212.
Bcebceli, Witsen, N. en 0. Tart. i. 66.
Bubalus cauda equina, Buffle a queue de cheval, Pallas, Act.

Acad. Petrop. 1777, ii. 232.
Vache de Tartarie, Buffon, H. N. xv. 136.
Grunting Ox, Bewick, Hist. Quad. 46.
Grunting Bull, Penn. Syn. 5.
Yac of Tartary, Turner, Account, 186. 1. 10 ; Shaw, Zool. ii. 411.

t. 213.
Svora-Goy or Yak of Tartary, Asiat. Research, iv. 349. t.



MAMMALIA. 41

Kalmiikische kuhe, Georgi Russland, i. 208.
Tangutesche kiihe, Pallas, Reise Aus. iii. 126.
Bceuf velu, Bruyn. Her Mosc. 120. t. 129.
Yack, Desmoul. Diet. Cl. H. N. ii. 368.

Var. 1 . Noble Yak. Head erect ; hump large ; fur very long,

nearly reaching the ground ; tail bushy.
The Riding Yak, Hoffmeister, Travels Ceylon, <^c., 443.

Var. 2. Plough Yak. Head dependent ; legs short ; hair short ;

tail often cut off.
The Plough Yak, Hoffmeister, Travels Ceylon, fyc., 441.

Female, stuffed. Black; tail and middle of back whitish.
Thibet. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

Var. 3. Hornless Yak. Both sexes without horns.
Pallas, Act. Acad. Petrop. 1777, 250. t. 10; Nord. Beytr. f. 1.
t. 1 ; cop. Schreb. Saugth. t. 299 B.

Var. 4. Ghainorik. Larger.

Ghainorik of the Mongolians and Calmucks, Gmelin; Pallas,

Act. Acad. Petrop. 1777, 255.
Yac, Stewart, Phil. Trans. 1777, Ixvii. 478.

Var. 5. The Wild Yak. Much larger; the withers of the bulls

high.
Hab. Thibet. Mr. Winterbottom.

OSTEOLOGY. Skull, t. 4. f. 3, 4.

Yac of Thibet, Hodgson, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, x. 470. t. 1. f. 3,

skull.
Bos grunniens, Cuvier, Oss. Foss. iv. 129. t. 10. f. 13, 14.

Skeleton. Nepal. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

Skull and horns.

Two skulls of male. Thibet. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

Skull of the female, with the horns bent forward at the tip.
Thibet. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

Skull of the female. Thibet. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

Pair of horns of the male, of large size. Thibet. Presented
by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

Pair of horns of the female, slender, and bent horizontally.
Thibet. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

DRAWINGS.

Drawing of a group of the domestic variety. Hodgson, Icon,
ined. B. M. t. 143, copied, with front figure left out, t. 144.
Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

Drawing of horns. Hodgson, Icon. ined. B, M. t. 145. f. 4.
Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.



42 MAMMALIA..

Drawing of horns. Hodgson, Icon. ined. B. M. t. 100. f. 1, 2.
Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

The Yaks dislike the warmth of summer, and hide themselves
in the shade and water ; they swim well ; both sexes grunt like
a pig. The calves are covered with rough, black, curled hair, like
a curled haired dog ; when of three months old they obtain the
long hair on the body and tail. They willingly live with the
common cows, and breed with them. The long white hairs of
the tail are dyed red to form the tufts of hair on the caps of the
Chinese. Pallas, Act. Acad. Petrop. 1777, 250.

The Yak used for the plough are ugly and short-legged, and
hold their heads very low ; the beautiful long silky hair, hanging
from below the belly, is almost, if not entirely, wanting in them,
no less than the bushy tail, which their avaricious owners com-
monly cut off as an article of trade ; they are guided by the nose.
Hoffmeister, Travels in Ceylon, fyc., 441.

The Yak Ox used in riding is an infinitely handsomer animal ;
it has a stately hump, a rich silky hanging nearly reaching the
ground, twisted horns, a noble bearing, and an erect head
(p. 441). They are very shy, and kick with their hind-feet, turn-
ing their head round perpetually, as if about to gore their riders
(p. 443).

Our broad-footed Yak Ox is the beast with the thick, silky,
white fringe under the body, and the bushy tail, both of which
sweep the ground ; .... as the steepness increased, these poor
animals began to moan, or rather grunt, in the most melancholy
manner, and this unearthly music gradually rose to such a violent
rattle, that driven rather by its irksome sound than by the dis-
comfort of our saddleless seat, we dismounted at the end of the
first half-hour (p. 443).

The Yak or Chauri Gau inhabits all the loftiest plateaux of
High Asia, between the Altai and the Himalaya, the Belut Jag
and the Peling mountains, and is found tame as well as wild. It
cannot live on the south side of the Himalaya beyond the imme-
diate vicinity of the snows, where the tribes of the Cachars or
Juxtanivean regions of the sub-Himalayas rear large herds of it,
and cross-breeds with the Common Ox. They rut in winter,
and produce young in autumn. Caecum simple, not sacked nor
banded, 4 inches long ; ribs fourteen or fifteen pair ; true dorsal
ridge confined to the withers; dewlap none. Hodgson.

7. OVIBOS.

Nose ovine, hairy, without any naked muffle ; inner edge of
the nostril with a bald margin. Horns of the male very broad
at the base, nearly united together, tapering, pressed downwards



MAMMALIA. 43

against the sides of the head, and bent up at the tips ; of the
female subcylindrical, curved, far apart on the sides of the fore-
head. Tail rudimentary, very short, entirely hidden by the fur
of the haunches. Hoofs broad; apices inflexed. Skull: the
intermaxillaries short, not reaching the nasal ; a small depres-
sion in front of the orbit, but no fissure ; the grinders are with-
out supplemental lobes. The tail very short, not produced be-
yond the edge of the pelvis; caudal vertebra thin, flattened,
expanded. Skull, t. 5. f. 1, 2.
N. America.

Ovibos, Blainville, Bull. Soc. Philom. 1816, 76 (character) ;
Desm. Mam. 492. 181 ; H. Smith, Griffith A.K.v. 182 ; Gray,
List Mam. B. M. ; Sundevall, Pecora, 79 ; Turner, Proc. Zool.
Soc. 1849.

Bos, 3 (Farren, part.), Wagner I

1. OVIBOS MOSCHATUS. The MUSK Ox.

Bos moschatus, Zimm. Geog. Zool. ii. 86 ; Herm. Naturforsch.

xix. t. 5; Schreb. v. t. 202 a, b ; Blumb. Hand. 122; Donnd.

Beytr. Zool. 697 ; E. Sabine, Parry's First Voy. Supp. t. 189;

J. Sabine, Franklin Journ. 668 ; Richardson, Parry's Second

Voy. App. 331 ; Gmelin, S. N. i. 205 ; Shaw, Zool. ii. 407.

t. 11; Cuv. Diet. Sci. Nat. v. 29; Reg. Anim. i. 271 ; Oss.

Foss. iv. 133. t. 10 ; Desmoul. Diet. Class. H. N. ii. 367.
Bos grunniens, 0. Fab. Faun. Green. 28.
Amerikanischer Bisam Ochse, Pallas, Nord Beytr. i. 340 ; Nov.

Comm. Petrop. xviii. 601.

Bisam Ochse, Herm. Naturf. xiv. 91. t. 5, head.
Bceuf Musque, Jeremie, Voy. au Nord, iii. 314; Charlevoix, N.

France, v. 194; Buffon, H. Nat. Supp. vi. t.-3; Pallas, Act.

Acad. Sci. Petrop. 1777, ii. 238.
Musk Ox, Drage, Voy. ii. 260; Dobb's Hudson's Bay, 19, 25;

Ellis, Voy. 232; Pennant, Arctic Zool. 269. fig.; Quad. 131;

Hearne, Journey, 137 ; Parry, First Voy. 257. t. ; Second Voy.

497, 503, 512 ; Knight, Mus. Anim. Nat. f. 767.
Ovibos moschatus, Blainville, Bull. Soc. Phil. 1816; Desm. N.

Diet. H. N. xxiv. 300 ; Mam. 492 ; J. Brookes, Cat. Mus. 65,

1825 ; Gray, List Mam. B. M. 153 ; Cat. Osteol. Spec. B. M.

55; Knowsley Menag.49-, Richardson, Fauna Bor. Amer. i.2?5.
Musk Bull, Bewick, Hist. Quad. 49. fig.

American Ox, Penn. Syn. i. 8. t. 2. f. 2, good cop. ; Ency. Meth. t.
Hob. North America. On the Barren Land, in lat. 60" North.

Male, stuffed. N. America. Presented by the Lords of the
Admiralty, from Capt. Parry's first Voyage.
Specimen figured Parry's First Voyage, t. 189.



44 MAMMALIA.

OSTEOLOGY. Skull, t. 5. f. 1, 2.

Bos moschatus, Cuvier, Oss. Foss. iv. t. 10. f. 15-17, t. 13. f. 3,

8, t. 11. f. 1, 4; Pallas, Nov. Comm. Petrop. xvii. t. 17;

Schreb. Saugth. t. 302 B ; Hermann, Naturf. xix. t. 5.
Boeuf Musque, Bujfon, H. N. Supp. vi. t. 3.

Skull and horns.

Skull and horns, imperfect.

Var. 1 . Subfossil. North-west Coast, America.

Bos Pallasii, Dekay, Ann. Lye. N. York, ii. 6 ; Siebel, Fauna

der Vorwelt, i. 164.
Bos canaliculatus, Fischer, Nouv. Mem. Acad. Nat. Moscou, 1834,

iii. 287; Oryct. Moscou, 116.
Bos moschatus, Pallas, Nov. Comm. Petrop. xvii. t. 17; Eze-

retskowsky, Mem. Acad. Petersb. iii. 215. t. 6; Cuvier, Oss.

Foss. iv. 150. t. 3. f. 3, 8, t. 11. f. 1, 4.
B. moschatus j3. fossilis, Fischer, Syn. Mam. 494.

8. BUDORCAS.

Muzzle hairy, with a small naked muffle only edging the nos-
trils ; ears narrow, pointed. The fur (in summer at least) con-
sists of short, harsh, adpressed hair. The tail is short, very de-
pressed and hairy, like the tail of a goat. The head is large and
heavy. The lips taper, and are clad with hair, like sheep. The
nostrils are wide and terminal. The horns are round, smooth,
lunate ; they are nearly in contact on the top of the head ; their
direction is vertically upwards, then horizontally outwards or to
the sides, and then almost as horizontally backwards. The limbs
short and straight; the hoofs broad. Skull, t. 5. f. 3, 4.

Budorcas, Hodgson, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 1850; Gray,

Knowsley Menag. ; Turner, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1849.
Nemorhaedus, sp., Turner, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1849.

Mr. Hodgson observes, " The Takin is the nearest ally to the
Grt.oos, but has various points of stronger connection with Musk
Oxen. Horns are on the highest part of the forehead, as in the
Ox and Sheep, though not, as in them, at the posteal termina-
tion of the head, for the encephalon of our animal is spread be-
hind its horns, in the manner of the Deer and Antelopes, but
more restrictedly. The horns are attached, not to the lateral
margins of the frontal crest, as in the Ox, but to its superior
surface, as in the Antelopes, Goats, and Sheep. The horns are
nearly in contact on the top of the head, but without actual
touching ; their direction is vertically upwards, then horizontally
outwards or to the sides, then almost as horizontally backwards.
Lips are both taper and clad with hair, almost as much as in



MAMMALIA. 45

the Goat and Sheep : the animal is consequently a browser and
not a grazer. Nevertheless the mere nostrils, which are wide
and terminal, have a decided Bovine character both as to form
and position, and, as it were to remind us of the true Bovine
muzzle, there is a clear broad margin round the nostril which is
quite nude and moist."

Mr. Turner (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1849) thinks " this genus is
closely allied to Nemorhcedus, and has no relationship with the
Gnu or the Musk Ox ;" indeed he appears to consider it as a
species of that genus !

Mr. Blyth " believes its affinity to be strictly Caprine, with little
relation either to the Bovine or to the Gnous (Catoblepas), not-
withstanding the very remarkable form of the horns." Journ.
Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 1850, 348.

1. BUDORCAS TAXICOLA, The TAKIN.

Yellowish grey. Hairs yellow, black tipped. The head, neck,
dorsal streak, belly, limbs and tail black; they are sometimes
entirely black.
Budorcas taxicola (Takin), Hodgson, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal,

1850, 65. t. 1; Gray, Knowsley Menagerie.
Nemorhsedus (taxicola), Turner, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1849.
Hob. Eastern Himalaya. The Mishmi Mountains. Called Takin

by the Mishmis, and Ken by the Khamtis.

Female. Mus. Asiat. Soc. Calcutta.

OSTEOL. Hodgson, I. c. t. 2, skull, copied, t. 5. f. 3, 4.

Subtribe II. Antilopece. The horns conical, bent back, cylin-
drical or compressed, and ringed at the base. The knee (or
wrist) in the middle of the fore-leg.

" Occipital plane of skull forming an obtuse angle with the
frontal plane. Core of the horns thin, consisting of dense bone,
often with a clear sinus at the base within. Horns seated on the
upper surface, below the crest of the frontals, and apart at the
base. Teats 2 or 4. Feet-pits in hind feet, and generally also
in the fore ones." Hodgson.
Antilopea;, Gray, Ann. 8f Mag. N. H. 1847, 230; Glean. Knows.

Menag.
Antilopese (gen. Antilope), part., Ovesidese, part., Lesson, Nov.

Tab. Reg. Anim. 1?5.
Antilopidse, Tetracerocidse, Rupicapradse, et Damalidae, Brookes,

Cat. Mus. 63. 1828.

Bovidse et Caprida3, part., Ogilby, P. Z. S. 1836, 13?.
Antilope?, Gazella?, Dryxis?, Bubalis?, Enagrus, Eafinesque,

Anal. Nat. 56. 1815.



46 MAMMALIA.

Antilope, Pallas, Spicil. i. 1, 1767; Zoogr. Rosso- Asiat. i.

249.
Sylvicaprina, Bovina, Antilopina, et Caprina, part., Sundevall,

Pecora, 51.

Antelopes, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850, 111.
Cerophorus, sp., Blainv. Bull. Soc. Phil. 1816.

The Antelopes have been divided into various subgenera by
different authors.

Lichtenstein, " Die Gattung Antilope," divides the genus into
four tribes. 1. Bubalides. 2. Connochaetes. 3. Antilopae Ge-
nuinae. 4. Gazellse. Berl. Mag. 1814, vi. p. 153.

De Blainville divides the genus Cerophorus thus: 1. Anti-
lope. 2. Gazella. 3. Cervicapra. 4. Alcelaphus. 5. Trage-
laphus. 6. Boselaphus. 7- Oryx. 8. Rupicapra. Bull. Soc.
Philom. 1816, 175.

M. Desmarest, in his Species of Mammalia, adopted M. De
Blainville' s arrangement, separating Oreas from Boselaphus, and
Antilocapra from Rupicapra. Mamm. 4to, 1820.

Fischer, in his Synopsis Mammalium, also follows De Blain-
ville' s divisions. 8vo, 1829.

M. Gervais, in his article " Antilope," regards the subgenera
of De Blainville as genera, and uses the divisions of H. Smith
and Ogilby to divide them into sections. It appears to be a mere
compilation, thus: 1. Antilope. 2. Gazella. 3. Cervicapra.
a. Dama. b. Redunca. c. Tragulus. d. Raphicerus. e. Te-
tracerus. /. Cephalophus. g. Neotragus. h. Nemorhedus.
i. Kemas. 4. Rupicapra. a. Capricornis. b. Dicranocerus.
c. Rupicapra. d. Pantholops. e. Antilocapra. f. Anoa. 5. Oryx,
a. JEgocerus. b. Oryx. 6. Alcelaphus. 7- Tragelaphus. 8. Bos-
elaphus. Supp. N. Diet. Sci. Nat. i. 260, 1840.

Colonel Hamilton Smith, in Griffith A. K. v., divides the An-
telopes of Pallas into three genera :

I. ANTILOPE. Subdivided into 1. Dicranocerus. 2. ^Ego-
cerus. 3. Oryx. 4. Gazella. 5. Antilope. 6. Redunca. 7-
Tragulus. 8. Raphicerus. 9. Tetracerus. 10. Cephalophus.
11. Neotragus. 12. Tragelaphus. 13. Nemorhedus. 14. Ru-
picapra. 15. Aplocerus. 16. Anoa.

II. DAMALIS. Divided into 1. Acronotus. 2. Boselaphus.
3. Strepsiceros. 4. Portax.

III. CATOBLEPAS. Translated in Fischer, Synopsis Mam-
malia, ii. 623, and in Lesson, Complet. Buffon, x. 278, 300, 314,
1836.



MAMMALIA. 4?

Mr. Ogilby ("On the Generic Character of Ruminants") di-
vides them into two families, on the form of the muzzle :

I. CAPRID^E. 1. Mazama (furcifer). 2. Madoqua (Saltiana).
3. Antilope (cervicapra). 4. Gazella (dorcas).

II. BOVID^E. 1. Tragulus (pygmeus). 2. Sylvicapra (mer-
gens). 3. Tragelaphus (picta). 4. Calliope (strepsiceros). 5.
Kemas (goral). 6. Capricornis (Thar). 7- Bubalus (mauritani-
cus). 8. Oryx (capensis). Proc. Zool. Soc. 1836, 131.

Professor Carl Sundevall (" On the Pecora of Linnaeus/' in
Swedish, in Kongl. Veten. Akad. Handl. 1844, published sepa-
rate in German in 1848) divides the Antelopes into four families,
according to the form of the hoofs.

I. CAPRINE. 1. Nemorhedus. 2. Oreotragus.

II. ANTILOPINA. 1. Antilopse Gazellae. 2. Dicranoceras.
3. Bubalus.

III. BOVINA. 1. Oryx. 2. Catoblepas. 3. Anoa. 4. Por-
tax. 5. Damalis.

IV. SYLVICAPRINA. 1. Hippotragus. 2. Strepsiceros. 3.
Cervicapra. 4. Calotragus. 5. Nanotragus. 6. Neotragus.
7. Sylvicapra. 8. Tragelaphus. 9. Tetraceras.

Rafinesque names, but does not define, the following genera,
which appear to belong to this tribe : Antilope, Gazella, Strep-
siceros, Dryxis, Addax, Bubalis, and Enagrus. Anal. Nat. 56,
1815.

In the Annals and Magazine of Natural History for 1847,
Gleanings of Knowsley Menagerie, vol. ii. 1850, and Proc. Zool.
Soc. 1851, 111, I proposed to divide them as they are arranged
in this work.



SYNOPSIS OF THE GENERA OF ANTILOPE^E.
I. Nostrils bald within. Antelopes of the Fields.

A. Body light, elegant. Limbs slender. Hoofs small. Tail
short, or moderate, covered with elongated hairs at the base.
Horns lyrate or conical, placed over the eye-brows. True
Antelopes.

a. Horns moderate, lyrate. Nose ovine, hairy.
* Nose very high; nose-hole of skull very large.

1. SAIGA. Nose very high, compressed, truncated. Horns
white, lyrate.



48 MAMMALIA.

** Nose conical, tapering. Horns black.

2. PANTHOLOPS. Horns elongate,, compressed, sublyrate. Nose

of male with a dilatation on each side ; nose-hole large.

3. PROCAPRA. Horns moderate, lyrate. Females hornless. Cru-

men none. Nose-hole large.

4. GAZELLA. Horns moderate, lyrate. Females horned. Cru-

men distinct.

5. TRAGOPS. Horns moderate, lyrate. Females horned. Cru-

men none. Back simple.

6. ANTIDORCAS. Horns moderate, lyrate. Females horned.

Crumen small. Back with expansile white streak.

7. ./EPYCEROS. Horns elongate, wide, spreading, lyrate. Pas-

tern with tuft of black hair.

8. ANTILOPE. Horns elongate, erect, subspiral. Crumen large.

b. Horns small, slender, straight, conical.
t Crumen large. Muffle generally large.

9. TETRACERUS. Horns 2 pair. Muffle large. Crumen lon-

gitudinal. Females hornless.

10. CALLOTRAGUS. Horns 2, subulate. Muffle large. Crumen

arched. Hoofs triangular ; knees not tufted.

11. SCOPOPHORUS. Horns 2, subulate. Muffle large. Crumen

transverse. Knees largely tufted.

12. OREOTRAGUS. Horns 2, subulate. Muffle large. Crumen

transverse. Hoofs square, high, contracted.

13. NESOTRAGUS. Horns 2, subulate. Muffle large. Crumen

large. Tail very short.

ft Crumen large. Nose ovine. Muffle none.

14. NEOTRAGUS. Crown crested.

tft Crumen a glandular line on side of face. Muffle large.

15. CEPHALOPHUS. Crown crested.

tttt Crumen none. Muffle large. Crown not crested.

16. NANOTRAGUS. Horns very short, erect. Nose tapering.



MAMMALIA. 49

17. PELEA. Horns conical, slender, erect. Nose swollen.

18. ELEOTRAGUS. Horns conical, diverging, bent forward at

the tip. Nose tapering.

B. Body large, rather heavy. Limbs slender, strong. Tail
elongate, cylindrical at the base, and with longer hair at
the end, of ten forming a compressed ridge. Muffle cervine.
Cervine Antelopes.

a. Neck not maned.

19. ADENOTA. Horns sublyrate, tip rather recurved. Hair of

back whorled.

b. Neck maned on the sides.

20. KOBUS. Horns elongate, sublyrate.

c. Nape with a linear, central, compressed, recurved mane.

21. AIGOCERUS. Horns moderate, recurved.

22. ORYX. Horns elongate, straight, or slightly recurved.

d. Neck simple. Throat slightly maned.

23. ADDAX. Horns elongate, slender, subspiral.

c. Body heavy. Legs strong. Hoofs and false hoofs large.
Tail very short, flat, hairy above. Horns conical, recurved.
Goat-like Antelopes.

a. Nose cervine. Muffle moderate. Horns short, conical.

24. CAPRICORNIS.

b. Nose ovine, hairy.

25. NEMORHEDUS. Horns short, conical, recurved. Crumen

distinct.

26. MAZAMA. Horns short, conical, recurved. Crumen none.

27. RUPICAPRA. Horns slender, erect, bent forward at the tip.

28. ANTILOCAPRA. Horns compressed, with a process in front,

conical, and recurved at the tip.



50 MAMMALIA.

TL Nostrils bearded within, beneath, operculated, far apart.
Horns on frontal ridge. Legs rather stout. Tail elongate,
The Antelopes of the Desert.

D. Muzzle very depressed, spongy and bristly. The Equine

Antelopes.

29. CATOBLEPAS. Horns bent down on the sides, recurved at

the tip. Nose with crest of recurved hair. Chest maned.

30. GORGON. Horns like former. Nose smooth. Chest not

maned.

E. Muzzle moderately broad, with a small moist muffle. Bovine

Antelopes.

31. BOSELAPHUS. Horns on upper edge of frontal bone, sud-

denly curved back.

32. DAMALIS. Horns on front of frontal bone, regularly lyrate.

" The genera of the Antilopece being more numerous are worthy
of a more minute examination, considering as I do that it is im-
portant to divide these numerous genera into natural groups,
more especially as there appears to be a character afforded by
the nostrils which has been hitherto overlooked, and which se-
parates them into two very distinct and easily recognised sec-
tions. This character shows the real position of the Gnu, and at
the same time proves that Colonel Hamilton Smith was correct
in forming his genus Damalis, though he did not discover the
character by which it was best to be denned, and hence placed
with it some species that were not truly allied to it ; and it leaves
the other Antelopes easily reducible into small groups." Gray,
Ann. Sf Mag. N. H. 1849, 231.

1 . Antelopes of the Fields. Nostrils bald within.

Antelope of the Fields, A. campestris, Gray, Ann. Sf Mag. N. H.
1847, 231; Knowsley Menag. -, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850, 111.

A. The True Antelopes. Body light. Limbs slender. Hoof small.
Tail short or moderately elongate, and covered with elongated
hairs to the base. Horns lyrate or conical.

True Antelopes (Antilopese verge), Gray, Ann. 4* Mag. N. H.

1847, 231; Knowsley Menag. ; Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850, 111.
Antilopina, part., Sundevall, Pecora.



MAMMALIA. 51

a. Horns lyrate, (or rarely cylindrical subspiral,) strongly ringed
at the base. Nose ovine, without any naked muffle; inguinal
pores deep. Crumen generally distinct.

a. Nose high, compressed; nose-hole of skull very large.

1. SAIGA.

Horns short, strong, lyrate, annulated, white. Nose compressed,
very high, rounded. Nostrils very close together. Crumen di-
stinct. Fur soft. Skull : nose-opening very large, extended back
to over the eyes, t. 6. f. 1. 2. Pallas, Spic. Zool. xii. t. 3. f. 9, 10.

Saiga, Gray, Ann. fy Mag. N. H. 1847, 231 ; Glean. Knows.

Menag. 3; Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850, 112.



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